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FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 17681771. 

SECOND ten 17771784. 

THIRD eighteen 17881797. 

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810. 

FIFTH twenty 18151817. 

SIXTH twenty 18231824. 

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842. 

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860. 

NINTH twenty-five 18751889. 

TENTH ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903. 

ELEVENTH ,, published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 


of the 

All rights reserved 











Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 


Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company, 





Formerly Editor of the Outlook. Author of Christopher Columbus; Master-singers;-] Dance (in part). 
The Complete Motorist; Wagner Stories; &c. 

A. Bo.* AUGUSTE BOUDINHON, D.D., D.C.L. Cmi-ia nn 

Professor of Canon Law in the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of 4 T Inana ' 

Paris. Editor of the Canoniste contemporain. I Decretals. 

A. Ca. ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S. f r ,,_ , ,. 

See the biographical article : CAYLEY, ARTHUR. \ uur 


Vicar of Halifax and Prebendary of Lichfield. Author of An Introduction to the -I Creeds. 
Creeds and the Te Deum ; Niceta of Remesiana ; &c. 


Fellow of, and Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer at, Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. -! Continued Fractions. 
Senior Mathematical Scholar, 1892. 

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HiST.Soc. fCoverdale- Cox Richard- 

Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University I r _,_j_ T_U_. rUnm 
of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901.1 oralg> J01 
Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. ' I Cromwell, Thomas; Crowley. 


H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgale; -{ ,,_. .' , 
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. \ Criminology. 

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. f Coornhert. 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. \ 

A. H. J. G. ABEL HENDY JONES GREENIDGE, M.A., D.Lirr. (Oxon.) (d. 1905). 

Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John's College, 

Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law; Handbook of Greek Constitutional < Consul: Roman. 

History; Roman Public Life; History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Roman 

History, 133-70 B.C. 


Chaplain, Oxford Diocesan Mission to the Deaf and Dumb. Late Normal Fellow, 

National Deaf Mute College, Washington, U.S.A. Author of The Mental Develop- 4 Deaf and Dumb. 

went of the Orally and Manually taught Deaf; The Pure Oral Method of necessity a 

Comparative Failure; &c. 


Fellow and Bursar of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of Eton College. Author < Copts: The Coptic Church. 
of The Ancient Coptic Churches of Egypt; The Arab Conquest of Egypt; &c. 

A. J. B.* ARTHUR JOHN BUTLER, M.A. (1844-1910). 

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Professor of Italian Language J rjante 
and Literature, University College, London. Author of a prose translation of | 
Dante's Divine Comedy; Dante and his Times; &c. I 


Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Keeper of Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1884- I Crete: Archaeology and 
1908. Hon. Keeper since 1908. Made archaeological discoveries in Crete, 1893 ;^ Anrimt TJi^tnrv 
excavated the Palace of Knpssos. Author of Through Bosnia on Foot; Cretan 
Pictographs and Prae- Phoenician Script ; and other works on archaeology. 

A. L. ANDREW LANG. f crvstal-Gazine 

See the biographical article : LANG, ANDREW. \ CrySI 

A. Mw. ALLEN MAWER, M.A. (" 

Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on- J Tjanelazh 
Tyne. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in 1 
English at the University of Sheffield. L 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, with the articles so signed, appears in the final volume. 




A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. /Copernicus; Delambre; 

See_the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M. I Delisle, J. N. 

A. M. Cl. AGNES MURIEL CLAY (MRS WILDE). f Curia- Decemviri- 

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources 4 ^"">. " 
of Roman History, 133-70 B.C. I "eeuno. 

f Coot; Cormorant; 

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. Crane; Crossbill; 

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. [ Crow; Cuck()o; 

A. N. M. 


Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis in King's College, London. 

Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of St Albans. Fellow of King's College, London, -j Creatianism and Traducianism. 

Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Crosse Scholar, 1886. Author of 

The Bible Doctrine of Atonement; &c. 

A. N. MONKHOUSE. f rnttnrt / ...,,,-, 

Member of Editorial Staff of Manchester Guardian. \ w 


Professor of History, Robert College, Constantinople. Author of Byzantine Con- -s Constantinople. 

stantinople; Constantinople; &c. 

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. f rilpia p.,,:,. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. \ w 


Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Chairman of Executive, International Co- J Co-operation. 
operative Alliance. M.P. for Plymouth, 1910. Author of Twenty-eight Years 1 
of Co-partnership at Guise; &c. 

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., L.L.B. J Corporal Punishment; 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws l Covenant 
of England. 

A. W. W. ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D. J Cumberland, Richard: 

See the biographical article: WARD, A. W. I Dramatist. 

C. E.* CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.A.S. I" constellation, 

Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. \ 

C. E. N. CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, LL.D. / rnrti r.pnr<rA William 

See the biographical article: NORTON, CHARLES E. \ CUItlS ' G60rge 


Formerly ' 



Regius Professor of Law and Professor of Political Economy in the University of J Decimal Coinage. 
Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International 1 
Trade; &c. I 


Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Edited the London Sun for twenty-five years; I Dalling Lord. 
the Weekly Register, 1874-1881. Author of The Humour and Pathos of Charles | 
Dickens; &c. I 

C. K. S. CLEMENT KING SHORTER. I" Cowper, William; 

Editor of the Sphere. Author of Sixty Years of Victorian Literature; Immortal H Crabbe, George. 
Memories ; The Brontes: Life and Letters ; &c. I 


Formerly Editor of the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, India. Author of Lord < 
Curzon in India. L 



Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal -s Cromwell Oliver (in part) 

Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. I 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of J Dagobert. 

y^.J , \ 1 rt t .1 rt r l- It Jt^l FIJJ"^ 

Elude sur le r 

Etude sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duche merovingien d' Alsace et la legende de 1 

C. R. B. CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Lrrr., F.R.G.S., F.R.HiST.S. rConti, Nicolo de'; 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow Cook, Captain; Dampier; 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. J raniel nf Kiv 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of " al 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. L Davitt, Jonn. 


Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon { _. ' 
School of Painters; Life of " Phiz "; Life of Bewick; &c. [ UauDlgny. 


Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The] Contrapuntal Forms; 
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations; and analyses of many other classical j Counterpoint. 
works. I 


Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Cyrenaica; 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 J n 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, igofr-igo;. Director, British School at v '* It 
Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. L 


f Convoy (in part); 

D. H. DAVID HANNAY. fJonfinha^nn Raff In of- 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, \ * 

1217-1688; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. 1 Cordoba, Gonzalo Fernandez do; 

I Dahlgren, John Adolf. 


Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London 1 Cruden, Alexander. 
Missionary Society. 


Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly 1 Crusades. 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. I 


Waynflete Professor of. Pure Mathematics and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. J Curve (in part) 
Formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. President of London Mathematical 
Society, 1896-1898. Author of Algebra of Quantics; &c. 


Hope Professor of Zoology in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Jesus College, J Darwin. 
Oxford. Author of The Colours of Animals; Essays on Evolution; Darwin and the 1 
Original Species; &c. 


Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; Lecturer in Modern Languages, *( Cuchulinn. 
and Monro Lecturer in Celtic. 


Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of I D e jj a Quercia 

Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor | 
of Bell's " Cathedral " Series. I 

r Conte; Couplet; Cowley; 

Crashaw; Criticism; 


See the biographical artic.e: GOSSE, EDMUND. 

1 Dekker, Edward Douwes. 

(" Corfu (in part) ; 
E. On. ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A. J Corinth: Isthmus of; 

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. 1 Cos( in part); Crisa ; Daphne; 

I Delos; Delphi. 
E. Ma. EDWARD MANSON. \ Debpnturps and Dphnntura 

_ . . T . .. f -r /./"* tj*T*T.i* AI r > J-'CUCIII U.. CO CfciiU UCUCllliLUO 

Barnster-at-Law, Joint-editor of Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author of -f c* v 
Debentures and Debenture Stock; &c. I ICK> 

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, D.LITT. (Oxon.), LL.D., PH.D. fctesiphon- Cvaxares- 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des J r ' . _. ' . J 
Alterthums; Forschungen zur alien Geschichte; Geschichte des alien Agyptens; Die] u y ru ' uarius . "^ 
Israeliten und ihreNachbarstamme; &c. [Demetrius of Bactria. 

E. M. W. REV. EDWARD MEWBURN WALKER, M.A. f rnnstitutinn nf Athpns 

T-I ii r^ <-r< i T *i f r\ ' /"""ii f\ f j i VU113HH1UUU Ul rrlllcllD. 

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen s College, Oxford. ^ 


Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Com- J Corte-Real, Jeronymo; 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal 1 CtUZ Silva. 
Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. L 


Formerly Scholar of New College, Oxford. Author of House of Seleucus ; Jerusalem ( Demetrius of Macedonia. 
under the High Priests. I 


Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England. \ t ' uuen **U1; OUTC1. 

E. V. REV. EDMUND VENABLES, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895). f 

Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England. \ 


Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds. Fellow of St John's, College, Oxford, 1865- 

1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with thei Dedication. 

Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals; The Liturgy and Ritual 

of the Celtic Church; &c. 


Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. "\ 


Professor of History at the Royal Technical High School, Danzig. Author of < Dahlmann. 
Osterreich und die Anfdnge des Befreiungskriege von 1813; &c. 


Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, J p--*- ( + t\ 
Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the] ^P V* par/,). 
Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. L 


See the biographical article: POLLOCK: Family. 


Formerly Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of American \ Cuba. 
Historical Association. 



Formerly Accountant-General of the Army. Editor of " Great Writers " Series. \ 


Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King's | CyziCUS. 
College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist, 1901. 

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. /Corundum; Cryolite; 

Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902.1 noirmntniH* 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 


In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British J Cyprinodonts. 
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. (. 


Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College, I p nra i r . p f- 
Oxford. Author of An Introduction to the Study of Comparative Anatomy of\ 
Animals; &c. 

G. C. C. G. C. CHUBB. 

| Cytology. 

G. C. W. GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, Lirr.D. r c ooper Alexander- 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard I _ 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition] Cooper, bamuel; 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. [ Cosway, Richard. 

G. F. Z. G. F. ZIMMER, A.M.lNST.C.E., F.Z.S. /_ 

Author of Mechanical Handling of Material. \ Conveyors. 


Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor < Ctenophora. 
of Zoology at University College, London. 


Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forest for the Selden 1 County. 
Society. I 


President of the Society of Mezzotint Engravers. Mezzotint Engraver to Queen ~1 Cousins, Samuel. 
Victoria and to King Edward VII. I 

G. Sa. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, L.L.D., LiTT.D. / Corneille, Pierre; 

See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, G. E. B. LCorneille, Thomas. 

G. Sn. GRANT SHOWERMAN, A.M., PH.D. f Corybantes; 

Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological J Crioboliuin' 
Institute of America. Member of American Philological Association. Author of 1 r .,_ . r,',i,,,i, 
With the Professor; The Great Mother of the Gods; &c. I Lure ' es ' L y Dele - 


Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 1 Damiri. 
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. I 


Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy, -j Cynewulf. 
Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c. 


Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston J TJeehen 
Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of\ 
London; &c. I 


Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. 4 Crocodile. 
Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History). I 

H. Fr. HENRI FRANTZ. f rnl , rhp t 

Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts, Paris. \ LOU 

H. M. W. H. MARSHALL WARD, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. (d. igos). f 

Formerly Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. President of the J jj o arv 
British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and some of its Diseases; The Oak; 1 Ba ry. 
Disease in Plants; &c. I 

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. f Crusius; 

Author of Idola Theatri ; The Idea of a Free Church ; and Personal Idealism. \ C ucl wort h, R. 


Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J Costume: Aegean, Greek, 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. 1 Etruscan and Roman. 
Author of The Roman Empire; &c. I 


See the biographical article: THOMPSON, SIR HENRY. \ 


Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers. H.B.M. Consul-General for Roumania v J _ . 
1894-1906, and British Delegate on the European Commission of the Danube. 1 uanuDe ' 
Victoria Medallist, Royal Geographical Society, 1878. 


Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, 1895--^ Coutances, Walter Of. 
1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 



Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, J Crescas; 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- j DelmedigO. 
lure', Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. 


Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. Assistant Secretary J r ranno ~ 
to the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and Rhind Lecturer, 1879-1882 and 1892. ] 
Editor of Drummond's Ancient Scottish Weapons; &c. 


See the biographical article: CROWE, SIR J. A. \ Cuyp. 

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. f Corallian; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. \ Corabrash' Culm. 


Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Hon. Secretary of Cremation Society of England. \ we 


King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J Crete: Geography and Stalis- 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1 tics; and Modern History. 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. t 


Professor of Semitic Languages at Columbia University, New York. 


Author of John Dee and the Steganographia of Trithemius; Life of Thomas Fuller. 


Art Critic. Author of A History of Parliamentary Elections; A History of Dancing; J. Cruikshank. 
Thomas Rowlandson; James Gillray; &c. 


Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator 
in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ's College, -I Cyclostomata. 
Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal 
Society of Edinburgh, 1904. 

J. H. F. JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A. f n . m(ltpr 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. \ uel 

J. H. M. JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., F.S.A., LITT.D., D.C.L. (1846-1896). f 

Formerly Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, and Art J n<.ilo Dnhhio l ^\ 
Director of the South Kensington Museum. Author of The Engraved Gems of] " ella KODD1 * \ in fan). 
Classical Times ; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Medieval Times. [_ 

3. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). f 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage ana\ Court Baron. 
Pedigree; &c. 

3. HI. R. JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., Lirr.D. f 

Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. J Dam, Count; 
Author of Life of Napoleon I. ; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European 1 Decaen. 
Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c. (_ 


Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation, and Dexter rnrinthianc- J?j,,V/7^<- / 
Lecturer on Bible Literature, Harvard University. Author of The Apostolic Age] t/0 " 1 nS ' ****" * 

in the Light of Modern Criticism ; &c. 


Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly r ,._ le / ., ,\ 
Gladstone Professor of Greek, and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of 1 ^P 15 Un f an >- 
Liverpool ; and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. 


See the biographical article: MORLEY, VISCOUNT. 

Formerly Librarian of the Imperial Library, Calcutta. Author of Library Ad- J. Damien, Father. 

ministration; &c. 


Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London < Delian League. 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 


Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the J rjeir 
University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1 
1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates. I 


Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in J Crystallite; 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 1 Dacite. 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

J. T. Be. JOHN T. BEALBY. frrimaC */t rt- 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical \ f. '' . 

Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. [ Da g hestan Un part). 


Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow J Cuttle-fish 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 1 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. 


J. V. 
K. G. J. 




See the biographical article: VEITCH, JOHN. 

Cousin, V. (in part). 


Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. J Croatia-Slavoma; 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. Dalmatia. 


Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c. 

C Contrafagotto; Cor Anglais; 
J Cornet (in part); 
1 Cromorne (in part); 
[Crowd; Cymbals. 

COUNT LUTZOW, Lrrr.D. (Oxon.), D.Pn. (Prague), F.R.G.S. 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Memoer 
of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. ( 
Author of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (llchester Lecture, 
Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c. 

L. J. S. 


M. A. C. 

M. Ha. 
M. N. T. 
M. 0. B. C. 

N. D. M. 
N. W. T. 

0. Ba. 
0. J. R. H. 

P. A. K. 

P. C. Y. 

P. GL 

P. G. K. 
R. A.* 


See the biographical article: DUCHESNE, L.M.O. 



Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. 

Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Minera- 

logical Magazine. 


Copper Pyrites; 

Formerly Scholar of J Covellite; Crocoite; 
1 Crystallography 
I Cuprite . Cyanite; 
1 Datolite. 


Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- Contarini; Cornaro; 
spondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phil- -^ Correnti; Corsini; 
adelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town rjanrinln- Delia 
and Country; Fire and Sword in the Caucasus; &c. [ uanaolo > uella 


Assistant Lecturer in Semitic Languages in the University of Manchester. Formerly -..-,., 
Exhibitioner of St John's College, Oxford. Pusey and Ellertpn Hebrew Scholar, 1 Daub, Karl. 
Oxford, 1892; Kennicott Hebrew Scholar, 1895; Houghton Syriac Prize, 1896. 


Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of " Protozoa " in Cam- 
bridge Natural History, and papers for various scientific journals. 


j Davis, Jefferson (in part). 


Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. -{ Demaratus. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 


Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham -< Corinth (in part); 
University, 1905-1908. ' L Cos (; p art ) 

Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province. 


Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the J Death-warning. 
Societe d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and\ 
Marriage in A ustralia ; &c. L 

OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. C Costume: Medieval and 

Editor of the Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the J Modern European; 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. [ Conrtenay: Family. 


Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the J Copenhagen. 
British Association. 

i Cossacks; 
J Crimea (in part); 
LDaghestan (in part). 

f Cottington, F. C.. Baron; 

Coventry, Sir William; 
-I Craven, Earl of; 

Cromwell, Oliver (in part); 
[ Cromwell, Richard. 

f Daedalus; 

I Demetrius (Sculptor). 

PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., Lnr.D. ( 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University! p. 

Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological 1 

Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology ; &c. 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. 4 David, Gerard. 

Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c. L 

ROBERT ANCHEL. ("Convention, The National; 

Archivist to the Departement de 1'Eure. \ Cordeliers, Club Of the. 


See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, P. A. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 


See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. 



R. A. S. M. 

R. B. McK. 
R. B. R. 

R. H. C. 

R. H. L. 
R. J. M. 
R. L.* 

R. N. B. 
R. P. S. 

R. So. 
R. S. C. 
R. W. R. 

S. A. C. 

S. E. B. 

S. J. C. 

S. Wa. 
T. As. 

T. A. I. 
T. A. J. 

( Damascus; 

j Dead Sea; 


{ Dekker, Thomas (in part). 


St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Ex- 
ploration Fund. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 


Formerly Director of American School of Classical Studies, Athens. Member of 

American Geological Society, British Society of Promotion of Hellenic Studies, > Corinth (in part). 

Greek Archaeological Society, &c. Author of History of Greek Sculpture; Vacation 

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J Daniel (in part). 

j Debussy. 

("Conway, Henry Seymour; 
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ROBERT SOMERS (1822-1891). 

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Decorated Period. 

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W. R. S. 
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r Crab ; 


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P arl >- 


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Constitution and Con- 
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Cornell University. 


Corrupt Practices. 



Costa Rica. 





Crawford, Earls of. 


Cretaceous System. 










Cursor Mundi. 





















CONSTANTINE PAVLOVICH (1779-1831), grand-duke and 
cesarevich of Russia, was born at Tsarskoye Selo on the 27th 
of April 1779. Of the sons born to the unfortunate tsar Paul 
Petrovich and his wife Maria Feodorovna, nee princess of Wurt- 
temberg, none more closely resembled his father in bodily 
and mental characteristics than did the second, Constantine 
Pavlovich. The direction of the boy's upbringing was entirely 
in the hands of his grandmother, the empress Catherine II. As 
in the case of her eldest grandson (afterwards the emperor 
Alexander I.), she regulated every detail of his physical and 
mental education; but in accordance with her usual custom 
she left the carrying out of her views to the men who were in 
her confidence. Count Nicolai Ivanovich Soltikov was supposed 
to be the actual tutor, but he too in his turn transferred the 
burden to another, only interfering personally on quite excep- 
tional occasions, and exercised neither a positive nor a negative 
influence upon the character of the exceedingly passionate, 
restless and headstrong boy. The only person who really took 
him in hand was Cesar La Harpe, who was tutor-in-chief from 
1783 to May 1795 and educated both the empress's grandsons. 

Like Alexander, Constantine was married by Catherine when 
not yet seventeen years of age, a raw and immature boy, and 
he made his wife, Juliana of Coburg, intensely miserable. After 
a first separation in the year 1799, she went back permanently 
to her German home in 1801, the victim of a frivolous intrigue, 
in the guilt of which she was herself involved. An attempt made 
by Constantine in 1814 to win her back to his hearth and home 
broke down on her firm opposition. During the time of this 
tragic marriage Constantine's first campaign took place under 
the leadership of the great Suvorov. The battle of Bassignano 
was lost by Constantine's fault, but at Novi he distinguished 
himself by such personal bravery that the emperor Paul be- 
stowed on him the title of cesarevich, which according to the 
fundamental law of the constitution belonged only to the heir 
to 'the throne. Though it cannot be proved that this action of 
the tsar denoted any far-reaching plan, it yet shows that Paul 
already distrusted the grand-duke Alexander. However that 
may be, it is certain that Constantine never tried to secure the 
throne. After his father's death he led a wild and disorderly 
bachelor life. He abstained from politics, but remained faithful 
to his military inclinations, though, indeed, without manifesting 
anything more than a preference for the externalities of the 

In command of the Guards during the campaign of 1805 


Constantine had a share of the responsibility for the unfortunate 
turn which events took at the battle of Austerlitz; while in 
1807 neither his skill nor his fortune in war showed any improve- 
ment. However, after the peace of Tilsit he became an ardent 
admirer of the great Corsican and an upholder of the Russo- 
French alliance. It was on this account that in political questions 
he did not enjoy the confidence of his imperial brother. To the 
latter the French alliance had always been merely a means to 
an end, and after he had satisfied himself at Erfurt, and later 
during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, that Napoleon like- 
wise regarded his relation to Russia only from the point of view 
of political advantage, he became convinced that the alliance 
must transform itself into a battle of life and death. Such 
insight was never attained by Constantine; even in 1812, after 
the fall of Moscow, he pressed for a speedy conclusion of peace 
with Napoleon, and, like field-marshal Kutusov, he too opposed 
the policy which carried the war across the Russian frontier to 
a victorious conclusion upon French soil. During the campaign 
he was a boon companion of every commanding-officer. Barclay 
de Tolly was twice obliged to send him away from the army. 
His share in the battles in Germany and France was insignificant. 
At Dresden, on the 26th of August, his military knowledge 
failed him at the decisive moment, but at La Fere-Champenoise 
he distinguished himself by personal bravery. On the whole he 
cut no great figure. In Paris the grand-duke excited public 
ridicule by the manifestation of his petty military fads. His 
first visit was to the stables, and it was said that he had marching 
and drilling even in his private rooms. 

In the great political decisions of those days Constantine took 
not the smallest part. His importance in political history dates 
only from the moment when the emperor Alexander entrusted 
him in Poland with a task which enabled him to concentrate all 
the one-sidedness of his talents and all the doggedness of his 
nature on a definite object: that of the militarization and 
outward discipline of Poland. With this begins the part played 
by the grand-duke in history. In the Congress-Poland created 
by Alexander he received the post of commander-in-chief of the 
forces of the kingdom; to which was added later (1819) the 
command of the Lithuanian troops and of those of the Russian 
provinces that had formerly belonged to the kingdom of Poland. 
In effect he was the actual ruler of the country, and soon became 
the most zealous advocate of the separate position' of Poland 
created by the constitution granted by Alexander. He organized 
their army for the Poles, and felt himself more a Pole than a 


Russian, especially after his marriage, on the 27th of May 1820, 
with a Polish lady, Johanna Grudzinska. Connected with this 
was his renunciation of any claim to the Russian succession, 
which was formally completed in 1822. It is well known how, 
in spite of this, when Alexander I. died on the ist of December 
1825 the grand-duke Nicholas had him proclaimed emperor 
in St Petersburg, in connexion with which occurred the famous 
revolt of the Russian Liberals, known as the rising of the 
Dekabrists. In this crisis Constantine's attitude had been 
very correct, far more so than that of his brother, which was 
vacillating and uncertain. Under the emperor Nicholas also 
Constantine maintained his position in Poland. But differences 
soon arose between him and his brother in consequence of the 
share taken by the Poles in the Dekabrist conspiracy. Con- 
stantine hindered the unveiling of the organized plotting for 
independence which had been going on in Poland for many 
years, and held obstinately to the belief that the army and the 
bureaucracy were loyally devoted to the Russian empire. The 
eastern policy of the tsar and the Turkish War of 1828 and 1829 
caused a fresh breach between them. It was owing to the opposi- 
tion of Constantine that the Polish army took no part in this 
war, so that there was in consequence no Russo-Polish comrade- 
ship in arms, such as might perhaps have led to a reconciliation 
between the two nations. 

The insurrection at Warsaw in November 1830 took Con- 
stantine completely by surprise. It was owing to his utter failure 
to grasp the situation that the Polish regiments passed over to 
the revolutionaries; and during the continuance of the revolution 
he showed himself as incompetent as he was lacking in judgment. 
Every defeat of the Russians appeared to him almost in the 
light of a personal gratification: his soldiers were victorious. 
The suppression of the revolution he did not live to see. He 
died of cholera at Vitebsk on the 2 7th of June 1831. He was 
an impossible man in an impossible situation. On the Russian 
imperial throne he would in all probability have been a tyrant 
like his father. 

See also Karrnovich's The Cesarevich Constantine Pavlovich (2 vols., 
St Petersburg, 1899), (Russian); T. Schiemann's Geschichte Russ- 
lands unter Kaiser Nicolaus I. vol. i. (Berlin, 1904); Pusyrevski's 
The Russo-Polish War of 1831 (2nd ed., St Petersburg, 1890) 
(Russian). (T. SE.) 

CONSTANTINE, a city of Algeria, capital of the department 
of the same name, 54 m. by railway S. by W. of the port of 
Philippeville, in 3622' N., 5 36' E. Constantine is the residence 
of a general commanding a division, of a prefect and other high 
officials, is the seat of a bishop, and had a population in 1906 
of 46,806, of whom 25,312 were Europeans. The population of 
the commune, which includes the suburbs of Constantine, was 
58,435. The city occupies a romantic position on a rocky 
plateau, cut off on all sides save the west from the surrounding 
country by a beautiful ravine, through which the river Rummel 
flows. The plateau is 2130 ft. above sea-level, and from 500 to 
nearly 1000 ft. above the river bed. The ravine, formed by 
the Rummel, through erosion of the limestone, varies greatly in 
width at its narrowest part the cliffs are only 15 ft. apart, at 
its broadest the valley is 400 yds. wide. At the N.E. angle of the 
city the gorge is spanned by an iron bridge (El-Kantara) built 
in 1863, giving access to the railway station, situated on Mansura 
hill. A stone bridge built by the Romans, and restored at 
various times, suddenly gave way in 1857 and is now in ruins; 
it was built on a natural arch, which, 184 ft. above the level of 
the river, spans the valley. Along the north-eastern side of 
the city the Rummel is spanned in all four times by these natural 
stone arches or tunnels. To the north the city is commanded 
by the Jebel Mecid, a hill which the French (following the example 
of the Romans) have fortified. 

Constantine is walled, the extant medieval wall having been 
largely constructed out of Roman material. Through the centre 
from north to south runs a street (the rue de France) roughly 
dividing Constantine into two parts. The place du Palais, in 
which are the palace of the governor and the cathedral, and the 
kasbah (citadel) are west of the rue de France, as is likewise 

the place Negrier, containing the law courts. The native town 
lies chiefly in the south-east part of the city. A striking contrast 
exists between the Moorish quarter, with its tortuous lanes 
and Oriental architecture, and the modern quarter, with its 
rectangular streets and wide open squares, frequently bordered 
with trees and adorned with fountains. Of the squares the 
place de Nemours is the centre of the commercial and social life 
of the city. Of the public buildings those dating from before the 
French occupation possess chief interest. The palace, built 
by Ahmed Pasha, the last bey of Constantine, between 1830 
and 1836, is one of the finest specimens of Moorish architecture 
of the igth century. The kasbah, which occupies the northern 
corner of the city, dates from Roman times, and preserves in 
its more modern portions numerous remains of other Roman 
edifices. It is now turned into barracks and a hospital. The fine 
mosque of Sidi-el-Kattani (or Salah Bey) dates from the close of 
the 1 8th century; that of Suk-er-Rezel, now transformed into a 
cathedral, and called Nolre-Dame des Sept Douleurs, was built 
about a century earlier. The Great Mosque, or Jamaa-el-Kebir, . 
occupies the site of what was probably an ancient pantheon. 
The mosque Sidi-el-Akhdar has a beautiful minaret nearly 
Soft. high. The museum, housed in the hotel deville, contains a 
fine collection of antiquities, including a famous bronze statuette 
of the winged figure of Victory, 23 in. high, discovered in the 
kasbah in 1858. 

A religious seminary, or medressa, is maintained in connexion 
with the Sidi-el-Kattani; and the French support a college and 
various minor educational establishments for both Arabic and 
European culture. The native industry of Constantine is chiefly 
confined to leather goods and woollen fabrics. Some 100,000 
burnouses are made annually, the finest partly of wool and 
partly of silk. There is also an active trade in embossing or 
engraving copper and brass utensils. A considerable trade is 
carried on over a large area by means of railway connexion with 
Algiers, Bona, Tunis and Biskra, as well as with Philippeville. 
The railways, however, have taken away from the city its 
monopoly of the traffic in wheat, though its share in that trade 
still amounts to from 400,000 to 480,000 a year. 

Constantine, or, as it was orginally called, Cirta or Kirtha, 
from the Phoenician word for a city, was in ancient times one 
of the most important towns of Numidia, and the residence of 
the kings of the Massyli. Under Micipsa (2nd century B.C.) 
it reached the height of its prosperity, and was able to furnish 
an army of 10,000 cavalry and 20,000 infantry. Though it 
afterwards declined, it still continued an important military 
post, and is frequently mentioned during successive wars. 
Caesar having bestowed a part of its territory on his supporter 
Sittius, the latter introduced a Roman settlement, and the town 
for a time was known as Colonia Sittianorum. In the war of 
Maxentius against Alexander, the Numidian usurper, it was laid 
in ruins; and on its restoration in A.D. 313 by Constantine it 
received the name which it still retains. It was not captured 
during the Vandal invasion of Africa, but on the conquest by 
the Arabians (7th century) it shared the same fate as the 
surrounding country. Successive Arab dynasties looted it, 
and many monuments of antiquity suffered (to be finally swept 
away by " municipal improvements " under the French regime). 
During the i2th century it was still a place of considerable 
prosperity; and its commerce was extensive enough to attract 
the merchants of Pisa, Genoa and Venice. Frequently taken 
and retaken by the Turks, Constantine finally became under 
their dominion the seat of a bey, subordinate to the dey of 
Algiers. To Salah Bey, who ruled from 1770 to 1792, we owe 
most of the existing Moslem buildings. In 1826 Constantine 
asserted its independence of the dey of Algiers, and was governed 
by Haji Ahmed, the choice of the Kabyles. In 1836 the French 
under Marshal Clausel made an unsuccessful attempt to storm 
the city, which they attacked by night by way of El-Kantara. 
The French suffered heavy loss. In .1837 Marshal Valee 
approached the town by the connecting western isthmus, 
and succeeded in taking it by assault, though again the French 
lost heavily. Ahmed, however, escaped and maintained his 


independence in the Aures mountains. He submitted to the 
French in 1848 and died in 1850. 

CONSTANTINOPLE, the capital of the Turkish empire, 
situated in 41 o' 16" N. and 28 58' 14' E. The city stands at 
the southern extremity of the Bosporus, upon a hilly promontory 
that runs out from the European or western side of the straits 
towards the opposite Asiatic bank, as though to stem the rush 
of waters from the Black Sea into the Sea of Marmora. Thus 
the promontory has the latter sea on the south, and the bay of 
the Bosporus, forming the magnificent harbour known as the 
Golden Horn, some 4 m. long, on the north. Two streams, the 
Cydaris and Barbysus of ancient days, the Ali-Bey-Su and 
Kiahat-Hane-Su of modern times, enter the bay at its north- 
western end. A small winter stream, named the Lycus, that 
flows through the promontory from west to south-east into the 
Sea of Marmora, breaks the hilly ground into two great masses, 
a long ridge, divided by cross-valleys into six eminences, over- 
hanging the Golden Horn, and a large isolated hill constituting 
the south-western portion of the territory. Hence the claim of 
Constantinople to be enthroned, like Rome, upon seven hills. 
The ist hill is distinguished by the Seraglio, St Sophia and the 
Hippodrome; the 2nd by the column of Constantine and 
the mosque Nuri-Osmanieh; the 3rd by the war office, the 
Seraskereate Tower and the mosque of Sultan Suleiman; the 
4th by the mosque of- Sultan Mahommed II., the Conqueror; 
the 5th by the mosque of Sultan Selim; the 6th by Tekfour 
Serai and the quarter of Egri Kapu; the 7th by Avret Tash 
and the quarter of Psamatia. In Byzantine times the two last 
hills were named respectively the hill of Blachernae and the 
Xerolophos or dry hill. 

History, Architecture and Antiquities. Constantinople is 
famous in history, first as the capital of the Roman empire in 
the East for more than eleven centuries (330-1453), and secondly 
as the capital of the Ottoman empire since 1453. In respect 
of influence over the course of human affairs, its only rivals are 
Athens, Rome and Jerusalem. Yet even the gifts of these 
rivals to the cause of civilization often bear the image and 
superscription of Constantinople upon them. Roman law, 
Greek literature, the theology of the Christian church, for 
example, are intimately associated with the history of the city 
beside the Bosporus. 

The city was founded by Constantine the Great, through the 
enlargement of the old town of Byzantium, in A.D. 328, and was 
inaugurated as a new seat of government on the nth of May, 
A.D. 330. To indicate its political dignity, it was named New 
Rome, while to perpetuate the fame -of its founder it was styled 
Constantinople. The chief patriarch of the Greek church still 
signs himself " archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome." 
The old name of the place, Byzantium, however, continued 
in use. 

The creation of a new capital by Constantine was not an act 
of personal caprice or individual judgment. It was the result 
of causes long in operation, and had been foreshadowed, forty 
years before, in the policy of Diocletian. After the senate and 
people of Rome had ceased to be the sovereigns of the Roman 
world, and their authority had been vested in the sole person 
of the emperor, the eternal city could no longer claim to be the 
rightful throne of the state. That honour could henceforth be 
conferred upon any place in the Roman world which might suit 
the convenience of the emperor, or serve more efficiently the 
interests he had to guard. Furthermore, the empire was now 
upon its defence. Dreams of conquests and extension had long 
been abandoned, and the pressing question of the time was how 
to repel the persistent assaults of Persia and the barbarians upon 
the frontiers of the realm, and so retain the dominion inherited 
from the valour of the past. The size of the empire made it 
difficult, if not impossible, to attend to these assaults, or to control 
the ambition of successful generals, from one centre. Then the 
East had grown in political importance, both as the scene of the 
most active life in the state and as the portion of the empire 
most exposed to attack. Hence the famous scheme of Diocletian 
to divide the burden of government between four colleagues, in 

order to secure a better administration of civil and of military 
affairs. It was a scheme, however, that lowered the prestige 
of Rome, for it involved four distinct seats of government, among 
which, as the event proved, no place was found for the ancient 
capital of the Roman world. It also declared the high position 
of the East, by the selection of Nicomedia in Asia Minor as the 
residence of Diocletian himself. When Constantine, therefore, 
established a new seat of government at Byzantium, he adopted 
a policy inaugurated before his day as essential to the preserva- 
tion of the Roman dominion. He can claim originality only in 
his choice of the particular point at which that seat was placed, 
and in his recognition of the fact that his alliance with the 
Christian church could be best maintained in a new atmosphere. 

But whatever view may be taken of the policy which divided 
the government of the empire, there can be no dispute as to the 
widsom displayed in the selection of the site for a new imperial 
throne. " Of all the events of Constantine's life," says Dean 
Stanley, " this choice is the most convincing and enduring proof 
of his real genius." Situated where Europe and Asia are parted 
by a channel never more than 5 m. across, and sometimes 
less than half a mile wide, placed at a point commanding the 
great waterway between the Mediterranean and the Black 
Sea, the position affords immense scope for commercial enterprise 
and political action in rich and varied regions of the world. The 
least a city in that situation can claim as its appropriate sphere 
of influence is the vast domain extending from the Adriatic to 
the Persian Gulf, and from the Danube to the eastern Mediter- 
ranean. Moreover, the site constituted a natural citadel, 
difficult to approach or to invest, and an almost impregnable 
refuge in the hour of defeat, within which broken forces might 
rally to retrieve disaster. To surround it, an enemy required 
to be strong upon both land and sea. Foes advancing through 
Asia Minor would have their march arrested, and their blows 
kept beyond striking distance, by the moat which the waters 
of the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora and the Dardanelles 
combine to form. The narrow straits in which the waterway 
connecting the Mediterranean with the Black Sea contracts, 
both to the north and to the south of the city, could be rendered 
impassable to hostile fleets approaching from either direction, 
while on the landward side the line of defence was so short that 
it could be strongly fortified, and held against large numbers 
by a comparatively small force. Nature, indeed, cannot relieve 
men of their duty to be wise and brave, but, in the marvellous 
configuration of land and sea about Constantinople, nature has 
done her utmost to enable human skill and courage to establish 
there the splendid and stable throne of a great empire. 

Byzantium, out of which Constantinople sprang, was a small, 
well-fortified town, occupying most of the territory comprised 
in the two hills nearest the head of the promontory, and in the 
level ground at their base. The landward wall started from a 
point near the present Stamboul custom-house, and reached the 
ridge of the 2nd hill, a little to the east of the point marked by 
Chemberli Tash (the column of Constantine) . There the principal 
gate of the town opened upon the Egnatian road. From that 
gate the wall descended towards the Sea of Marmora, touching 
the water in the neighbourhood of the Seraglio lighthouse. The 
Acropolis, enclosing venerated temples, crowned the summit of 
the first hill, where the Seraglio stands. Immediately to the 
south of the fortress was the principal market-place of the town , 
surrounded by porticoes on its four sides, and hence named the 
Tetrastoon. On the southern side of the square stood the baths 
of Zeuxippus, and beyond them, still farther south, lay the 
Hippodrome, which Septimius Severus had undertaken to build 
but failed to complete. Two theatres, on the eastern slope of 
the Acropolis, faced the bright waters of the Marmora, and a 
stadium was found on the level tract on the other side of the hill, 
close to the Golden Horn. The Strategion, devoted to the 
military exercises of the brave little town, stood close to Sirkedji 
Iskelessi, and two artificial harbours, the Portus Prosforianus 
and the Neorion, indented the shore of the Golden Horn, re- 
spectively in front of the ground now occupied by the station of 
the Chemins de Fer Orientaux and the Stamboul custom-house. 



Scale, 1:46,000 
One Statute Mile 

Ancient sites are shown by thick lines 
and lettered thus:- ........ Hippodrome 

Wall of Byzantium.., _____ _--.-., 

of Constantine ...... _*.** 

Byzantine Walls ........... ,. 

M R A 

A graceful granite column, still erect on the slope above the head 
of the promontory, commemorated the victory of Claudius 
Gothicus over the Goths at Nissa, A.D. 269. All this furniture 
of Byzantium was appropriated for the use of the new capital. 

According to Zosimus, the line of the landward walls erected 
by Constantine to defend New Rome was drawn at a distance of 
nearly am. (15 stadia) to the west of the limits of the old town. 
It therefore ran across the promontory from the vicinity of Un 
Kapan Kapusi (Porta Platea), at the Stamboul head of the 
Inner Bridge, to the neighbourhood of Baud Pasha Kapusi 
(Porta S. Aemiliani), on the Marmora, and thus added the 3rd 
and 4th hills and portions of the 5th and 7th hills to the territory 
of Byzantium. We have two indications of the course of these 
walls on the yth hill. One is found in the name Isa Kapusi (the 
Gate of Jesus) attached to a mosque, formerly a Christian church, 
situated above the quarter of Psamatia. It perpetuates the 
memory of the beautiful gateway which formed the triumphal 
entrance into the city of Constantine, and which survived the 
original bounds of the new capital as late as 1508, when it was 
overthrown by an earthquake. The other indication is the name 
Alti Mermer (the six columns) given to a quarter in the same 
neighbourhood. The name is an ignorant translation of Exa- 
kionion, the corrupt form of the designation Exokionion, which 
belonged in Byzantine days to that quarter because marked by 
a column outside the city limits. Hence the Arians, upon their 
expulsion from the city by Theodosius I., were allowed to hold 

their religious services in the Exokionion, seeing that it was an 
extra-mural district. This explains the fact that Arians are 
sometimes styled Exokionitae by ecclesiastical historians. 
The Constantinian line of fortifications, therefore, ran a little 
to the east of the quarter of Alti Mermer. In addition to the 
territory enclosed within the limits just described, the suburb 
of Sycae or Galata, on the opposite side of the Golden Horn, 
and the suburb of Blachernae, on the 6th hill, were regarded 
as parts of the city, but stood within their own fortifications. 
It was to the ramparts of Constantine that the city owed its 
deliverance when attacked by the Goths, after the terrible 
defeat of Valens at Adrianople, A.D. 378. 

In the opinion of his courtiers, the bounds assigned to New 
Rome by Constantine seemed, it is said, too wide, but after 
some eighty years they proved too narrow for the population 
that had gathered within the city. The barbarians had meantime 
also grown more formidable, and this made it necessary to have 
stronger fortifications for the capital. Accordingly, in 413, in 
the reign of Theodosius II., Anthemius, then praetorian prefect 
of the East and regent, enlarged and refortified the cit> by the 
erection of the wall which forms the innermost line of defence in 
the bulwarks whose picturesque ruins now stretch from the Sea 
of Marmora, on the south of Yedi Kuleh (the seven towers), 
northwards to the old Byzantine palace of the Porphyrogenitus 
(Tekfour Serai), above the quarter of Egri Kapu. There the new 
works joined the walls of the suburb of Blachernae, and thus 


protected the city on the west down to the Golden Horn. Some- 
what later, in 439, the walls along the Marmora and the Golden 
Horn were brought, by the prefect Cyrus, up to the extremities 
of the new landward walls, and thus invested the capital in 
complete armour. Then also Constantinople attained its final 
size. For any subsequent extension of the city limits was 
insignificant, and was due to strategic considerations. In 447 
the wall of Anthemius was seriously injured by one of those 
earthquakes to which the city is liable. The disaster was all 
the more grave, as the Huns under Attila were carrying every- 
thing before them in the Balkan lands. The dcsperateness of 
the situation, however, roused the government of Theodosius II., 
who was still upon the throne, to put forth the most energetic 
efforts to meet the emergency. If we may trust two contem- 
porary inscriptions, one Latin, the other Greek, still found on 
the gate Yeni Mevlevi Khaneh Kapusi (Porta Rhegium), the 
capital was again fully armed, and rendered more secure than 
ever, by the prefect Constantine, in less than two months. Not 
only was the wall of Anthemius restored, but, at the distance 
of 20 yds., another wall was built in front of it, and at the 
same distance from this second wall a broad moat was con- 
structed with a breastwork along its inner edge. Each wall 
was flanked by ninety-six towers. According to some authorities, 
the moat was flooded during a siege by opening the aqueducts, 
which crossed the moat at intervals and conveyed water into 
the city in time of peace. This opinion is extremely doubtful. 
But in any case, here was a barricade 190-207 ft. thick, and 
loo ft. high, with its several parts rising tier above tier to permit 
concerted action, and alive with large bodies of troops ready to 
pour, from every coign of vantage, missiles of death arrows, 
stones, Greek fire upon a foe. It is not strange that these 
fortifications defied the assaults of barbarism upon the civilized 
life of the world for more than a thousand years. As might be 
expected, the walls demanded frequent restoration from time 
to time in the course of their long history. Inscriptions upon 
them record repairs, for example, under Justin II., Leo the 
Isaurian, Basil II., John Palaeologus, and others. Still, the 
ramparts extending now from the Marmora to Tekfour Serai 
are to all intents and purposes the ruins of the Theodosian walls 
of the sth century. 

This is not the case in regard to the other parts of the fortifica- 
tions of the city. The walls along the Marmora and the Golden 
Horn represent the great restoration of the seaward defences 
of the capital carried out by the emperor Theophilus in the gth 
century; while the walls between Tekfour Serai and the Golden 
Horn were built long after the reign of Theodosius II., super- 
seding the defences of that quarter of the city in his day, and 
relegating them, as traces of their course to the rear of the later 
works indicate, to the secondary office of protecting the palace 
of Blachernae. In 627 Heraclius built the wall along the west 
of the quarter of Aivan Serai, in order to bring the level tract at 
the foot of the 6th hill within the city bounds, and shield the 
church of Blachernae, which had been exposed to great danger 
during the siege of the city by the Avars in that year. In 813 
Leo V. the Armenian built the wall which stands in front of the 
wall of Heraclius to strengthen that point in view of an expected 
attack by the Bulgarians. 

The splendid wall, flanked by nine towers, that descends from 
the court of Tekfour Serai to the level tract below Egri Kapu, 
was built by Manuel Comnenus (1143-1180) for the greater 
security of the part of the city in which stood the palace of 
Blachernae, then the favourite imperial residence. Lastly, 
the portion of the fortifications between the wall of Manuel 
and the wall of Heraclius presents too many problems to be 
discussed here. Enough to say, that in it we find work belonging 
to the times of the Comneni, Isaac Angelus and the Palaeologi. 

If we leave out of account the attacks upon the city in the 
course of the civil wars between rival parties in the empire, the 
fortifications of Constantinople were assailed by the Avars in 
627; by the Saracens in 673-677, and again in 718; by the 
Bulgarians in 813 and 913; by the forces of the Fourth Crusade 
in 1203-1204; by the Turks in 1422 and 1453. The city was 

taken in 1204, and became the seat of a Latin empire until 1261, 
when it was recovered by the Greeks. On the zpth of May 1453 
Constantinople ceased to be the capital of the Roman empire 
in the East, and became the capital of the Ottoman dominion. 

The most noteworthy points in the circuit of the walls of the 
city are the following, (i) The Golden gate, now included in 
the Turkish fortress of Yedi Kuleh. It is a triumphal archway, 
consisting of three arches, erected in honour of the victory of 
Theodosius I. over Maximus in 388, and subsequently incorpor- 
ated in the walls of Theodosius II., as the state entrance of the 
capital. (2) The gate of Selivria, or of the Pege, through which 
Alexius Strategopoulos made his way into the city in 1261, and 
brought the Latin empire of Constantinople to an end. (3) The 
gate of St Romanus (Top Kapusi), by which, in 1453, Sultan 
Mahommed entered Constantinople after the fall of the city 
into Turkish hands. (4) The great breach made in the ramparts 
crossing the valley of the Lycus, the scene of the severest 
fighting in the siege of 1453, where the Turks stormed the city, 
and the last Byzantine emperor met his heroic death. (5) The 
palace of the Porphyrogenitus,long erroneously identified with the 
palace of the Hebdomon, which really stood at Makrikeui. It is 
the'finest specimen of Byzantine civil architecture left in the city. 
(6) The tower of Isaac Angelus and the tower of Anemas, with 
the chambers in the body of the wall to the north of them. (7) 
The wall of Leo, against which the troops of the Fourth Crusade 
came, in 1203, from their camp on the hill opposite the wall, and 
delivered their chief attack. (8) The walls protecting the quarter 
of Phanar, which the army and fleet of the Fourth Crusade under 
the Venetian doge Henrico Dandolo carried in 1204. (9) Yali 
Kiosk Kapusi, beside which the southern end of the chain drawn 
across the mouth of the harbour during a siege was attached. 
(10) The ruins of the palace of Hormisdas, near Chatladi Kapu, 
once the residence of Justinian the Great and Theodora. It 
was known in later times as the palace of the Bucoleon, and was 
the scene of the assassination of Nicephorus Phocas. (n) The 
sites of the old harbours between Chatladi Kapu and Baud 
Pasha Kapusi. (12) The fine marble tower near the junction 
of the walls along the Marmora with the landward walls. 

The interior arrangements of the city were largely determined 
by the configuration of its site, which falls into three great divi- 
sions, the level ground and slopes looking towards the Sea of 
Marmora, the range of hills forming the midland portion of the 
promontory, and the slopes and level ground facing the Golden 
Horn. In each division a great street ran through the city from 
east to west, generally lined with arcades on one side, but with 
arcades on both sides when traversing the finer and busier 
quarters. The street along the ridge formed the principal 
thoroughfare, and was named the Mese (Mem;), because it ran 
through the middle of the city. On reaching the west of the 
3rd hill, it divided into two branches, one leading across the 7th 
hill to the Golden gate, the other conducting to the church of 
the Holy Apostles, and the gate of Charisius (Edirneh Kapusi). 
The Mese linked together the great fora of the city, the Augus- 
taion on the south of St Sophia, the forum of Constantine on the 
summit of the 2nd hill, the forum of Theodosius I. or of Taurus 
on the summit of the 3rd hill, the forum of Amastrianon where the 
mosque of Shah Zad6h is situated, the forum of the Bous at Ak 
Serai, and the forum of Arcadius or Theodosius II. on the summit 
of the 7th hill. This was the route followed on the occasion of 
triumphal processions. 

Of the edifices and monuments which adorned the fora, only a 
slight sketch can be given here. On the north side of the 
Augustaion rose the church of St Sophia, the most glorious 
cathedral of Eastern Christendom; opposite, on the southern 
side of the square, was the Chalc6, the great gate of the imperial 
palace; on the east was the senate house, with a porch of six 
noble columns; to the west, across the Mese, were the law 
courts. In the area of the square stood the Milion, whence dis- 
tances from Constantinople were measured, and a lofty column 
which bore the equestrian statue of Justinian the Great. There 
also was the statue of the empress Eudoxia, famous in the history 
of Chrysostom, the pedestal of which is preserved near the church 


of St Irene. The Augustaion was the heart of the city's ecclesi- 
astical and political life. The forum of Constantine was a great 
business centre. Its most remarkable monument was the column 
of Constantine, built of twelve drums of porphyry and bearing 
aloft his statue. Shorn of much of its beauty, the column still 
stands to proclaim the enduring influence of the foundation of 
the city. 

In the forum of Theodosius I. rose a column in his honour, 
constructed on the model of the hollow columns of Trajan and 
Marcus Aurelius at Rome. There also was the Anemodoulion, 
a beautiful pyramidal structure, surmounted by a vane to indicate 
the direction of the wind. Close to the forum, if not in it, was the 
capitol, in which the university of Constantinople was estab- 
lished. The most conspicuous object in the forum of the Bous 
was the figure of an ox, in bronze, beside which the bodies of 
criminals were sometimes burnt. Another hollow column, the 
pedestal of which is now known as Avret Tash, adorned the 
forum of Arcadius. A column in honour of the emperor Marcian 
still stands in the valley of the Lycus, below the mosque of 
Sultan Mahommed the Conqueror. Many beautiful statues, 
belonging to good periods of Greek and Roman art, decorated 
the fora, streets and public buildings of the city, but conflagra- 
tions and the vandalism of the Latin and Ottoman conquerors 
of Constantinople have robbed the world of those treasures. 

The imperial palace, founded by Constantine and extended 
by his successors, occupied the territory which lies to the east 
of St Sophia and the Hippodrome down to the water's edge. 
It consisted of a large number of detached buildings, in grounds 
made beautiful with gardens and trees, and commanding magnifi- 
cent views over the Sea of Marmora, across to the hills and moun- 
tains of the Asiatic coast. The buildings were mainly grouped 
in three divisions the Chalce, the Daphne and the " sacred 
palace." Labarte and Paspates have attempted to reconstruct 
the palace, taking as their guide the descriptions given of it by 
Byzantine writers. The work of Labarte is specially valuable, 
but without proper excavations of the site all attempts to 
restore the plan of the palace with much accuracy lack a solid 
foundation. With the accession of Alexius Comnenus, the palace 
of Blachernae, at the north-western corner of the city, became 
the principal residence of the Byzantine court, and was in con- 
sequence extended and embellished. It stood in a more retired 
position, and was conveniently situated for excursions into 
the country and hunting expeditions. Of the palaces outside the 
walls, the most frequented were the palace at the Hebdomon, 
now Makrikeui, in the early days of the Empire, and the palace 
of the Pege, now Balukli, a short distance beyond the gate of 
Selivria, in later times. For municipal purposes, the city was 
divided, like Rome, into fourteen Regions. 

As the seat of the chief prelate of Eastern Christendom, 
Constantinople was characterized by a strong theological and 
ecclesiastical temperament. It was full of churches and mona- 
steries, enriched with the reputed relics of saints, prophets and 
martyrs, which consecrated it a holy city and attracted pilgrims 
from every quarter to its shrines. It was the meeting-place of 
numerous ecclesiastical councils, some of them ecumenical (see 
below, CONSTANTINOPLE, COUNCILS or). It was likewise dis- 
tinguished for its numerous charitable institutions. Only some 
twenty of the old churches of the city are left. Most of them have 
been converted into mosques, but they are valuable monuments 
of the art which flourished in New Rome. Among the most 
interesting are the following. St John of the Studium (Emir- 
Achor Jamissi) is a basilica of the middle of the sth century, 
and the oldest ecclesiastical fabric in the city; it is now, un- 
fortunately, almost a complete ruin. SS. Sergius and Bacchus 
(Kutchuk Aya Sofia) and St Sophia are erections of Justinian 
the Great. The former is an example of a dome placed on an 
octagonal structure, and in its general plan is similar to the con- 
temporary church of S. Vitale at Ravenna. St Sophia (i.e. 
'A.yia.2o<t>ia, Holy Wisdom) is the glory of Byzantine art, and 
one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. St Mary 
Diaconissa (Kalender Jamissi) is a fine specimen of the work 
of the closing years of the 6th century. St Irene, founded by 

Constantine, and repaired by Justinian, is in its present form 
mainly a restoration by Leo the Isaurian, in the middle of the Sth 
century. St Mary Panachrantos (Fenari Isa Mesjidi) belongs 
to the reign of Leo the Wise (886-91 2) . The Myrelaion (Bodrum 
Jami) dates from the loth century. The Pantepoptes (Eski 
Imaret Jamissi), the Pantocrator (Zeirek Kilisse Jamissi), and 
the body of the church of the Chora (Kahriyeh Jamissi) represent 
the age of the Comneni. The Pammacaristos (Fetiyeh Jamissi), 
St Andrew in Krisei (Khoja Mustapha Jamissi) , the narthexes and 
side chapel of the Chora were, at least in their present form, 
erected in the times of the Palaeologi. It is difficult to assign 
precise dates to SS. Peter and Mark (Khoda Mustapha Jamissi 
at Aivan Serai), St Theodosia (Gul Jamissi), St Theodore Tyrone 
(Kilisse Jamissi). The beautiful facade of the last is later than 
the other portions of the church, which have been assigned 
to the 9th or loth century. 

For the thorough study of the church of St Sophia, the reader 
must consult the works of Fossati, Salzenburg, Lethaby and 
Swainson, and Antoniadi. The present edifice was built by 
Justinian the Great, under the direction of Anthemius of Tralles 
and his nephew Isidorus of Miletus. It was founded in 532 
and dedicated on Christmas Day 538. It replaced two earlier 
churches of that name, the first of which was built by Constantius 
and burnt down in 404, on the occasion of the exile of Chrysostom, 
while the second was erected by Theodosius II. in 415, and 
destroyed by fire in the Nika riot of 532. Naturally the church 
has undergone repair from time to time. The original dome 
fell in 558, as the result of an earthquake, and among the im- 
provements introduced in the course of restoration, the dome 
was raised 25 ft. higher than before. Repairs are recorded under 
Basil I., Basil II., Andronicus III. and Cantacuzene. Since the 
Turkish conquest a minaret has been erected at each of the 
four exterior angles of the building, and the interior has been 
adapted to the requirements of Moslem worship, mainly by the 
destruction or concealment of most of the mosaics which adorned 
the walls. In 1847-1848, during the reign of Abd-ul-Mejid, 
the building was put into a state of thorough repair by the Italian 
architect Fossati. Happily the sultan allowed the mosaic figures, 
then exposed to view, to be covered with matting before being 
plastered over. They may reappear in the changes which the 
future will bring. 

The exterior appearance of the church is certainly disappoint- 
ing, but within it is, beyond all question, one of the most beautiful 
creations of human art. On a large scale, arid in magnificent 
style, it combines the attractive features of a basilica, with all the 
glory of an edifice crowned by a dome. We have here a stately 
hall, 235 ft. N. and S., by 250 ft. E. and W., divided by two 
piers and eight columns on either hand into nave and aisles, 
with an apse at the eastern end and galleries on the three other 
sides. Over the central portion of the nave, a square area at 
the angles of which stand the four piers, and at a height of 1 79 ft. 
above the floor, spreads a dome, 107 ft. in diameter, and 46 
ft. deep, its base pierced by forty arched windows. From the 
cornice of the dome stretches eastwards and westwards a semi- 
dome, which in its turn rests upon three small semi-domes. 
The nave is thus covered completely by a domical canopy, 
which, in its ascent, swells larger and larger, mounts higher and 
higher, as though a miniature heaven rose overhead. For light- 
ness, for grace, for proportion, the effect is unrivalled. The walls 
of the building are reveted with marbles of various hues and 
patterns, arranged to form beautiful designs, and traces of the 
mosaics which joined the marbles in the rich and soft coloration 
of the whole interior surface of the building appear at many 
points. There are forty columns on the ground floor and sixty 
in the galleries, often crowned with beautiful capitals, in which 
the monograms of the emperor Justinian and the empress Theo- 
dora are inscribed. The eight porphyry columns, placed in pairs 
in the four bays at the corners of the nave, belonged originally 
to the temple of the sun at Baalbek. They were subsequently 
carried to Rome by Aurelian, and at length presented to Justinian 
by a lady named Marcia, to be erected in this church " for the 
salvation of her soul." The columns of verde antique on either 


side of the nave are commonly said to have come from the temple 
of Diana at Ephesus, but recent authorities regard them as 
specially cut for use in the church. The inner narthex of the 
church formed a magnificent vestibule 205 ft. long by 26 ft. 
wide, reveted with marble slabs and glowing with mosaics. 

The citizens of Constantinople found their principal recreation 
in the chariot-races held in the Hippodrome, now the At Meidan, 
to the west of the mosque of Sultan Ahmed. So much did the 
race-course (begun by Severus but completed by Constantine) 
enter into the life of the people that it has been styled " the axis 
of the Byzantine world." It was not only the scene of amuse- 
ment, but on account of its ample accommodation it was also 
the arena of much of the political life of the city. The factions, 
which usually contended there in sport, often gathered there 
in party strife. There emperors were acclaimed or insulted; 
there military triumphs were celebrated; there criminals were 
executed, and there martyrs were burned at the stake. Three 
monuments remain to mark the line of the Spina, around which 
the chariots whirled; an Egyptian obelisk of Thothmes III., 
on a pedestal covered with bas-reliefs representing Theodosius I., 
the empress Galla, and his sons Arcadius and Honorius, pre- 
siding at scenes in the Hippodrome; the triple serpent column, 
which stood originally at Delphi, to commemorate the victory of 
Plataea 479 B.C.; a lofty pile of masonry, built in the form of 
an obelisk, and once covered with plates of gilded bronze. Under 
the Turkish buildings along the western side of the arena, some 
arches against which seats for the spectators were built are still 

The city was supplied with water mainly from two sources; 
from the streams immediately to the west, and from the springs 
and rain impounded in reservoirs in the forest of Belgrade, to 
the north-west, very much on the system followed by the Turks. 
The water was conveyed by aqueducts, concealed below the 
surface, except when crossing a valley. Within the city the water 
was stored in covered cisterns, or in large open reservoirs. The 
aqueduct of Justinian, the Crooked aqueduct, in the open country, 
and the aqueduct of Valens that spans the valley between the 
4th and 3rd hills of the city, still carry on their beneficent work, 
and afford evidence of the attention given to the water-supply 
of the capital during the Byzantine period. The cistern of 
Arcadius, to the rear of the mosque of Sultan Selim (having, 
ithasbeen estimated, a capacity of 6,571,720 cubic ft. of water), 
the cistern of Aspar, a short distance to the east of the gate of 
Adrianople, and the cistern of Mokius, on the 7th hill, are speci- 
mens of the open reservoirs within the city walls. The cistern 
of Bin Bir Derek (cistern of Illus) with its 224 columns, each 
built up with three shafts, and the cistern Yeri Batan Serai 
(Cisterna Basilica) with its 420 columns show what covered 
cisterns were, on a grand scale. The latter is still in use. 1 

Byzantine Constantinople was a great commercial centre. 
To equip it more fully for that purpose, several artificial harbours 
were constructed along the southern shore of the city, where 
no natural haven existed to accommodate ships coming up the 
Sea of Marmora. For the convenience of the imperial court, 
there was a small harbour in the bend of the shore to the east 
of Chatladi Kapu, known as the harbour of the Bucoleon. To 
the west of that gate, on the site of Kadriga Limani (the Port 
of the Galley), was the harbour of Julian, or, as it was named 
later, the harbour of Sophia (the empress of Justin II.). Traces 
of the harbour styled the Kontoscalion are found at Kum Kapu. 
To the east of Yeni Kapu stood the harbour of Kaisarius or the 
Heptascalon, while to the west of that gate was the harbour 
which bore the names of Eleutherius and of Theodosiur I. A 
harbour named after the Golden gate stood on the shore to the 
south-west of the triumphal gate of the city. 

The Modern City. As the capital of the Ottoman empire, 
the aspect of the city changed in many ways. The works of 

' For full information on the subject of the ancient water-supply 
see Count A. F. Andreossy, Constantinople et le Bosphore ; Tchikat- 
chev, Le Bosphore et Constantinople (2nd ed., Paris, 1865) ; Forch- 
hcimer and Strzygowski, Die byzantinischen Wasserbehdlter; also 
article AQUEDUCT. 

art which adorned New Rome gradually disappeared. The 
streets, never very wide, became narrower, and the porticoes 
along their sides were almost everywhere removed. A multitude 
of churches were destroyed, and most of those which survived 
were converted into mosques. In race and garb and speech 
the population grew largely oriental. One striking alteration 
in the appearance of the city was the conversion of the territory 
extending from the head of the promontory to within a short 
distance of St Sophia into a great park, within which the buildings 
constituting the seraglio of the sultans, like those forming the 
palace of the Byzantine emperors, were ranged around three 
courts, distinguished by their respective gates Bab-i-Humayum, 
leading into the court of the Janissaries; Orta Kapu, the middle 
gate, giving access to the court in which the sultan held state 
receptions; and Bah-i-Saadet, the gate of Felicity, leading to 
the more private apartments of the palace. From the reign of 
Abd-ul-Mejid, the seraglio has been practically abandoned, first 
for the palace of Dolmabagch6 on the shore near Beshiktash, 
and now for Yildiz Kiosk, on the heights above that suburb. It 
is, however, visited annually by the sultan, to do homage to the 
relics of the prophet which are kept there. The older apartments 
of the palace, such as the throne-room, the Bagdad Kiosk, and 
many of the objects in the imperial treasury are of extreme 
interest to all lovers of oriental art. To visit the seraglio, an 
imperial irade is necessary. Another great change in the general 
aspect of the city has been produced by the erection of stately 
mosques in the most commanding situations, where dome and 
minarets and huge rectangular buildings present a combination 
of mass and slenderness, of rounded lines and soaring pinnacles, 
which gives to Constantinople an air of unique dignity and grace, 
and at the same time invests it with the glamour of the oriental 
world. The most remarkable mosques are the following: The 
mosque of Sultan Mahommed the Conqueror, built on the site 
of the church of the Holy Apostles, in 1459, but rebuilt in 1768 
owing to injuries due to an earthquake; the mosques of Sultan 
Selim, of the Shah Zadeh, of Sultan Suleiman and of Rustem 
Pasha all works of the i6th century, the best period of Turkish 
architecture; the mosque of Sultan Bayezid II. (1497-1505); 
the mosque of Sultan Ahmed I. (1610); Yeni-Valide-Jamissi 
(1615-1665); Nuri-Osmanieh (1748-1755); Laleli-Jamissi 
(1765). The Turbehs containing the tombs of the sultans and 
members of their families are often beautiful specimens of 
Turkish art. 

In their architecture, the mosques present a striking instance 
of the influence of the Byzantine style, especially as it appears 
in St Sophia. The architects of the mosques have made a 
skilful use of the semi-dome in the support of the main dome 
of the building, and in the consequent extension of the arched 
canopy that spreads over the worshipper. In some cases the 
main dome rests upon four semi-domes. At the same time, 
when viewed from the exterior, the main dome rises large, bold 
and commanding, with nothing of the squat appearance that 
mars the dome of St Sophia, with nothing of the petty prettiness 
of the little domes perched on the drums of the later Byzantine 
churches. The great mosques express the spirit of the days 
when the Ottoman empire was still mighty and ambitious. 
Occasionally, as in the case of Lalelijamissi, where the dome rests 
upon an octagon inscribed in a square, the influence of SS. 
Sergius and Bacchus is perceptible. 

For all intents and purposes, Constantinople is now the 
collection of towns and villages situated on both sides of the 
Golden Horn and along the shores of the Bosporus, including 
Scutari and Kadikeui. But the principal parts of this great 
agglomeration are Stamboul (from Gr. tk rf>v ic6\tv, " into 
the city "), the name specially applied to the portion of the city 
upon the promontory, Galata and Pera. Galata has a long 
history, which becomes of general interest after 1265, when it 
was assigned to the Genoese merchants in the city by Michael 
Palaeologus, in return for the friendly services of Genoa in the 
overthrow of the Latin empire of Constantinople. In the course 
of time, notwithstanding stipulations to the contrary, the town 
was strongly fortified and proved a troublesome neighbour 



During the siege of 1453 the inhabitants maintained on the whole 
a neutral attitude, but on the fall of the capital they surrendered 
to the Turkish conqueror, who granted them liberal terms. The 
walls have for the most part been removed. The noble tower, 
however, which formed the citadel of the colony, still remains, 
and is a striking feature in the scenery of Constantinople. There 
are also churches and houses dating from Genoese days. Galata 
is the chief business centre of the city, the seat of banks, post- 
offices, steamship offices, &c. Pera is the principal residential 
quarter of the European communities settled in Constantinople, 
where the foreign embassies congregate, and the fashionable 
shops and hotels are found. 

Since the middle of the ipth century the city has yielded more 
and more to western influences, and is fast losing its oriental 
character. The sultan's palaces, and the residences of all classes 
of the community, adopt with more or less success a European 
style of building. The streets have been widened and. named. 
They are in many instances better paved, and are lighted at 
night. The houses are numbered. Cabs and tramways have 
been introduced. Public gardens have been opened. For some 
distance outside the Galata bridge, both shores of the Golden 
Horn have been provided with a quay at which large steamers 
can moor to discharge or embark their passengers and cargo. 
The Galata quay, completed in 1889, is 756 metres long and 20 
metres wide; the Stamboul quay, completed in 1900, is 378 
metres in length. The harbour, quays and facilities for handling 
merchandise, which have been established at the head of the 
Anatolian railway, at Haidar Pasha, under German auspices, 
would be a credit to any city. Jt is true that most of these 
improvements are due to foreign enterprise and serve largely 
foreign interests; still they have also benefited the city, and 
added much to the convenience and comfort of local life. There 
has been likewise progress in other than material respects. 
The growth of the imperial museum of antiquities, under the 
direction of Hamdy Bey, within the grounds of the Seraglio, 
has been remarkable; and while the collection of the sarcophagi 
discovered at Sidon constitutes the chief treasure of the museum, 
the institution has become a rich storehouse of many other 
valuable relics of the past. The existence of a school of art, 
where painting and architecture are taught, is also a sign of new 
times. A school of handicrafts flourishes on the Sphendone 
of the Hippodrome. The fine medical school between Scutari 
and Haidar Pasha, the Hamidieh hospital for children, and the 
asylum for the poor, tell of the advance of science and humanity 
in the place. 

Considerable attention is now given to the subject of education 
throughout the empire, a result due in great measure to the 
influence of the American and French schools and colleges 
established in the provinces and at the capital. More than 
thirty foreign educational institutions flourish in Constantinople 
itself, and they are largely attended by the youth belonging to 
the native communities of the country. The Greek population 
is provided with excellent schools and gymnasia, and the 
Armenians also maintain schools of a high grade. The Turkish 
government itself became, moreover, impressed with the import- 
ance of education, and as a consequence the whole system of 
public instruction for the Moslem portion of the population was, 
during the reign of Sultan Abd-ul-Hamid II., more widely 
extended and improved. Beside the schools of the old type 
attached to the mosques, schools of a better class were estab- 
lished under the direct control of the minister of education, 
which, although open to improvement, certainly aimed at a 
higher standard than that reached in former days. The progress 
of education became noticeable even among Moslem girls. The 
social and political influence of this intellectual improvement 
among the various communities of the empire soon made itself 
felt, and had much to do with the startling success of the con- 
stitutional revolution carried out, under the direction of the 
Committee of Union and Progress, in the autumn of 1908. 

Climate. The climate of the city is healthy, but relaxing. 
It is damp and liable to sudden and great changes of temperature. 
The winds from the north and those from the south are at 

constant feud, and blow cold or hot in the most capricious 
manner, often in the course of the same day. " There are two 
climates at Constantinople, that of the north and that of the 
south wind." The winters may be severe, but when mild they 
are wet and not invigorating. In summer the heat is tempered 
by the prevalence of a north-east wind that blows down the 
channel of the Bosporus. Observations at Constantinople and 
at Scutari give the following results, for a period of twenty years. 



Mean temperature . 
Maximum .... 
Number of rainy days . 

57 o 7 ; 

99 i' 

17 2' 

28-3 in. 


58 i' 
103 6' 
29-29 in. 

The sanitation of the city has been improved, although much 
remains to be done in that respect. No great epidemic has visited 
the city since the outbreak of cholera in 1866. Typhoid and 
pulmonary diseases are common. 

Population. The number of the population of the city is an 
uncertain figure, as no accurate statistics can be obtained. It 
is generally estimated between 800,000 and 1,000,000. The 
inhabitants present a remarkable conglomeration of different 
races, various nationalities, divers languages, distinctive 
costumes and conflicting faiths, giving, it is true, a singular 
interest to what may be termed the human scenery of the city, 
but rendering impossible any close social cohesion, or the de- 
velopment of a common civic life. Constantinople has well been 
described as " a city not of one nation but of many, and hardly 
more of one than of another." The following figures are given 
as an approximate estimate of the size of the communities 
which compose the population. 


Greek Latins 

Armenians . 

Roman Catholics (native] 

Protestants (native) 

Bulgarians . 


Foreigners . 










Water-Supply. Under the rule of the sultans, the water- 
supply of the city has been greatly extended. The reservoirs 
in the forest of Belgrade have been enlarged and increased in 
number, and new aqueducts have been added to those erected 
by the Byzantine emperors. The use of the old cisterns within 
the walls has been almost entirely abandoned, and the water is 
led to basins in vaulted chambers (Taxim), from which it is 
distributed by underground conduits to the fountains situated 
in the different quarters of the city. From these fountains the 
water is taken to a house by water-carriers, or, in the case of the 
humbler classes, by members of the household itself. 

For the supply of Pera, Galata and Beshiktash, Sultan 
Mahmud I. constructed, in 1732, four bends in the forest of 
Belgrade, N.N.W. and N.E. of the village of Bagchekeui, and 
the fine aqueduct which spans the head of the valley of Buyuk- 
dere. Since 1885, a French company, La Compagnie des Eaux, 
has rendered a great service by bringing water to Stamboul, 
Pera, and the villages on the European side of the Bosporus, 
from Lake Dercos, which lies close to the shore of the Black Sea 
some 29 m. distant from the city. The Dercos water is laid 
on in many houses. Since 1893 a German company has supplied 
Scutari and Kadikeui with water from the valley of the Sweet 
Waters of Asia. 

Trade. The trade of the city has been unfavourably affected 
by the political events which have converted former provinces 
of the Turkish empire into autonomous states, by the develop- 
ment of business at other ports of the empire, owing to the 
opening up of the interior country through the construction of 
railroads, and by the difficulties which the government, with 
the view of preventing political agitation, has put in the way of 


easy intercourse by natives between the capital and the provinces. 
Most of the commerce of the city is in hands of foreigners and of 
Armenian and Greek merchants. Turks have little if anything 
to do with trade on a large scale. " The capital, " says a writer 
in the Konstanlinopler Handelsblalt of November 1904, " pro- 
duces very little for export, and its hinterland is small, extending 
on the European side only a few kilometres the outlet for the 
fertile Eastern Rumelia is Dedeagach and on the Asiatic side 
embracing the Sea of Marmora and the Anatolian railway 
district. Even part of this will be lost to Constantinople when 
the Anatolian railway is connected with the port of Mersina 
and with the Kassaba-Smyrna railway. Some 750 tons of the 
sweetmeat known as ' Turkish delight ' are annually exported 
to the United Kingdom, America and Rumelia; embroideries, 
&c., are sold in fair quantities to tourists. Otherwise the chief 
articles of Constantinople's export trade consist of refuse and 
waste materials, sheep's wool (called Kassab bashi) and skins 
from the slaughter-houses (in 1903 about 3,000,000 skins were 
exported, mostly to America), horns, hoofs, goat and horse hair, 
guts, bones, rags, bran, old iron, &c., and finally dogs' excre- 
ments, called in trade ' pure,' a Constantinople speciality, which 
is used in preparing leather for ladies' gloves. From the hinter- 
land comes mostly raw produce such as grain, drugs, wool, silk, 
ores and also carpets. The chief article is grain." 

The average value of the goods passing through the port of 
Constantinople at the opening of the 2bth century was estimated 
at about T 1 1 ,000,000. From the imperfect statistics available, 
the following tables of the class of goods imported and exported, 
and their respective values, were drawn up in 1901 by the late 
Mr Whittaker, The Times correspondent/ 

Manufactured goods (cotton, woollen 

silk, &c.) 

Haberdashery ironmongery 

T 3,500,000 

Total . T 7,000,000 

Cereals . 
Mohair . 
Carpets . 
Silk and cocoons . 
Gum tragacanth . 

Various . 


T i, 000,000 

Total . T 4,100,000 

About 40% of the import trade of Constantinople is British. 
According to the trade report of the British consulate, the share 
of the United Kingdom in the value of 7,142,000 on the total 
imports to Constantinople during the year 1900-1901 was 
1,811,000; while the share of the United Kingdom in the 
value of 2,669,000 on the total exports during the same year 
was ^998,000. But it is worthy of note that while British 
commerce still led the way in Turkey, the trade of some other 
countries with Turkey, especially that of Germany, was increas- 
ing more rapidly. Comparing the average of the period 1896- 
1900 with the total for 1904, British trade showed an increase 
f 33%, Austro- Hungarian of nearly 60%, Germany of 130%, 
Italian of 98%, French of 8%, and Belgian of nearly 33%. 
The shipping visiting the port of Constantinople during the year 
1903, excluding sailing and small coasting vessels, was 9796, 
representing a total of 14,785,080 tons. The percentage of 
steamers under the British flag was 37-1; of tonnage, 45-9. 

Administration. For the preservation of order and security, 
the city is divided into four divisions (Belad-i-Sclassi), viz. 
1 A Turkish lira = 18 shillings (English). 

Stamboul, Pera-Galata, Beshiktash and Scutari. The minister 
of police is at the head of the administration of the affairs of 
these divisions, and is ex-officio governor of Stamboul. The 
governors of the other divisions are subordinate to him, but are 
appointed by the sultan. Each governor has a special staff of 
police and gendarmery and his own police-court. In each division 
is a military commander, having a part of the garrison of the 
city under his orders, but subordinate to the commander-in-chief 
of the troops guarding the capital. 

The municipal government of the four divisions of the city 
is in the hands of a prefect, appointed by the sultan, and sub- 
ordinate to the minister of the interior. He is officially styled 
the prefect of Stamboul, and is assisted by a council of twenty-four 
members, appointed by the sultan or the minister of the interior. 
All matters concerning the streets, the markets, the bazaars, 
the street-porters (hamals), public weighers, baths and hospitals 
come under his jurisdiction. He is charged also with the collec- 
tion of the city dues, and the taxes on property. The city is 
furthermore divided into ten municipal circles as follows. In 
Stamboul: (i) Sultan Bayezid, (2) Sultan Mehemet, (3) Djerah 
Pasha (Psamatia); on the European side of the Bosporus and 
the northern side of the Golden Horn: (4) Beshiktash, (5) 
Yenikeui, (6) Pera, (7) Buyukdere; on the Asiatic side of the Bos- 
porus: (8) Anadol Hissar, (9) Scutari, (10) Kadikeui. Each 
circle is subdivided into several wards (mahalleh). " The out- 
lying parts of the city are divided into six districts (Cazas), 
namely, Princes' Islands, Guebzeh, Beicos, Kartal, Kuchuk- 
Chekmedje' and Shil6, each having its governor (kaimakani), 
who is usually chosen by the palace. These districts are depend- 
encies of the ministry of the interior, and their municipal affairs 
are directed by agents of the prefecture." 

In virtue of old treaties, known as the Capitulations (q.v.), 
foreigners enjoy to a large extent the rights of exterritoriality. 
In disputes with one another, they are judged before their own 
courts of justice. In litigation between a foreigner and a native, 
the case is taken to a native court, but a representative of the 
foreigner's consulate attends the proceedings. Foreigners have 
a right to establish their own schools and hospitals, to hold their 
special religious services, and even to maintain their respective 
national post-offices. No Turkish policeman may enter the 
premises of a foreigner without the sanction of the consular 
authorities to whose jurisdiction the latter belongs. A certain 
measure of self-government is likewise granted to the native 
Christian communities under their ecclesiastical chiefs. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. On Constantinople generally, besides the regular 
guide-books and works already mentioned, see P. Gyllius, De topo- 
graphia Constantinopoleos, De Bosporo Thracio (1632) ; Du Cange, 
Constatttinopolis Christiana (1680); T. von Hammer, Constan- 
linopolis und der Bosporos (1822); Mordtmann, Esquisse topo- 
graphique de Constantinople (1892); E. A. Grosvenor, Constantinople 
(1895); van Millingcn, Byzantine Constantinople (1899); Paspates, 
Bvfai>Ti?aI MeXeTat (1877) ; Scarlatos Byzantios, 'H KuvtrravTlvov irAAis 
(1851) ; E. Pears, Fall of Constantinople (1885), The Destruction of the 
Greek Empire (1903); Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire; Salzenberg, Altchristliche Baudenkmale von Konslantinopel; 
Letnaby and Swainson, The Church of Sancta Sophia; Pulgher, 
Les Anciennes Eglises byzantines de Constantinople; Labarte, Le 
Palais imperial de Constantinople el ses abords. (A. van M.) 

CONSTANTINOPLE, COUNCILS OF. Of the numerous eccle- 
siastical councils held at Constantinople the most important are 
the following: 

i. The second ecumenical council, 381, which was in reality 
only a synod of bishops from Thrace, Asia and Syria, convened 
by Theodosius with a view to uniting the church upon the basis 
of the Orthodox faith. No Western bishop was present, nor any 
Roman legate; from Egypt came only a few bishops, and these 
tardily. The first president was Meletius of Antioch, whom 
Rome regarded as schismatic. Yet, despite its sectional char- 
acter, the council came in time to be regarded as ecumenical 
alike in the West and in the East. 

The council reaffirmed the Nicene faith and denounced all 
opposing doctrines. The so-called " Niceno-Constantinopolitan 
Creed," which has almost universally been ascribed to this 
council, is certainly not the Nicene creed nor even a recension 



of it, but most likely a Jerusalem baptismal formula revised by 
the interpolation of a few Nicene test-words. More recently 
its claim to be called " Constantinopolitan " has been challenged. 
It is not found in the earliest records of the acts of the council, 
nor was it referred to by the council of Ephesus (431), nor by 
the "Robber Synod" (449), although these both confirmed 
the Nicene faith. It also lacks the definiteness one would expect 
in a creed composed by an anti-Arian, anti-Pneumatomachian 
council. Harnack (Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, 3rd ed., 
s.v. " Konstantinopolit. Symbol.") conjectures that it was 
ascribed to the council of Constantinople just before the council 
of Chalcedon in order to prove the orthodoxy of the Fathers of 
the second ecumenical council. At all events, it became the 
creed of the universal church, and has been retained without 
change, save for the addition oifilioque. 

Of the seven reputed canons of the council only the first four 
are unquestionably genuine. The fifth and the sixth probably 
belong to a synod of 382, and the seventh is properly not a canon. 
The most important enactments of the council were the granting 
of metropolitan rights to the bishops of Alexandria, Antioch, 
Thrace, Pontus and Ephesus; and according to Constantinople 
the place of honour after Rome, against which Rome protested. 
Not until 150 years later, and then only under compulsion of the 
emperor Justinian, did Rome acknowledge the ecumenicity of 
the council, and that merely as regarded its doctrinal decrees. 

See Mansi iii. pp. 521-599; Hardouin i. pp. 807-826; Hefele, 
2nd ed., ii. pp. I sqq. (English translation, ii. pp. 340 sqq.); Hort, 
Two Dissertations (Cambridge, 1876); and the article CREEDS. 

2. The council of 553, the fifth ecumenical, grew out of the 
controversy of the " Three Chapters," an adequate account of 
which, up to the time of the council, may be found in the articles 
JUSTINIAN and VIGILIUS. The council convened, in response 
to the imperial summons, on the 4th of May 553. Of the 165 
bishops who subscribed the acts all but the five or six from 
Egypt were Oriental; the pope, Vigilius, refused to attend 
(he had made his escape from Constantinople, and from his 
retreat in Chalcedon sent forth a vain protest against the council). 
The synod was utterly subservient to the emperor. The " Three 
Chapters " were condemned, and their authors, long dead, 
anathematized, without, however, derogating from the authority 
of the council of Chalcedon, which had given them a clean bill 
of orthodoxy. Vigilius was excommunicated, and his name 
erased from the diptychs. The Orthodox faith was set forth in 
fourteen anathemas. Opinion is divided as to whether Origen 
was condemned. His name occurs in the eleventh anathema, 
but some consider it an interpolation; Hefele defends the 
genuineness of the text, but finds no evidence for a special 
session against Origen, as some have conjectured. 

The council was confirmed by the emperor, and was generally 
received in the East. Vigilius was soon coerced into submission, 
but the West repudiated his pusillanimous surrender, and rejected 
the council. A schism ensued which lasted half a century and 
was not fully healed until the synod of Aquileia, about 700. 
But the ecumenicity of the council was generally acknowledged 

by 680. 

See Mansi ix. pp. 24-106, 149-658, 712-730; Hardouin iii. pp. 1-328, 
331, 414, 524; Hefele, 2nd ed., ii. pp. 798-924 (English translation, 
iv. pp. 229-365). 

3. The sixth ecumenical council, 680-681, which was convened 
by the emperor Constantine Pogonatus to terminate the Mono- 
thelitic controversy (see MONOTHELITES). All the patriarchates 
were represented, Constantinople and Antioch by their bishops in 
person, the others by legates. The number of bishops present 
varied from 150 to 300. The council approved the first five 
ecumenical councils and reaffirmed the Nicene and " Niceno- 
Constantinopolitan " creeds. Monothelitism was unequivocally 
condemned; Christ was declared to have had " two natural 
wills and two natural operations, without division, conversion, 
separation or confusion." Prominent Monothelites, living or 
dead, were anathematized, in particular Sergius and his suc- 
cessors in the see of Constantinople, the former pope, Honorius, 
and Macarius, the patriarch of Antioch. An imperial decree 
confirmed the council, and commanded the acceptance of its 

doctrines under pain of 'severe punishment. The Monothelites 
took fright and fled to Syria, where they gradually formed the 
sect of the Maronites (q.v.). 

The anathematizing of Honorius as heterodox has occasioned 
no slight embarrassment to the supporters of the doctrine of 
papal infallibility. It is not within the scope of this article to 
pass judgment upon the various proposed solutions of the 
difficulty, e.g. that Honorius was not really a Monothelite; 
that in acknowledging one will he was not speaking ex cathedra', 
that, at the time of condemning him, the council was no longer 
ecumenical; &c. One thing is certain, however, he was anathe- 
matized; and the notion of interpolation in the acts of the council 
(Baronius) may be dismissed as groundless. 

See Mansi xi. pp. 190-922; Hardouin iii. pp. 1043-1644; Hefele, 
2nd ed. iii. pp. 121-313. 

4. The " Quinisext Synod " (692), so-called because it was 
regarded by the Greeks as supplementing the fifth and sixth 
ecumenical councils, was held in the dome of the Imperial 
Palace (" In Trullo," whence the synod is called also " Trullan "). 
Its work was purely legislative and its decisions were set forth 
in 102 canons. The sole authoritative standards of discipline 
were declared to be the " eighty-five apostolic canons," the 
canons of the first four ecumenical councils and of the synods 
of Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Antioch, Changra, Laodicea, Sardica 
and Carthage, and the canonical writings of some twelve Fathers, 
all canons, synods and Fathers, Eastern with one exception, 
viz. Cyprian and the synod of Carthage; the bishops of Rome 
and the occidental synods were utterly ignored. 

The canons of the second and fourth ecumenical councils 
respecting the rank of Constantinople were confirmed; the rank 
of a see was declared to follow the civil rank of its city; un- 
enthroned bishops were guaranteed against diminution of their 
rights; metropolitans were forbidden to alienate the property 
of vacant suffragan sees. 

The provisions respecting clerical marriage were avowedly 
more lenient than the Roman practice. Ordination was denied 
to any one who after baptism had contracted a second marriage, 
kept a concubine, or married a widow or a woman of ill-repute. 
Lectors and cantors might marry after ordination; presbyters, 
deacons and sub-deacons, if already married, should retain their 
wives; a bishop, however, while not dissolving his marriage, 
should keep his wife at a distance, making suitable provision for 
her. An illegally married cleric could not perform sacerdotal 
functions. Monks and nuns were to be carefully separated, and 
were not to leave their houses without permission. 

It was forbidden to celebrate baptism or the eucharist in 
private oratories; neither might laymen give the elements to 
themselves, nor approach the altar, nor teach. Offerings for the 
dead were authorized, and the mixed chalice made obligatory. 
Contrary to the occidental custom, fasting on Saturday was 
forbidden. The mutilation of the Scriptures and the desecration 
of sacred places were severely condemned; likewise the use of 
the lamb as the symbol for Christ (a favourite symbol in the 

The synod legislated also concerning marriage, bigamy, 
adultery, rape, abortion, seductive arts and obscenity. The 
theatre, the circus and gambling were unsparingly denounced, 
and soothsayers and jugglers, pagan festivals and customs, and 
pagan oaths were placed under the ban. 

The council was confirmed by the emperor and accepted in 
the East; but the pope protested against various canons, 
chiefly those respecting the rank of Constantinople, clerical 
marriage, the Saturday fast, and the use of the symbol of lamb; 
and refused, despite express imperial command and threat, to 
accept the " Pseudo-Sexta." So that while the synod adopted 
a body of legislation that has continued to be authoritative 
for the Eastern Church, it did so at the cost of aggravating the 
irritation of the West, and by so much hastening the inevitable 
rupture of the church. 

See Mansi xi. pp. 921-1024; Hardouin iii. pp. 1645-1716; Hefele, 
2nd ed., iii. pp. 328-348. 

5. The iconoclastic synods of 754 and 815, both of which 



promulgated harsh decrees against images and neither of which 
is recognized by the Latin Church, and the synod of 842, which 
repudiated the synod of 815, approved the second council of 
Nicaea, and restored the images, are all adequately treated in 
the article ICONOCLASTS. 

See Mansi xii. pp. 575 sqq., xiii. pp. 210 sqq., xiv. pp. Ill sqq., 
787 sqq.; Hardouin iv. pp. 330 sqq., 1045 sqq., 1457 sqq.; Hefele, 
and ed. iv. pp. I sqq., 104 sqq. 

6. The synods of 869 and 879, of which the former, regarded 
by the Latin Church as the eighth ecumenical council, condemned 
Photius as an usurper and restored Ignatius to the see of Constanti- 
nople; the latter, which the Greeks consider to have been the 
true eighth ecumenical council, held after the death of Ignatius 
and the reconciliation of Photius with the emperor, repudiated 
the synod of 869, restored Photius, and condemned all who would 
not recognize him. (For further details of these two synods see 

See Mansi xv. pp. 143-476 et passim, xvi. pp. 1-550, xvii. pp. 66- 
186, 365-530; Hardouin v. pp. 119-390, 749-1210, et passim, vi. 
pp. 19-87, 209-334 ; Hefele, 2nd ed., iv. pp. 228 sqq., 333 sqq., 435 sqq. ; 
Hergenrother, Photius (Regensburg, 1867-1869). (T. F. C.) 

CONSTANTINUS, pope from 708 to 715, was a Syrian by birth 
and was consecrated pope in March 708. He was eager to assert 
the supremacy of the papal see ; at the command of the emperor 
Justinian II. he visited Constantinople; and he died on the 9th 
of April 715. 

CHLORUS (the Pale), an epithet due to the Byzantine historians, 
Roman emperor and father of Constantine the Great, was born 
about A.D. 250. He was of Illyrian origin; a fictitious connexion 
with the family of Claudius Gothicus was attributed to him 
by Constantine. Having distinguished himself by his military 
ability and his able and gentle rule of Dalmatia, he was, on the 
ist of March 293, adopted and appointed Caesar by Maximian, 
whose step-daughter, Flavia Maximiana Theodora, he had 
married in 289 after renouncing his wife Helena (the mother of 
Constantine). In the distribution of the provinces Gaul and 
Britain were allotted to Constantius. In Britain Carausius and 
subsequently Allectus had declared themselves independent, 
and it was not till 296 that, by the defeat of Allectus, it was 
re-united with the empire. In 298 Constantius overthrew the 
Alamanni in the territory of the Lingones (Langres) and 
strengthened the Rhine frontier. During the persecution of the 
Christians in 303 he behaved with great humanity. He ob- 
tained the title of Augustus on the ist of May 305, and died 
the following year shortly before the 2$th of July at Eboracum 
(York) during an expedition against the Picts and Scots. 

See Aurelius Victor, De Caesaribus, 39; Eutropius ix. 14-23; 
Zosimus ii. 7. 

CONST ANTZA (Constanta), formerly known as Kustendji or 
Kustendje, a seaport on the Black Sea, and capital of the 
department of Constantza, Rumania; 140 m. E. by ,S. from 
Bucharest by rail. Pop. (1900) 12,725. When the Dobrudja was 
ceded to Rumania in 1878, Constantza was partly rebuilt. In its 
clean and broad streets there are many synagogues, mosques and 
churches, for half the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, Moslems, 
Armenians or Jews; the remainder being Orthodox Rumans 
and Greeks. In the vicinity there are mineral springs, and the 
sea-bathing also attracts many visitors in summer. The chief 
local industries are tanning and the manufacture of petroleum 
drums. The opening, in 1895, of the railway to Bucharest, 
which crosses the Danube by a bridge at Cerna Voda, brought 
Constantza a considerable transit trade in grain and petroleum, 
which are largely exported ; coal and coke head the list of imports, 
followed by machinery, iron goods, and cotton and woollen 
fabrics. The harbour, protected by breakwaters, with a light- 
house at the entrance, is well defended from the north winds, 
but those from the south, south-east, and south-west prove 
sometimes highly dangerous. In 1902 it afforded 10 alongside 
berths for shipping. It had a depth of 22 ft. in the old or inner 
basin, and of 26 ft. in the new or outer basin, beside the quays. 
The railway runs along the quays. A weekly service between 
Constantza and Constantinople is conducted by state-owned 

steamers, including the fast mail and passenger boats in connexion 
with the Ostend and Orient expresses. In 1902, 576 vessels 
entered at Constantza, with a net registered tonnage of 641,737. 
The Black Sea squadron of the Rumanian fleet is stationed here. 
Constantza is the Constantiana which was founded in honour 
of Constantia, sister of Constantine the Great (A.D. 274-337). 
It lies at the seaward end of the Great Wall of Trajan, and 
has evidently been surrounded by fortifications of its own. In 
spite of damage done by railway contractors (see Henry C. 
Barkley, Between the Danube and the Black Sea, 1876) there are 
considerable remains of ancient masonry walls, pillars, &c. 
A number of inscriptions found in the town and its vicinity 
show that close by was Tomi, where the Roman poet Ovid 
(43 B.C.-A.D. 17) spent his last eight years in exile. A statue 
of Ovid stands in the main square of Constantza. 

In regard to the Constantza inscriptions in general, see Allard, 
La Bulgarie orientate (Paris, 1866); Desjardins in Ann. dell' istit. 
di corr. arch. (1868); and a paper on Weickum's collection in 
Silzungsbericht of the Munich Academy (1875). 

CONSTELLATION (from the Lat. conslellalus, studded with 
stars; con, with, and Stella, a star), in astronomy, the name given 
to certain groupings of stars. The partition of the stellar expanse 
into areas characterized by specified stars can be traced back 
to a very remote antiquity. It is believed that the ultimate 
origin of the constellation figures and names is to be found in 
the corresponding systems in vogue among the primitive civiliza- 
tions of the Euphrates valley the Sumerians, Accadians and 
Babylonians; that these were carried westward into ancient 
Greece by the Phoenicians, and to the lands of Asia Minor by 
the Hittites, and that Hellenic culture in its turn introduced 
them into Arabia, Persia and India. From the earliest times 
the star-groups known as constellations, the smaller groups 
(parts of constellations) known as asterisms, and alsc individual 
stars, have received names connoting some meteorological 
phenomena, or symbolizing religious or mythological beliefs. 
At one time it was held that the constellation names and myths 
were of Greek origin; this view has now been disproved, and 
an examination of the Hellenic myths associated with the stars 
and star-groups in the light of the records revealed by the 
decipherment of Euphratean cuneiforms leads to the conclusion 
that in many, if not all, cases the Greek myth has a Euphratean 
parallel, and so renders it probable that the Greek constellation 
system and the cognate legends are primarily of Semitic or 
even pre-Semitic origin. 

The origin and development of the grouping of the stars into 
constellations is more a matter of archaeological than of astro- 
nomical interest. It demands a careful study of the myths and 
religious thought of primitive peoples; and the tracing of the 
names from one language to another belongs to comparative 

The Sumerians and Accadians, the non-Semitic inhabitants 
of the Euphrates valley prior to the Babylonians, described 
the stars collectively as a " heavenly flock "; the sun was the 
"old sheep"; the seven planets were the "old-sheep stars"; 
the whole of the stars had certain " shepherds, " and Sibzianna 
(which, according to Sayce and Bosanquet, is the modern 
Arcturus, the brightest star in the northern sky) was the " star 
of the shepherds of the heavenly herds.".'! The Accadians 
bequeathed their system to the Babylonians, and cuneiform 
tablets and cylinders, boundary stones, and Euphratean art 
generally, point to the existence of a well-defined system of 
star names in their early history. From a detailed study of such 
records, in their nature of rather speculative value, R. Brown, 
junr. (Primitive Constellations, 1899) has compiled a Euphratean 
planisphere, which he regards as the mother of all others. The 
tablets examined range in date from 3000-500 B.C., and hence 
the system must be anterior to the earlier date. Of great im- 
portance is the Creation Legend, a cuneiform compiled from 
older records during the reign of Assur-bani-pal, c. 650 B.C., 
in which there occurs a passage interpretable as pointing to 
the acceptance of 36 constellations: 12 northern, 12 zodiacal 
and 12 southern. These constellations were arranged in three 



concentric annuli, the northern ones in an inner annulus sub- 
divided into 60 degrees, the zodiacal ones into a medial annulus of 
1 20 degrees, and the southern ones into an outer annulus of 240 
degrees. Brown has suggested a correlation of the Euphratean 
names with those of the Greeks and moderns. His results may 
be exhibited in the following form: the central line gives the 
modern equivalents of the names in the Euphratean zodiac; the 
upper line the modern equivalents of the northern paranatellons ; 
and the lower line those of the southern paranatellons. The 
zodiacal constellations have an interest peculiarly their own; 
placed in or about the plane of the ecliptic, their rising and 
setting with the sun was observed with relation to weather 
changes and the more general subject of chronology, the twelve 
subdivisions of the year being correlated with the twelve divisions 
of the ecliptic (see ZODIAC). 

lation to weather changes. The earliest Greek work which 
purported to treat the constellations qua constellations, of which 
we have certain knowledge, is the Qcuvontva. of Eudoxus of Cnidus 
(c. 403-350 B.C.). The original is lost, but a versification by 
Aratus (c. 270 B.C.), a poet at the court of Antigonus Gonatas, 
king of Macedonia, and an '1777)0-15 or commentary by Hippar- 
chus, are extant. In the Qaivofitva of Aratus 44 constellations 
are enumerated, viz. 19 northern: Ursa major, Ursa minor, 
Bootes, Draco, Cepheus, Cassiopeia, Andromeda, Perseus, 
Triangulum, Pegasus, Delphinus, Auriga, Hercules, Lyra, 
Cygnus, Aquila, Sagitta, Corona and Serpentarius; 13 central 
or zodiacal: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, 
Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius, Pisces and the 
Pleiades; and 12 southern: Orion, Canis, Lepus, Argo, Cetus, 
Eridanus, Piscis australis, Ara, Centaurus, Hydra, Crater and 

Northern . . 




Ursa minor 

Ursa major 








Zodiacal . . 
















Canis major 











The Phoenicians a race dominated by the spirit of com- 
mercial enterprise appear to have studied the stars more 
especially with respect to their service to navigators; according 
to Homer " the stars were sent by Zeus as portents for mariners." 
But all their truly astronomical writings are lost, and only by a 
somewhat speculative piecing together of scattered evidences can 
an estimate of their knowledge be formed. The inter-relations 
of the Phoenicians with the early Hellenes were frequent and far- 
reaching, and in the Greek presentation of the legends concerning 
constellations a distinct Phoenician, and in turn Euphratean, 
element appears. One of the earliest examples of Greek literature 
extant, the Theogonia of Hesiod (c. 800 B.C.), appears to be a 
curious blending of Hellenic and Phoenician thought. Although 
not an astronomical work, several constellation subjects are 
introduced. In the same author's Works and 'Days, a treatise 
which is a sort of shepherd's calendar, there are distinct references 
to the Pleiades, Hyades, Orion, Sirius and Arcturus. It cannot 
be argued, however, that these were the only stars and con- 
stellations named in his time; the omission proves nothing. The 
same is true of the Homeric epics wherein the Pleiades, Hyades, 
Ursa major, Orion and Bootes are mentioned, and also of the 
stars and constellations mentioned in Job. Further support is 
given to the view that, in the main, the constellations were trans- 
mitted to the Greeks by the Phoenicians from Euphratean 
sources in the fact that Thales, the earliest Greek astronomer 
of any note, was of Phoenician descent. According to Calli- 
machus he taught the Greeks to steer by Ursa minor instead of 
Ursa major; and other astronomical observations are assigned 
to him. But his writings are lost, as is also the case with those of 
Phocus the Samian, and the history of astronomy by Eudemus, 
the pupil of Aristotle; hence the paucity of our knowledge of 
Thales' s astronomical learning. 

From the 6th century B.C. onwards, legends concerning the 
constellation subjects were frequently treated by the historians 
and poets. Aglaosthenes or Agaosthenes, an early writer, knew 
Ursa minor as Kworoupa, Cynosura, and recorded the transla- 
tion of Aquila; Epimenides the Cretan (c. 600 B.C.) recorded the 
translation of Capricornus and the star Capella; Pherecydes 
of Athens (c. 500-450 B.C.) recorded the legend of Orion, and 
stated the astronomical fact that when Orion sets Scorpio rises; 
Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.) and Hellanicus of Mytilene (c. 496-411 
B.C.) narrate the legend of the seven Pleiades the daughters of 
Atlas; and the latter states that the Hyades are named either 
from their orientation, which resembles u (upsilon), " or because 
at their rising or setting Zeus rains "; and Hecataeus of Miletus 
(c. 470 B.C.) treated the legend of the Hydra. 

In the sth century B.C. the Athenian astronomer Euctemon, 
according to Geminus of Rhodes, compiled a weather calendar 
in which Aquarius, Aquila, Canis major, Corona, Cygnus, 
Delphinus, Lyra, Orion, Pegasus, Sagitta and the asterisms 
Hyades and Pleiades are mentioned, always, however, in re- 

Corvus. In this enumeration Serpens is included in Serpentarius 
and Lupus in Centaurus; these two constellations were separated 
by Hipparchus and, later, by Ptolemy. On the other hand, 
Aratus kept the Pleiades distinct from Taurus, but Hipparchus 
reduced these stars to an asterism. Aratus was no astronomer, 
while Hipparchus was; and from the fact that the latter adopted, 
with but trifling exceptions, the constellation system portrayed 
by Aratus, it may be concluded that the system was already 
familiar in Greek thought. And three hundred years after 
Hipparchus, the Alexandrian astronomer Ptolemy adopted a 
very similar scheme in his uranometria, which appears in the 
seventh and eighth books of his Almagest, the catalogue being 
styled the "E/c0e<ris Kavovixij or " accepted version." 

The Almagest has a dual interest: first, being the work of one 
primarily a commentator, it presents a crystallized epitome of 
all earlier knowledge; and secondly, it has served as a basis of 
subsequent star-catalogues. 1 The Ptolemaic catalogue em- 
braces only those stars which were visible at Rhodes in the time 
of Hipparchus (c. 150 B.C.), the results being corrected for 
precession " by increasing the longitudes by 2 40', and leaving 
the latitudes undisturbed " (Francis Baily, Mem. R.A.S., 1843). 
The names and orientation of the constellations therein adopted 
are, with but few exceptions, identical with those used at the 
present day; and as it cannot be doubted that Ptolemy made 
only very few modifications in the system of Hipparchus, the 
names were adopted at least three centuries before the Almagest 
was compiled. The names in which Ptolemy differs from 
modern usage are: Hercules (iv yovaaiv) , Cygnus ("Opw), 
Eridanus (IIoTCijuos), Lupus (Qypiov), Pegasus ("ITTTTOS), Equuleus 
("Iinrou irporofir] ), Canis minor- (HpoKvuv), and Libra (Xi/Xol, 
although fvyos is used for the same constellation in other parts 
of the Almagest). The following table gives the names of the 
constellations as they occur in (i) modern catalogues; (2) 
Ptolemy (A.D. 150); (3) Ulugh Beg (143?); (4) Tycho Brahe 
(1628); the last column gives the English equivalent 01 the 
modern name. 

The reverence and authority which was accorded the famous 
compilation of the Alexandrian astronomer is well evidenced by 
the catalogue of the Tatar Ulugh Beg, the Arabian names there 
adopted being equivalent to the Ptolemaic names in nearly 
every case; this is also shown in the Latin translations given 
below. Tycho Brahe, when compiling his catalogue of stars, 
was unable to observe Lupus, Ara, Corona australis and Piscis 
australis, on account of the latitude of Uranienburg; and hence 
these constellations are omitted from his catalogue. He diverged 
from Ptolemy when he placed the asterisms Coma Berenices and 
Antinous upon the level of formal constellations, Ptolemy having 

1 The historical development of star-catalogues in general, re- 
garded as statistics of the co-ordinates, &c., 6f stars, is given in the 
historical section of the article 'ASTRONOMY. See also E. B. Knobel, 
" Chronology of Star Catalogues." Mem. R.A.S.(i&77). 











Ulugh Beg. 

Tycho Brahe. 


Ursa minor 


Stellae Ursi minoris 

Ursa minor, Cynosura 

Little Bear 

Ursa major 

"\PKTOV jue-ya\7)s ,, 

Ursi majoris 

Ursa major, Helice 

Great Bear 


Apd/coiTos ,, 













Bootes, Arctophylax 



Corona borealis 

STtdxXfOU popCtOU , 

Coronae or Phecca 

Corona borea 

Northern Crown 


ToO &v "ybvQ.ffLV , 

Incumbentis genubus 

Engonasi, Hercules 

Man kneeling 




Aupas , 

ToDShelyak or Testudo 

Lyra, Vultur cadens 




"OpwSos , 


Olor, Cygnus 

Bird, Swan 



KaacrttTretas , 






IlcpO^aJS , t 

Bershaush or Portans 




Caput Larvae 



'Hd6xOV ,, 

Tenentis habenas 

Auriga, Heniochus, Erichthonius 




'Q&LOVTtOV ,, 


Ophiuchus, Serpentarius 




"Opew7 6<io&x ou n 

'OlfFTOV ,r 


Serpens ophiuchi 
Sagitta or Telum 




'A.CTOV , 


Aquila or Vultur volans 




Ae\0i)s , 





"Iirirou xporo/i^s , 

Sectionis equi 

Equuleus, Equi sectio 




Equi majoris 

Pegasus, Equus alatus 

Pegasus, Horse 


'Avdpo/jitSas , 

Mulieris catenatae 




Tpiyuvov , 


Triangulus, Deltoton 




KptoD ,, 





Taupou ,, 













KapKi)u ,, 






Atovros ,, 






Virginis, Sumbela 



S " 







2iopirou , , 






To|6rou ,, 

Sagittarii, Arcum 





Ai76(cepwTos ,, 





'TSpoxoou ,, 

Effusoris aquae, Situla 










K^TOUS ,, 








'12ptO^O7 ,, 





UorajuoD ,, 


Eridanus fluvius 




Aa7<j)oD ,, 




Canis major 

Kvvdt ,, 

Canis majoris 

Canis major 

Great Dog 


Canis minor 

UpoKvvk ,, 

Canis minoris 

Canis minor, Procyon 

Little Dog 



'Ap7oOs ,, 


Argo navis 










Kpar^po? ,, 






KopaKos ,, 






Ktvrabpov , 


Centaurus, Chiron 



Qtjpiov , 


Wild beast 



Qvfuariiplov , 


Censer, Altar 


Corona australis 


Coronae australis 

Southern Crown 

Piscis australis 

'Ix^os vorLov , 

Piscis australis 


regarded these asterisms as unformed stars (d^6p<#>coroi). The 
next innovator of moment was Johann Bayer, a German astro- 
nomer, who published a Uranometria in 1603, in which twelve 
constellations, all in the southern hemisphere, were added to 
Ptolemy's forty-eight, viz. Apis (or Musca) (Bee), Avis Indica 
(Bird of Paradise), Chameleon, Dorado (Sword-fish), Grus 
(Crane), Hydrus (Water-snake), Indus (Indian), Pavo (Peacock), 
Phoenix, Piscis volans (Flying fish), Toucan, Triangulum 
australe. According to W. Lynn (Observatory, 1886, p. 255), 
Bayer adapted this part of his catalogue from the observations 
of the Dutch navigator Petrus Theodori (or Pieter Dirchsz 
Keyser), who died, in 1596 off Java. The Coelum stellatum 
Christianum of Julius Schiller (1627) is noteworthy for the 
attempt made to replace the names connoting mythological and 
pagan ideas by the names of apostles, saints, popes, bishops, and 
other dignitaries of the church, &c. Aries became St Peter; 
Taurus, St Andrew; Andromeda, the Holy Sepulchre; Lyra, 
the Manger; Canis major, David; and so on. This innovation 
(with which the introduction of the twelve apostles into the solar 
zodiac by the Venerable Bede may be compared) was short- 
lived. According to Charles Hutton [Math. Diet. i. 328(1795)] 
the editions published in 1654 and 1661 had reverted to the 
Greek names; on the other hand, Camille Flammarion (Popular 
Astronomy, p. 375) quotes an illuminated folio of 1661, which 
represents " the sky delivered from pagans and peopled with 
Christians." A similar confusion was attempted by E. Weigelius, 
who sought to introduce a Coelum heraldicum, in which the 

constellations were figured as the arms or insignia of European 
dynasties, and by symbols of commerce. 

In Edmund Halley's southern catalogue (Catalogus stellarum 
australium), published in 1679 and incorporated in Flamsteed's 
Hisloria coeleslis (1725), the following constellations are 
named: Piscis australis, Columba Noachi, Argo navis, Robur 
Caroli, Ara, Corona australis, Grus, Phoenix, Pavo, Apus or Avis 
Indica, Musca apis, Chameleon, Triangulum australe, Piscis 
volans, Dorado or Xiphias, Toucan or Anser Americanus, and 
Hydrus. Flamsteed's maps also contained Mons Menelai. 
This list contains nothing new except Robur Caroli, since 
Columba Noachi (Noah's dove) had been raised to the skies by 
Bartschius in 1624. The constellation Robur Caroli and also 
the star Cor Caroli (a Canum Venaticorum) were named by 
Halley in honour of Charles II. of England. 

In 1690 two posthumous works of Johann Hevelius (1611- 
1687), the Firmamentum sobiescianum and Prodromus astrono- 
miae, added several new constellations to the list, viz. Canes 
venatici (the Greyhounds), Lacerta (the Lizard), Leo minor 
(Little Lion), Lynx, Sextans Uraniae, Scutum or Clypeus 
Sobieskii (the shield of Sobieski), Vulpecula et Anser (Fox and 
Goose), Cerberus, Camelopardus (Giraffe), and Monoceros 
(Unicorn); the last two were originally due to Jacobus Bart- 
schius. In 1679 Augustine Royer introduced the most interesting 
of the constellations of the southern hemisphere, the Crux 
australis or Southern Cross. He also suggested Nubes major, 
Nubes minor, and Lilium, and re-named Canes venatici the river 


Jordan, and Vulpecula et Anser the river Tigris, but these 
innovations met with no approval. The Magellanic clouds, a 
collection of nebulae, stars and star-clusters in the neighbourhood 
of the south pole, were so named by Hevelius in honour of the 
navigator Ferdinand Magellan. 

Many other star-groupings have been proposed from time to 
time; in some cases a separate name has been given to a part 
of an authoritatively accepted constellation, e.g. Ensis Orionis, 
the sword of Orion, or an ancient constellation may be subdivided, 
e.g. Argo (ship) into Argo, Malus (mast), Vela (sails), Puppis 
(stern), Carina (keel); and whereas some of the rearrangements, 
which have been mostly confined to the southern hemisphere, 
have been accepted, many, reflecting nothing but idiosyncrasies of 
the proposers, have deservedly dropped into oblivion. Nicolas 
Louis de Lacaille, who made extended observations of the 
southern stars in 1751 and in the following years, and whose 
results were embodied in his posthumous Coelum australe 
slelliferum (1763), introduced the following new constellations: 
Apparatus sculp toris (Sculptor's workshop), Fomax chemica 
(Chemical furnace), Horologium (Clock), Reticulus rhomboidalis 
(Rhomboidal net), Caela sculptoris (Sculptor's chisels), Equuleus 
pictoris (Painter's easel), Pyxis nautica (Mariner's compass), 
Antlia pneumatica (Air pump), Octans (Octant), Circinus (Com- 
passes), Norma alias Quadra Euclidis (Square), Telescopium 
(Telescope), Microscopium (Microscope) and Mons Mensae 
(Table Mountain). Pierre Charles Lemonnier in 1776 intro- 
duced Tarandus (Reindeer), and Solitarius; J. J. L. de Lalande 
introduced Le Messier (after the astronomer Charles Messier) 
(1776), Quadrans muralis (Mural quadrant) (1795), Globus 
aerostaticus (Air balloon) (1798), and Felis (the Cat) (1799). 
Martin Poczobut introduced in 1777 Taurus Poniatovskii; 
Bode introduced the Honores Frederici (Honours of Frederick) 
(1786), Telescopium Herschelii (Telescope of Herschel) (1787), 
Machina electrica (Electrical machine) (1790), Officina typo- 
graphica (Printing press) (1799), and Lochium funis (Log line); 
and M. Hell formed the Psalterium Georgianum (George's lute). 

The following list gives the names of the constellations now 
usually employed: they are divided into three groups: north 
of the zodiac, in the zodiac, south of the zodiac. Those marked 
with an asterisk have separate articles. 

Northern (28). 

* Auriga 
"Canes venatici 




Antlia (pneumatica) 



Caela sculptoris 

*Canis major 

Canis minor 




Columba Noachi 

*Coma Berenices 
"Corona borealis 






Corona australis 




"Leo minor 

( Ophiuchus 
? "Serpentarius 

Zodiacal (12). 

Southern (49). 

Mons Mensae 

varies with individual cases, according to the cause at work, 
laxatives, dieting, massage, &c., being prescribed. 

CONSTITUENCY (from " constituent," that which forms a 
necessary part of a thing; Lat. constituere, to create), a political 
term for the body of electors who choose a representative for 
parliament or for any other public assembly, for the place or 
district possessing the right to elect a representative, and for 
the residents generally, apart from their voting powers, in such 
a locality. The term is also applied, in a transferred sense, to 
the readers of a particular newspaper, the customers of a business 
and the like. 

constitution (conslilulio) in the time of the Roman empire 
signified a collection of laws or ordinances made by the emperor. 
We find the word used in the same sense in the early history of 
English law, e.g. the Constitutions of Clarendon. In its modern 
use constitution has been restricted to those rules which concern 
the political structure of society. If we take the accepted 
definition of a law as a command imposed by a sovereign on the 
subject, the constitution would consist of the rules which point 
out where the sovereign is to be found, the form in which his 
powers are exercised, and the relations of the different members 
of the sovereign body to each other where it consists of more 
persons than one. In every independent political society, it 
is assumed by these definitions, there will be found somewhere 
or other a sovereign, whether that sovereign be a single person, 
or a body of persons, or several bodies of persons. The com- 
mands imposed by the sovereign person or body on the rest of 
the society are positive laws, properly so called. The sovereign 
body not only makes laws, but has two other leading functions, 
viz. those of judicature and administration. Legislation is 
for the most part performed directly by the sovereign body 
itself; judicature and administration, for the most part, by 
delegates. The constitution of a society, accordingly, would 
show how the sovereign body is composed, and what are the 
relations of its members inter se, and how the sovereign functions 
of legislation, judicature and administration are exercised. 
Constitutional law consists of the rules relating to these subjects, 
and these rules may either be laws properly so called, or they 
may not i.e. they may or may not be commands imposed by 

the sovereign body itself. The 



"Ursa major 
"Ursa minor 
"Vulpecula et Anser 



Fornax chemica 






Musca australis 

CONSTIPATION (from Lat. constipare, to press closely to- 
gether, whence also the adjective " costive "), the condition of 
body when the faeces are unduly retained, or there is difficulty in 
evacuation, tightness of the bowels (see DIGESTIVE ORGANS; and 
THERAPEUTICS). It may be due to constitutional peculiarities, 
sedentary or irregular habits, improper diet, &c. The treatment 

English constitutional rule, for 
example, that the king and 
parliament are the sovereign, 
cannot be called a law; for a 
lawpresupposesthe fact which it 
asserts. And other rules, which 
are constantly observed in prac- 
tice, but have never beenenacted 
by the sovereign power, are in 
the same way constitutional laws 
which are not laws. It is an 
undoubted rule of the English 
constitution that the king shall 
not refuse his assent to a bill 
which has passed both Houses 
of Parliament.but it is certainly 
not a law. Should the king veto 
such a bill his action would be 
unconstitutional,but not illegal. 
On the other hand the rules re- 
lating to the election of members 
to the House of Commons are 
nearly all positive laws strictly 
so called. Constitutional law, 
as the phrase is commonly used, 

would include all the laws dealing with the sovereign body in the 
exercise of its various functions, and all the rules, not being 
laws properly so called, relating to the same subject. 

The above is an attempt to indicate trie meaning of the 
phrases in their stricter or more technical uses. Some wider 
meanings may be noticed. In the phrase constitutional 


Pictpr (Equuleus pictoris) 

Piscis australis 



Sculptor (Apparatus sculptoris) 

Scutum Sobieskii 




Triangulum australe 


Volans (Piscis volans) 

(C. E.*) 


government, a form of government based on certain principles 
which may roughly be called popular is the leading idea. Great 
Britain, Switzerland, the United States, are all constitutional 
governments in this sense of the word. A country where a large 
portion of the people has some considerable share in the supreme 
power would be a constitutional country. On the other hand, 
constitutional, as applied to governments, may mean stable as 
opposed to unstable and anarchic societies. Again, as a term 
of party politics, constitutional has come to mean, in England, 
not obedience to constitutional rules as above described, but 
adherence to the existing type of the constitution or to some 
conspicuous portions thereof, in other words, conservative. 

The ideas associated with constitution and constitutionalism 
are thus, it will be seen, mainly of modern and European origin. 
They are wholly inapplicable to the primitive and simple societies 
of the present or of the former times. The discussion of forms 
of government occupies a large space in the writings of the Greek 
philosophers, a fact which is to be explained by the existence 
among the Greeks of many independent political communities, 
variously organized, and more or less democratic in character. 
Between the political problems of the smaller societies and those 
of the great European nations there is no useful parallel to be 
drawn, although the predominance of classical learning made 
it the fashion for a long time to apply Greek speculations on the 
nature of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy to public 
questions in modern Europe. Representation (q.v.), the char- 
acteristic principle of European constitutions, has, of course, 
no place in societies which were not too large to admit of every 
free citizen participating personally in the business of govern- 
ment. Nor is there much in the politics or the political literature 
of the Romans to compare with the constitutions of modern 
states. Their political system, almost from the beginning of 
empire, was ruled absolutely by a small assembly or by one man. 

The impetus to constitutional government in modern times 
has to a large extent come from England, and it is from English 
politics that the phrase and its associations have been borrowed. 
England has offered to the world the one conspicuous example 
of a long, continuous, and orderly development of political 
institutions. The early date at which the principle of self- 
government was established in England, the steady growth of 
the principle, the absence of civil dissension, and the preservation 
in the midst of change of so much of the old organization, have 
given its constitution a great influence over the ideas of politicians 
in other countries. This fact is expressed in the proverbial 
phrase " England is the mother of parliaments." It would 
not be difficult to show that the leading features of the constitu- 
tions now established in other nations have been based on, 
or defended by, considerations arising from the political history 
of England. 

In one important respect England differs conspicuously 
from most other countries. Her constitution is to a large extent 
unwritten, using the word in much the same sense as when we 
speak of unwritten law. Its rules can be found in no written 
document, but depend, as so much of English law does, on 
precedent modified by a constant process of interpretation. 
Many rules of the constitution have in fact a purely legal history, 
that is to say, they have been developed by the law courts, 
as part of the general body of the common law. Others have in a 
similar way been developed by the practice of parliament. Both 
Houses, in fact, have exhibited the same spirit of adherence to 
precedent, coupled with a power of modifying precedent to 
suit circumstances, which distinguishes the judicial tribunals. 
In a constitutional crisis the House of Commons appoints a 
committee to " search its journals for precedents," just as the 
court of king's bench would examine the records of its own 
decisions. And just as the law, while professing to remain the 
same, is in process of constant change, so, too, the unwritten 
constitution is, without any acknowledgment of the fact, con- 
stantly taking up new ground. 

In contrast with the mobility of an unwritten constitution 
is the fixity of a constitution written out, like that of the United 
States or Switzerland, in one authoritative code. The constitu- 

tion of the United States, drawn up at Philadelphia in 1787, 
is contained in a code of articles. It was ratified separately 
by each state, and thenceforward became the positive and 
exclusive statement of the constitution. The legislative powers 
of the legislature are not to extend to certain kinds of bills, e.g. 
ex post facto bills; the president has a veto which can only be 
overcome by a majority of two-thirds in both Houses; the con- 
stitution itself can only be changed in any particular by the con- 
sent of the legislatures or conventions of three-fourths of the 
several states; and finally the judges of the Supreme Court are 
to decide in all disputed cases whether an act of the legislature 
is permitted by the constitution or not. 

The constitution of the United States is the supreme law of 
the land as to the matters which it embraces. The constitution 
of each state is the supreme law of the state, except so far as it 
may be controlled by the constitution of the United States. 
Every statute in conflict with the constitution to which it is 
subordinate is void so far as this conflict extends. If it concerns 
only a distinct and separable part of the statute, that part only 
is void. Every court before which a statutory right or defence 
is asserted has the power to inquire whether the statute in 
question is or is not in conflict with the paramount constitution. 
This power belongs even to a justice of the peace in trying a 
cause. He sits to administer the law, and it is for him to deter- 
mine what is the law. Inferior courts commonly decline to hold 
a statute unconstitutional, even if there may appear to be 
substantial grounds for such a decision. The presumption is 
always in favour of the validity of the law, and they generally 
prefer to leave the responsibility of declaring it void to the higher 

The judges of the state courts are bound by their oath of office 
to support the constitution of the United States. They have an 
equal right with those of the United States to determine whether 
or how far it affects any matter brought in question in any 
action. So, vice versa, the judges of the United States courts, 
if the point comes up on a trial before them, have the right to 
determine whether or how far the constitution of a state in- 
validates a statute of the state. They, however, are ordinarily 
bound to follow the views of the state courts on such a question. 
They are not bound by any decision of a state court as to the 
effect of the constitution of the United States on a state statute 
or any other matter. This judicial power of declaring a statute 
void because unconstitutional has been not infrequently exercised, 
from the time when the first state constitutions were adopted. 

Juries in criminal causes are sometimes made by American 
statutes or recognized by American practice as judges of the law 
as well as the fact. The better opinion is that this does not 
make them judges of whether a law on which the prosecution 
rests violates the paramount constitution and is therefore void 
(United States v. Callender, Wharton's State Trials, 688; State v. 
Main, 69 Connecticut Reports, 123, 128). 

If a state court decides a point of constitutional law, set up 
under the constitution of the United States, against the party 
relying upon it, and this decision is affirmed by the state court 
of last resort, he may sue out a writ of error, and so bring his 
case before the Supreme Court of the United States. If the 
state decision be in his favour, the other side cannot resort to 
like proceedings. 

A decree of the Supreme Court of the United States on a point 
of construction arising under the constitution of the United 
States settles it for all courts, state and national. 

The salient characteristic of the United States constitution is, 
perhaps, its formidable apparatus of provisions against change; 
and, in fact, only 1 5 constitutional amendments had been adopted 
from 1789 up to 1909, the last being in 1870. In the same period 
the unwritten constitution of England has made a most marked 
advance, chiefly in the direction of democratizing the monarchy, 
and diminishing the powers of the House of Lords. The House 
of Commons has continuously asserted its legislative predomin- 
ance, and has reduced the other House to the position of a 
revising chamber, which in the last resort, however, can produce 
a legislative deadlock, subject to the results of a new general 



election (see PARLIAMENT). And the cabinet, which depends on 
the support of the House of Commons, has become more and 
more the executive council of the realm. One conspicuous 
feature of the English constitution, by which it is broadly dis- 
tinguished from written or artificial constitutions, is the presence 
throughout its entire extent of legal fictions. The influence of 
the lawyers on the progress of the constitution has already been 
noticed, and is nowhere more clearly shown than in this peculiarity 
of its structure. As in the common law, so in the constitution, 
change has been effected in substance without any corresponding 
change in terminology. There is hardly one of the phrases used to 
describe the position of the crown which can be understood in its 
literal sense, and many of them are currently accepted in more 
senses than one. The American constitution of 1 789 reproduced, 
however, in essentials, and with necessary modifications, the 
contemporary British model, and, where it did so, has preserved 
the old conception of what was then the British system of 
government. The position and powers of the president were 
a fair counterpart of the royal prerogative of that day; the 
two houses of Congress corresponded sufficiently well to the 
House of Lords and the House of Commons, allowing for the 
absence of the elements of hereditary rank and territorial in- 
fluence. While the English constitution has changed much, the 
American constitution has changed very little in these respects. 
Allowing for the more democratic character of the constituencies, 
the organization of the supreme power in the United States is 
nearer the English type of the i8th century is, in fact, less 
elastic than in the United Kingdom. 

On the other hand, it is not uncommon to misinterpret the 
rigidity of the United States constitution, from a regard rather 
to the theory which its text suggests than to the practical 
working of the machine. For the letter of the constitution has 
to some extent been modified, if not technically amended, in 
various respects by judicial interpretation, and by use and wont 
(e.g. as regards the election of the president). This side of the 
matter may be studied in C. G. Tiedeman's work cited below. 
Moreover, even in respect of the 18th-century British character 
attaching to the constitution, as drawn up in 1787, it has to be 
remembered that this was not taken direct from England. As 
several American constitutional historians have elaborately 
shown (e.g. A. C. McLaughlin, in The Confederation and the 
Constitution, 1905), the English idea had already been developed 
in various directions during the preceding colonial period, and 
the constitution really represented the English constitutional 
usage as known in America, into which the Philadelphia con- 
vention introduced new features corresponding to the prevailing 
civil conditions or suggested by English analogy. It is important 
to emphasize this point, since the resemblance of the American 
constitution of 1789 to the contemporary English constitution 
has sometimes been exaggerated; but the fact remains that the 
written constitution has been less susceptible of development 
than the unwritten. 

Between England and some other constitutional countries a 
difference of much constitutional importance is to be found in 
the terms on which the component parts of the country were 
brought together. All great societies have been produced by 
the aggregation of small societies' into larger and larger groups. 
In England the process of consolidation was completed before 
the constitution settled down into its present form. In the 
United States, on the other hand, in Switzerland, and in Germany 
the constitution is in form an alliance among a number of 
separate states, each of which may have a constitution and 
laws of its own for local purposes. In federal governments it 
remains a question how far the independence of individual 
states has been sacrificed by submission to a constitution. In 
the United States constitutional progress is hampered by the 
necessity thus created of having every amendment ratified by 
the separate vote of three-fourths of the states. 

&c., and the section on Government or Constitution in the articles 
on the various countries. The standard work on the English con- 
stitution is Sir William Anson's Law and Custom of the Constitution 
(ist ed. 1886? 3rd ed. 1909); see also A. L. Lowell, The Government 

of England (1908); W. Bagehot, The English Constitution; S. Low, 
The Governance of England (1904); A. V. Dicey, The Law of the 
Constitution (7th ed. 1909) ; W. Stubbs, Constitutional History of 
England (1878); R. Gneist, History of the English Constitution 
(Engl. trans. 1886); J. Macy, The English Constitution (New York, 
1897); E. W. Ridges, Constitutional Law of England (1905); F. W. 
Maitland, Constitutional History of England (1908); G. B. Adams 
and H. M. Stephens, Select Documents of English Constitutional 
History (New York, 1901). For America, see C. E. Stevens, Sources 
of the Constitution of the United States (London and New York, 1894) ; 
G. T. Curtis, Constitutional History of the United States (2 vols., New 
York, 1 889-1 896) ; T. Mel . Cooley , General Principles of Constitutional 
Law in the United States (Boston, 1880; 3rd ed. 1898); S. G. 
Fisher, Evolution of the Constitution of the United States (Philadelphia, 
1897); J. I. C. Hare, American Constitutional Law (2 vols., Boston, 
1889) ; J. F. Jameson (ed.), Essays on the Constitutional History of the 
United States in the Formative Period, 1775-1789 (Boston, 1889); 
W. M. Meigs, Growth of the Constitution in the Federal Convention 
of 1787 (Philadelphia, 1900); and C. G. Tiedeman, Unwritten Con- 
stitution of the United Slates (New York, 1890). Also A. L. Lowell, 
Government and Parties in Continental Europe (2 vols., 1896); W. F. 
Dodd, Modern Constitutions (2 vols., Chicago, 1909), a collec- 
tion of the fundamental laws of twenty-two of the most important 

" CONSTITUTION OF ATHENS " ('Aftjwtwv TroXtreia), a work 
attributed to the philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), forming 
one of a series of Constitutions (TroXi-racu), 158 in number, which 
treated of the institutions of the various states in the Greek 
world. It was extant until the 7th century of our era, or to an 
even later date, but was subsequently lost. A copy of this 
treatise, written in four different hands upon four rolls of papyrus, 
and dating from the end of the ist century A.D., was discovered 
in Egypt, and acquired by the trustees of the British Museum, 
for whom it was edited by F. G. Kenyon, assistant in the manu- 
script department, and published in January 1891. Some very 
imperfect fragments of another copy 'had been acquired by the 
Egyptian Museum at Berlin, and were published in 1880. 

Authorship. It may be regarded as now established that the 
treatise discovered in Egypt is identical with the work upon the 
constitution of Athens that passed in antiquity under the name of 
Aristotle. The evidence derived from a comparison of the 
British Museum papyrus with the quotations from the lost work 
of Aristotle's which are found in scholiasts and grammarians is 
conclusive. Of fifty-eight quotations from Aristotle's work, fifty- 
five occur in the papyrus. Of thirty-three quotations from 
Aristotle, which relate to matters connected with the con- 
stitution, or the constitutional history of Athens, although 
they are not expressly referred to the '\Oijvaio3V iro\iTtia, 
twenty-three are found in the papyrus. Of those not found 
in the papyrus, the majority appear to have come either 
from the beginning of the treatise, which is wanting in the 
papyrus, or from the latter portion of it, which is mutilated. 
The coincidence, therefore, is as nearly as possible complete. 
It may also be regarded as established by internal evidence that 
the treatise was composed during the interval between Aristotle's 
return to Athens'in 335 B.C. and his death in 322. There are two 
passages which give us the latter year as the terminus ad quern, 
viz. c. 42. i and c. 62. 2. In the former passage the democracy 
which is about to be described is spoken of as the " present 
constitution " (17 vvv Karatrraai's TTJS iroXireias). The democratic 
constitution was abolished, and a timocracy established, on the 
surrender of Athens to Antipater, at the end of the Lamian War, 
in the autumn of 322. At the same time Samos was lost; it is 
still reckoned, however, among the Athenian possessions in the 
latter passage. On the other hand, the foreign possessions 
of Athens are limited to Lemnos, Imbros, Scyros, Delos and 
Samos. This could only apply to the period after Chaeronea 
(338 B.C.). In c. 61. i, again, mention is made of a special 
Strategus eirt ras o-vnnopias; but it can be proved from inscrip- 
tions that down to the year 334 the generals were collectively con- 
cerned with the symmories. Finally, in c. 54. 7 an event is dated 
by the archonship of Cephisophon (329). We thus get the 
years 329 and 322 as fixing the limits of the period to which the 
composition of the work must be assigned. It follows that, 
whether it is by Aristotle or not, its date is later than that of the 
Politics, in which there is no reference to any event subsequent 
to the death of Philip in 336. 


The only question as to authorship that can fairly be raised 
is the question whether it is by Aristotle or by a pupil; i.e. as to 
the sense in which it is " Aristotelian." The argument on the 
two sides may be summarized as follows: 

Against. (i.) The occurrence of non-Aristotelian words and 
phrases and the absence of turns of expression characteristic of 
the undisputed writings of Aristotle, (ii.) The occurrence of 
statements contradictory of views found in the Polities', e.g. 
c. 4 (Constitution of Draco) compared with Pol. 1274 b 15 
i'Tos v6pm \ikv dai, TroXireip 5' VTrapxovo-y TOUS 
WT\MV); c. 8. i (the archons appointed by lot out of 
selected candidates) compared with Pol. 1274 a 17, and 1281 
b3i (the archons elected by the demos); c. 17. i (total length of 
Peisistratus' reign, 19 years) compared with Pol. 1315 b 32 
(total length, 17 years); c. 21. 6 (Cleisthenes left the clan and 
phratries unaltered) compared with Pol. 1319 b 20 (Cleisthenes 
increased the number of the phratries); c. 21. 2 and 4 compared 
with Pol. 1275 b 37 (different views as to the class admitted 
to citizenship by Cleisthenes). It will be observed that the 
instances quoted relate to the most famous names in the early 
history of Athens, viz. Draco, Solon, Peisistratus and Cleisthenes. 
(iii.) Arguments drawn from the style, composition and general 
character of the work, which are alleged to be unworthy of the 
author of the undoubtedly genuine writings. There is no sense 
of proportion (contrast the space devoted to Peisistratus and his 
sons, or to the Four Hundred and the Thirty, with the inadequate 
treatment of the period between the Persian and Peloponnesian 
Wars); there is a lack of historical insight and an uncritical 
acceptance of erroneous views; and the anecdotic element is 
unduly prominent. These considerations led several of the earlier 
critics to deny the Aristotelian authorship, e.g. the editors of the 
Dutch edition of the text, van Herwerden and van Leeuwen; 
Riihl, Cauer and Schvarcz in Germany; H. Richards and others 
in England. 

For. (i.) The consensus of antiquity. Every ancient writer 
who mentions the Constitution attributes it to Aristotle, while no 
writer is known to have questioned its genuineness, (ii.) The 
coincidence of the date assigned to its composition on internal 
grounds with the date of Aristotle's second residence in Athens, 
(iii.) Parallelisms of thought or expression with passages in the 
Politics; e.g. c. 16. 2 and 3 compared with Pol. 1318 b 14 and 
1319 a 30; the general view of Solon's legislation compared with 
Pol. 1296 b i; c. 27. 3 compared with Pol. 1274 a 9. To 
argument (i.) against the authorship, it is replied that the 
Constitution is an historical work, intended for popular use; 
differences in style and terminology from those of a philosophical 
treatise, such as the Politics, are to be expected. To argument 
(ii.) it is replied that, as the Constitution is a later work than the 
Politics, a change of view upon particular points is not surprising. 
These considerations have led the great majority of writers upon 
the subject to attribute the work to Aristotle himself. On this 
side are found Kenyon and Sandys among English scholars, and 
in Germany, Wilamowitz, Blass, Gilbert, Bauer, Bruno Keil, 
Busolt, E. Meyer, and many others. On the whole, it can hardly 
be doubted that the view which is supported by so great a weight 
of authority is the correct one. The arguments advanced on the 
other side are not to be lightly set aside, but they can scarcely 
outweigh the combination of external and internal evidence in 
favour of the attribution to Aristotle. An attentive study of the 
parallel passages in the Politics will go a long way towards 
carrying conviction. It is true that a series such as the Constitu- 
tions might well be entrusted to pupils working under the direc- 
tion of their master. It is also true, however, that the 
Constitution of Athens must have been incomparably the most 
important of the series and the one that would be most naturally 
reserved for the master's hand. There are no traces in the 
treatise either of variety of authorship or of incompleteness, 
though there are evidences of interpolation. 

Contents. The treatise consists of two parts, one historical, 
and the other descriptive. The first forty -one chapters compose 
the former part, the remainder of the work the latter. The first 
part comprised an account of the original constitution of Athens, 

and of the eleven changes through which it successively passed 
(see c. 41). The papyrus, however, is imperfect at the beginning 
(the manuscript from which it was copied appears to have been 
similarly defective), the text commencing in the middle of a 
sentence which relates to the trial and banishment of the 
Alcmeonidae for their part in the affair of Cylon. The missing 
chapters must have contained a sketch of the original constitu- 
tion, and of the changes introduced in the time of Ion and 

The following is an abstract of Part I. in its present form. 
Chapters 2, 3, description of the constitution before the time of Draco. 
4, Draco's constitution. 5-12, reforms of Solon. 13, party feuds 
after the legislation of Solon. 14-19, the rule of Peisistratus and his 
sons. 20, 21, the reforms of Cleisthenes. 22, changes introduced 
between Cleisthenes and the invasion of Xerxes. 23, 24, the supre- 
macy of the Areopagus, 479^-461 B.C. 25, its overthrow by Ephialtes. 
26, 27, changes introduced in the time of Pericles. 28, the rise of the 
demagogues. 29-33, the revolution of the Four Hundred. 34-40, 
the government of the Thirty. 41, list of the successive changes in 
the constitution. It may be noted that the reforms of Solon, the 
tyranny of Peisistratus and his sons, and the revolutions of the Four 
Hundred and the Thirty, together occupy considerably more than 
two-thirds of Part I. 

Part II. describes the constitution as it existed at the period of 
the composition of the treatise (329-322 B.C.). It begins with an 
account of the conditions of citizenship and of the training of the 
ephebi (citizens between the ages of 18 and 20). In chapters 43-^9 
the functions of the Council (fiovMi) and of the officials who act in 
concert with it are described. 5"6 deal with the officials who are 
appointed by lot, of whom the most important are the nine Archons, 
to whose functions five chapters (55-59) are devoted. The military 
officers, who come under the head of elective officials, form the 
subject of c. 61. With c. 63 begins the section on the Law-courts, 
which occupied the remainder of the Constitution. This portion, 
with the exception of c. 63, is fragmentary in character, owing to the 
mutilated condition of the fourth roll of the papyrus on which it was 
written. It will thus be seen that the subjects which receive fullest 
treatment in Part II. are the Council, the Archons and the Law- 
courts. The Ecclesia, on the other hand, is dealt with very briefly, 
in connexion with the prytaneis and proedri (cc. 43, 44). 

Sources. The labours of several workers in this field, notably 
Bruno Keil and Wilamowitz, have rendered it comparatively 
easy to form a general estimate of Aristotle's indebtedness to 
previous writers, although problems of great difficulty are 
encountered as soon as it is attempted to determine the precise 
sources from which the historical part of the work is derived. 
Among these sources are unquestionably Herodotus (for the 
tyranny of Peisistratus, and for the struggle between Cleisthenes 
and Isagoras), Thucydides (for the episode of Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton, and for the Four Hundred), Xenophon (for the 
Thirty), and the poems of Solon. There is now among critics 
a general consensus hi favour of the view that the most important 
of his sources was the Atthis of Androtion, a work published 
in all probability only a few years earlier than the Constitution; 
in any case, after the year 346. Frorii it are derived not only 
the passages which are annalistic hi character and read like 
excerpts from a chronicle (e.g. c. 13. i, 2; c. 22; c. 26. 2, 3), 
but also most of the matter common to the Constitution and to 
Plutarch's Solon. The coincidences with Plutarch, which are 
often verbal, and extend to about 50 lines out of 170 in cc. 5-11 
of the Constitution, can best be explained on the hypothesis 
that Hermippus, the writer followed by Plutarch, used the 
same source as Aristotle, viz. the Atthis of Androtion. Androtion 
is probably closely followed in the account of the pre-Draconian 
constitution, and to him appear to be due the explanation of 
local names (e.g. -^wpiov dreXes), or proverbial expressions (e.g. 
ri> <f>v\oKpt.vtiv) , as well as the account of "Strategems" 
such as that of Themistocles against the Areopagus (c. 25) or 
that employed by Peisistratus in order to disarm the people 
(c. 15. 4). Whether the anecdotes, which are a conspicuous 
feature in the Constitution, should be referred to the same source 
is more open to doubt. It is also generally agreed that among 
the sources was a work, written towards the end of the sth 
century B.C., by an author of oligarchical sympathies, with the 
object of defaming the character and policy of the heroes of the 
democracy. This source cap be traced in passages such as 
c. 6. 2 (Solon turning the Seisachtheia to the profit of himself and 
his friends), 9. 2 (obscurity of Solon's laws intentional, cf. c. 35. 2), 



27. 4 (Pericles' motive for the introduction of the dicasts' pay). 
But while the object (01 Sov\onti>oi /3Xao-</tf)jueii>, c. 6) and the 
date of this oligarchical pamphlet (for the date cf. Plutarch's 
Solon, c. 15 ol irtpl Koviava KO! K.\fiviaar KO.L 'Iirirovucov, which 
points to a time when Conon, Alcibiades and Callias were pro- 
minent in public life) are fairly certain, the authorship is quite 
uncertain, as is also its relationship to another source of import- 
ance, viz. that from which are derived the accounts of the 
Four Hundred and the Thirty. The view taken of the character 
and course of these revolutions betrays a strong bias in favour 
of Theramenes, whose ideal is alleged to have been the irarpias 
iroXiTtia. It has been maintained, on the one hand, that this 
last source (the authority followed in the accounts of the Four 
Hundred and the Thirty) is identical with the oligarchical 
pamphlet, and, on the other, that it is none other than the Atthis 
of Androtion. The former hypothesis is improbable. In favour 
of the latter two arguments may be adduced. In the first place, 
Androtion's father, Andron, was one of the Four Hundred, and 
took Theramenes' side. Secondly, the precise marks of time, 
which are characteristic of the Atlhis, are conspicuous in these 
chapters. In view, however, of the fact that Androtion in his 
political career showed himself not only a democrat, but a 
democrat of the extreme school, the hypothesis must be 
pronounced untenable. 

Value. It is by no means easy to convey a just impression of 
the value of Aristotle's work as an authority for the constitu- 
tional history of Athens. In all that relates to the practice of 
his own day Aristotle's authority is final. There can be no 
question, therefore, as to the importance, or the trustworthy 
character, of the Second Part. But even here a caution is 
necessary. It must be remembered that its authority is final 
for the 4th century only, and that we are not justified in arguing 
from the practice of the 4th century to that of the 5th, unless 
corroborative evidence is available. In the First Part, however, 
where he is treating of the institutions and practice of a past 
age, Aristotle's authority is very far from being final. An 
analysis of this part of the work discloses his dependence, in a 
remarkable degree, upon his sources. Occasionally he compares, 
criticizes or combines; as a rule he adheres closely to the 
writer whom he is using. There is no evidence, either of inde- 
pendent inquiry, or of the utilization of other sources than 
literary ones. Where "original documents" are quoted, or 
referred to, as e.g. in the history of the Four Hundred, or of the 
Thirty, it is probable that he derived them from a previous 
writer. For the authority of Aristotle we must substitute, 
therefore, the authority of his sources; i.e. the value of any 
particular statement will vary with the character of the source 
from which it comes. For the history of the sth century the 
passages which come from Androtion's Atthis carry with them 
a high degree of authority. It by no means follows, however, 
that a statement relating to earlier times is to be accepted 
simply because it is derived from the same source. And in 
passages which are derived from other sources than the Atthis 
a much lower degree of authority can be claimed, even for state- 
ments relating to the 5th century. The supremacy of the 
Areopagus after the Persian Wars, the policy attributed to 
Aristides (c. 24), and the association of Themistocles with 
Ephialtes, are cases in point. Nor must the reader expect to 
find in the Constitution a great work, in any sense of the term. 
The style, it is true, is simple and clear, and the writer's criticisms 
are sensible. But the reader will look in vain for evidence of 
the philosophic insight which makes the Politics, even at the 
present day, the best text-book of political philosophy. It is 
perhaps hardly too much to say that there is not a single great 
idea in the whole work. He will look in vain, too, for any 
consistent view of the history of the constitution as a whole, 
or for any adequate account of its development. He will find 
occasional misunderstandings of measures, and confusions of 
thought. There are appreciations which it is difficult to accept, 
and inaccuracies which it is difficult to pardon. There are 
contradictions which the author has overlooked, and there are 
omissions which are unaccountable. Yet, in spite of such defects, 

the importance of the Constitution can hardly be exaggerated. 
Its recovery has rendered obsolete any history of the Athenian 
constitution that was written before the year 1891. Before 
this date our knowledge was largely derived from the statements 
of scholiasts and lexicographers which had not seldom been 
misunderstood. The recovery of the Constitution puts us for 
the first time in possession of the evidence. To appreciate the 
difference that has been made by its recovery, it is only necessary 
to compare what we now know of the reforms of Cleisthenes 
with what we formerly knew. It is much of it evidence that 
needs a careful process of weighing and sifting before it can be 
safely used; but it is, as a rule, the best, or the only evidence. 
The First Part may be less trustworthy than the Second; it is 
not less indispensable to the student of constitutional history. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. A conspectus of the literature of the Constitution 
complete down to the end of 1892 is given in Sandys p. Ixvii., and, 
though less complete, down to the beginning of 1895 in Busolt, 
Griechische Geschichte, 2nd ed. vol. ii. p. 15. In the present article 
only the most important editions, works or articles are mentioned. 

Editions of the text: Editio princeps, ed. by F. G. Kenyon, 3Oth 
January 1891, with commentary. Autotype facsimile of the 
papyrus (1891). Aristotelis voXirda 'Aff^vaUov, ed. G. Kaibel etU. von 
Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (Berlin, Weidmann, 1891). Aristotelis qui 
fertur 'A0i)va.iwv TroXirda recensuerunt H. van Herwerden et J. van 
Leeuwen (Leiden, 1891). Teubner text, ed. by F. Blass (Leipzig/ 
1892). Edition of the text without commentary by Kenyon. 

Most of these have passed through several editions. The fullest 
commentary is that contained in the edition of the text by J. E. 
Sandys (London, 1893). The best translations are those of Kenyon, 
in English, and of Kaibel and Kiessling, in German. 

Works dealing with the subject: Bruno Keil, Die Solonische 
Verfassung nach Aristoteles (Berlin, 1892); G. Gilbert, Constitutional 
Antiquities of Sparta and Athens (Eng. trans., 1895); U. von Wila- 
mowitz-Moellendorff, Aristoteles und Athen (2 vols., Berlin, 1893), 
a work of great importance, in spite of many unsound conclusions; 
E. Meyer, Forschungen, vol. ii. pp. 406 ff. (the section dealing with the 
Four Hundred is especially valuable). Articles: R. \V. Macan, 
Journal of Hellenic Studies (April 1891); R. Nissen, Rheinisches 
Museum (1892), p. 161 ; G. Busolt, Hermes (1898), pp. 71 ff. ; O. 
Seeck, " Quellenstudien zu des Aristoteles' Verfassungsgeschichte 
Athens," in Lehmann's Beitrage zur alien Geschichte, vol. iv. pp. 164 
and 270. (E. M. W.) 

CONSUETUDINARY (Med. Lat. consuetudinarius, from con- 
sueludo, custom), customary, a term used especially of law 
based on custom as opposed to statutory or written law. As a 
noun " consuetudinary " (Lat. consuetudinarius, sc. liber) is the 
name given to a ritual book containing the forms and ceremonies 
used in the services of a particular monastery, cathedral or 
religious order. 

CONSUL (in Gr. generally wraros, a shortened form of ffrptmjyo^ 
inraTos, i.e. praetor maximus), the title borne by the two highest 
of the ordinary magistrates of the whole Roman community 
during the republic. In the imperial period these magistrates 
had ceased practically to be the heads of the state, but their 
technical position remained unaltered. (For the modem 
commercial office of consul see the separate article below.) 

The consulship arose with the fall of the ancient monarchy 
(see further ROME: History, II. " The Republic "). The Roman 
reverence for the abstract conception of the magistracy, as 
expressed in the imperium and the auspicia, led to the pre- 
servation of the regal power weakened only by external 
limitations. The two new officials who replaced the king bore 
the titles of leaders (praetores) and of judges (judices; cf. Cicero, 
De legibus, iii. 3. 8, " regie imperio duo sunto iique a praeeundo 
judicando . . . praetores judices . . . appellamino"). But the 
new fact of colleagueship caused a third title to prevail, that 
of consules or " partners," a word probably derived from con- 
salio on the analogy of praesul and exul (Mommsen, Staatsrecht, 
ii. p. 77, n. 3). This first example of the collegiate principle 
assumed the form that soon became familiar in the Roman 
commonwealth. Each of the pair of magistrates could act up to 
the full powers of the imperium; but the dissent of his colleague 
rendered his decision or his action null and void. At the same 
time the principle of a merely annual tenure of office was insisted 
on. The two magistrates at the close of their year of office were 
bound to transmit their power to successors; and these successors 
whom they nominated were obliged to seek the suffrages of the 


people. The only body known to us as electing the consuls 
during the republican period was the comitia cenluriata (see 
COMITIA). The consulate was originally confined to patricians. 
During the struggle for higher office that was waged between 
the orders the office was suspended on fifty-one occasions 
between the years 444 and 367 B.C. and replaced by the military 
tribunate with consular power, to which plebeians were eligible. 
The struggle was brought to an end by the Licinio -Sextian laws 
of 367 B.C., which enacted that one consul must be a plebeian 

Most of the internal history of Rome down to the beginning 
of the third century B.C. consists in a series of attacks, whether 
intentional or accidental, on the power of the executive. As 
the consuls are the sole representatives of higher executive 
authority in early times, this history is one of a progressive 
decline in the originally wide and arbitrary powers of the office. 
Their right of summary criminal jurisdiction was weakened by 
the successive laws of appeal (provocatio) ; their capacity for 
interpreting the civil law at their pleasure by the publication 
of the Twelve Tables and the Forms of Action. The growth 
of the tribunate of the plebs hampered their activity both as 
legislators and as judges. They surrendered the duties of 
registration to the censors in 443 B.C., and the rights of civil 
jurisdiction and control over the market and police to the 
praetor and the curule aediles in 367 B.C. 

The result of these limitations and of this specialization of 
functions in the community was to leave the consuls with less 
specific duties at home than any magistrates in the state. But 
the absence of specific functions may be of itself a sign of a general 
duty of supervision. The consuls were in a very real sense the 
heads of the state. Polybius describes them as controlling the 
whole administration (Polyb. vi. 12 waffuv flat Kvpun TUV 617^0- 
aiuv irpa^eiav). This control they exercised in concert with the 
senate, whose chief servants they were. It was they who were 
the most regular consultants of this council, who formulated 
its decrees as edicts, and who brought before the people legislative 
measures which the senate had approved. It was they also who 
represented the state to the outer world and introduced foreign 
envoys to the senate. The symbols of their presidency were 
manifold. It was marked by the twelve lictors (<?..), a number 
permitted to no other ordinary magistrate, by the fact that the 
first act of newly-admitted consuls was to take the auspices, 
their second to summon the senate, and by the use of their names 
for dating the year. The consulate was, indeed, as Cicero expresses 
it, the culminating point in an official career (" Honorum populi 
finis est consulatus," Cic. Pro Planco, 25. 60). 

In the domestic sphere the consuls retained certain powers 
of jurisdiction. This jurisdiction was either (i.) administrative 
or (ii.) criminal, (i.) Their administrative jurisdiction was some- 
times concerned with financial matters such as pecuniary claims 
made by the state and individuals against one another. They 
acted in these matters in the periods during which the censors 
were not in office. We also find them adjudicating in disputes 
about property between the cities of Italy, (ii.) Their criminal 
jurisdiction was of three kinds. In the first place it was their 
duty, before the development of the standing commissions 
which originated in the middle of the 2nd century B.C., to set in 
motion the criminal law against offenders for the cognizance of 
ordinary, as opposed to political, crimes. The reference of such 
cases to the assembly of the people was effected through their 
quaestors (see QUAESTOR). Secondly, when the people and 
senate, or the senate alone, appointed a special commission 
(see SENATE), the commissioner named was often a consul. 
Thirdly, we find the consul conducting a crirriinal inquiry raised 
by a point of international law. It is possible that in this case 
his advising body (consilium) was composed of the fetiales (see 
HERALD, ad fin.). (Cicero, De republica, iii. 18. 28; Mommsen, 
Staatsrecht, ii. p. 112, n. 3). 

During the greater part of the republic the consuls were 
recognized as the heads of the administration abroad as well as 
at home. It thus became necessary that departments of adminis- 
tration (provinciae) should be determined and assigned. The 

method of assignment varied. The least usual device was for 
one consul to take the field at the head of an army, while the 
other remained at home to transact the civil business of state. 
More often foreign wars demanded the attention of both consuls. 
In this case the regular army of four legions was usually divided 
between them. When it was necessary that both armies should 
co-operate, the principle of rotation was adopted, each consul 
having the command for a single day a practice which may be 
illustrated by the events preceding the battle of Cannae (Polybius 
iii. no; Livy xxii. 41). During the great period of conquest 
from 264 to 146 B.C. Italy was generally one of the consular 
" provinces," some foreign country the other; and when at the 
close of this period Italy was at peace, this distinction approxi- 
mated to one between civil and military command. The consuls 
settled their departments amongst themselves by agreement 
or by lot (comparalio, sortitio), the power of declaring what 
should be the consular provinciae was usurped by the senate 
(see SENATE), and a lex Sempronia passed by C. Gracchus, 
probably in 122 B.C., ordained that the two consular provinces 
should be declared before the election of the consuls. At this 
time the consuls entered office on the ist of January (a practice 
which commenced in 1 53 B. c.) , and their military command began 
on the ist of March. They could hold this military command 
until they were superseded in the following March, and thus their 
tenure of power was practically raised to fourteen months. But 
meanwhile the home officials invested with the imperium had 
proved insufficient for the military needs of the empire, and the 
system of prolonging the command (prorogatio imperil) had been 
growing up (see PROVINCE). The consul whose command had 
been prolonged now served abroad as proconsul. It is probable 
that Sulla in his legislation of 81 B.C. did something to stereotype 
this system. Certainly the government by pro-magistrates be- 
comes the rule after this period (cf. Cicero, De natura deorum, 
ii. 3. 9; De divinalione, ii. 36. 76, 77), although there are several 
instances of consuls assuming the active command of provinces 
between the years 74 and 55 B.C. (Mommsen, Rechtsfrage, p. 30), 
and Cicero declares that the consul has a right to approach 
every province (" consules, quibus more ma jorum concessum 
est vel omnes adire provincias," Cicero, Ad Atticum, viii. 15. 3). 
Certainly in theory the provinces were still regarded as " con- 
sular," not " proconsular," and were technically, although not 
practically, held from the ist of March of the consul's tenure 
of office at Rome (cf. Cicero, De provinciis consularibus, 15. 37; 
Mommsen, Rechtsfrage, passim). It was not until the lex 
Pompeia of 52 B.C. (Dio Cassius xl. 56) had established a five 
years' interval between home and foreign command that the 
theory of the prorogatio imperil vanished and the proconsulate 
became a separate office. 

Since the theory of the persistence of the republican constitu- 
tion was of the essence of the Principate, the consuls necessarily 
lost little of their outward position and dignity under the rule of 
the Caesars. The consulship was the only office in which a citizen, 
other than a member of the imperial house, might have the 
princeps as a colleague, and in the interval between the death or 
deposition of one princeps and the appointment of another the 
consuls resumed their normal position as the heads of the state 
(cf. Herodian ii. 12). As the presidents of the senate, who after 
A.D. 14 elected them to their office, they were the chief personal 
representatives of those elements of sovereignty that were 
supposed to attach to that body, and they directed that high 
criminal jurisdiction which the senate of this period assumed 
(see SENATE). A restored power of jurisdiction is indeed one of 
the features of their position during this time, and it is probable 
that the civil appeals which came to the senate were delegated 
to the consuls. They also acted for a time as delegates to the 
princeps in matters of Chancery jurisdiction such as trusts and 
guardianship (Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii. p. 103). The consulship 
was also a preparation for certain high commands, such as the 
government of certain public and imperial provinces (see PRO- 
VINCE) and the praefecture of the city. It was probably due 
to the fact that the consulship was such a prize, and perhaps also 
to the expense imposed on the office by its association with the 



celebration of games (Dio Cassius Ivi. 46, lix. 20) that the tenure 
was progressively shortened. In the early principate the consuls 
hold office for six months, later for four to two months (Mommsen, 
Staatsrecht, ii. pp. 84-87). The consuls appointed for the ist of 
January were called ordinarii, the others suffecti; and the whole 
year was dated by the names of the former. 

This distinction continued in the Empire that was founded 
by Diocletian and Constantine. The ordinarii were nominated 
by the emperor, the suffecti were nominated by the senate, and 
their appointment was ratified by the emperor. The consulship 
was still the greatest dignity which the Empire had to bestow; 
and the pomp and ceremony of the office increased in proportion 
to the decline in its actual power. The entry of the consuls on 
office was celebrated by a great procession, by games given to 
the people, by a distribution of gifts, such as the ivory diptychs, 
a long series of which has been preserved. But the senate, over 
which they presided until the time of Justinian, was little more 
than the municipal council of the city of Rome; and the justice 
which they meted out had dwindled down to the formal and 
uncon tested acts of manumission and the granting of guardians. 
Sometimes there was a consul of the West at Rome and a consul 
of the East at Constantinople; at other times both consuls 
might be found in either capital. The last consul born in a private 
station was Basilius in the East in A.D. 541. But the emperors 
continued to bear the title for some time longer. 

AUTHORITIES. Mommsen, Romisches Staatsrecht, ii. pp. 74-140 
(3rd ed., Leipzig, 1887) ; Herzog, Geschichte und System der romischen 
Staatsverfassung, i. p. 688 foil., 827 foil. (Leipzig, 1884, &c.) ; Lange, 
Romische -Alterthumer, i. p. 524 foil. (Berlin, 1856, &c.); Schiller, 
Stoats- und Rechtsaltertiimer, p. 53 foil. (Munich, 1893, Handbuch 
der klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft, von Dr Iwan von Miiller); 
Daremberg-Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines, i. 
1455 foil. (1875, &c.) ; De Ruggiero, Dizionario epigrafico di antichita 
Romane, ii. 679 foil., 868 foil (Rome, 1886, &c.); Pauly-Wissowa, 
Realencydopadie, iv. 1112 foil, (new edition, Stuttgart, 1893, &c.). 

For the consular diptychs, cf. besides Daremberg-Saglio, I.e., 
Gori, Thesaurus veterum diptychorum (Florence, 1759), and Labarte, 
Histoire des arts industries au moyen age, i. p. 10 foil., 190 foil, (ist 
ed., Paris, 1864). (A. H. J. G.) 

CONSUL, a public officer authorized by the state whose com- 
mission he bears to manage the commercial affairs of its subjects 
in a foreign country, and formally permitted by the government 
of the country wherein he resides to perform the duties which 
are specified in his commission, or lettre de provision. (For the 
ancient magisterial office of consul see separate article above.) 

A consul, as such, is not invested with any diplomatic character, 
and he cannot enter on his official duties until a rescript, termed 
an exequatur (sometimes a mere countersign endorsed on the 
commission), has been delivered to him by the authorities of the 
state to which his nomination has been communicated by his 
own government. This exequatur, called in Turkey a barat, 
may be revoked at any time at the discretion of the government 
where he resides. The status of consuls commissioned by the 
Christian powers to reside in Mahommedan countries, China, 
Korea, Siam, and, until 1899, in Japan, and to exercise judicial 
functions in civil and criminal matters between their own 
countrymen and strangers, is exceptional to the common law, 
and is founded on special conventions or capitulations (?..). 

The title of consul, in the sense in which it is used in inter- 
national law, is derived from that of certain magistrates, in the 
cities of medieval Italy, Provence and Languedoc, charged with 
the settlement of trade disputes whether by sea or land (consules 
mercatorum, consules artis maris, &c.) - 1 With the growth of trade 
it early became convenient to appoint agents with similar 
powers in foreign parts, and these often, though not invariably, 
were styled consuls (consules in partibus ultramarinis).* The 

1 The title of consul was borne by the chief municipal officers of 
several cities of the south of France during the middle ages and up 
to the Revolution. The name was not due to their being the suc- 
cessors of the chiefs of the Roman municipia. They were members 
of the governing body known as the consulat, and in Latin documents 
are sometimes styled consiliarii, i.e. councillors. The consulat itself 
is not traceable beyond the I2th century. 

* Particular quarters of mercantile cities were assigned to foreign 
traders and_ were placed under the jurisdiction of their own magis- 
trates, variously styled syndics, provosts (praepositi), 6chevins 

earliest foreign consuls were those established by Genoa, Pisa, 
Venice and Florence, between 1098 and 1196, in the Levant, at 
Constantinople, in Palestine, Syria and Egypt. Of these the 
Pisan agent at Constantinople bore the title of consul, the 
Venetian that of baylo (q.v.). In 1251 Louis IX. of France 
arranged a treaty with the sultan of Egypt under which French 
consuls were established at Tripoli and Alexandria, and Du 
Cange cites a charter of James of Aragon, dated 1268, granting 
to the city of Barcelona the right to elect consuls in partibus 
ultramarinis, &c. The free growth of the system was, however, 
hampered by commercial and dynastic rivalries. The system 
of French foreign consulships, for instance, all but died out after 
the crushing of the independent life of the south and the incor- 
poration of Provence and Languedoc under the French crown; 
while, with the establishment of Venetian supremacy in the 
Levant, the baylo developed into a diplomatic agent of the first 
class at the expense of the consuls of rival states. The modern 
system of consulships actually dates only from the i6th century. 
Early in this century both England and Scotland had their 
" conservators " with " jurisdiction to do justice between 
merchant and merchant beyond the seas "; but France led the 
way. The alliance between Francis I. and Suleiman the Magnifi- 
cent gave her special advantages in the Levant, of which she 
was not slow to take advantage. Her success culminated in the 
capitulations signed in 1604, under the terms of which her 
consuls were given precedence over all others and were endowed 
with diplomatic immunities (e.g. freedom from arrest and from 
domiciliary visits), while the traders of all other nations were put 
under the protection of the French flag. It was not till 1675 
that, under the first capitulations signed with Turkey, English 
consuls were established in the Ottoman empire. Ten years 
earlier, under the commercial treaty between. England and 
Spain, they had been established in Spain. 

The frequent wars of the succeeding century hindered the 
development of the consular system. Thus, though the system 
of consuls was regularly established in France by the ordinance 
of 1 66 1, in 1760 France had consuls only in the Levant, Barbary, 
Italy, Spain and Portugal, while she discouraged the establish- 
ment of foreign consuls in her own ports as tending to infringe 
her own jurisdiction. It was not till the igth century that the 
system developed universally. Hitherto consuls had, for the 
most part, been business men with no special qualification as 
regards training; but the French system, under which the 
consular service had been long established as part of the general 
civil service of the country, a system that had survived the 
Revolution unchanged, was gradually adopted by other nations; 
though, as in France, consuls not belonging to the regular 
service, and having an inferior status, continued to be appointed. 
In Great Britain the consular service was organized in 1825 
(see below) ; in France the series of ordinances and laws by which 
its modern constitution was fixed began in 1833. In Germany 
progress was hindered by the political conditions of the country 
under the old Confederation; for the Hanse cities, which practi- 
cally monopolized the oversea trade, lacked the means to estab- 
lish a consular system on the French model. The present 
magnificently organized consular system of Germany is, then, 
one of the most remarkable outcomes of the establishment of the 
united empire. It was initiated by an act of the parliament 
of the North German Confederation (Nov. 8, 1867), subsequently 
incorporated in the statutes of the Empire, which laid down 
the principle that the German consulates were to be under 
the immediate jurisdiction of the president of the Confederation 
(later the emperor). The functions, duties and privileges of 
French and German consuls do not differ materially from those 
of British consuls; but there is a great difference in the organiza- 
tion and personnel of the consular service. In France, apart 
from the consuls elus or consuls marchands, who are mere consular 
agents, selected by the government from among the traders of a 

(scabinf), &c., who had power to fine or to expel from the quarter. 
The Hanseatic League (q.v.~), particularly, had numerous settlements 
of this kind, the earliest being the Steelyard at London, established 
in the I 3th century. 



town where it desires to be represented, and unsalaried, the 
consular body proper was, by the decrees of July 10, 1880, and 
April 27, 1883, practically constituted a branch of the diplomatic 
service. It is recruited from the same sources, and its members 
are free to exchange into the corps diplomatique, or vice versa. 
Candidates for the diplomatic and consular services have to 
undergo the same training and pass the same examinations, 
i.e. in the constitutional, administrative and judicial organiza- 
tion of the various powers, in international law, commercial 
law and maritime law, in the history of treaties and in com- 
mercial and political geography, in political economy, and in 
the German and English languages. They have to serve three 
years abroad or attached to some ministerial department before 
they can enter for the examination which entitles them to an 
appointment as attache or as consul suppliant. This assimilation 
of the consular to the diplomatic service remains peculiar to 
France. 1 

In Germany it was enacted by the law of February 28, 1873, 
that German consuls must be either trained jurists, or must 
have passed special examinations. The result of this system 
has been the establishment throughout the world of an elaborate 
network of trained commercial experts, directly responsible to 
the central government, and charged as one of their principal 
duties with the task of keeping the government informed of all 
that may be of interest to German traders. These annual 
consular reports were from the first regularly and promptly 
'published in the Deutsche Handelsarchiv, and have contributed 
much to the wonderful expansion of German trade. The right 
to establish consuls is now universally recognized by Christian 
civilized states. Jurists at one time contended that according 
to international law a right of " ex-territoriality " attached to 
consuls, their persons and dwellings being sacred, and themselves 
amenable to local authority only in cases of strong suspicion on 
political grounds. It is now admitted that, apart from treaty, 
custom has established very few consular privileges; that 
perhaps consuls may be arrested and incarcerated, not merely 
on criminal charges, but for civil debt; and that, if they engage 
in trade or become the owners of immovable property, their 
persons certainly lose protection. This question of arrest has 
been frequently raised in Europe: in the case of Barbuit, a 
tallow-chandler, who from 1717 to 1735 acted as Prussian 
consul in London, and to whom the exemption conferred by 
statute on ambassadors was held not to apply; in the case of 
Cretico, the Turkish consul in London in 1808; in the case of 
Begley, the United States consul at Genoa, arrested in Paris 
in 1840; and in the case of De la Fuente Hermosa, Uruguayan 
consul, whom the Cour Royale of Paris in 1842 held liable to 
arrest for debt. In the same way consuls are often exempt 
from all kinds of rates and taxes, and always from personal 
taxes. They are exempt from billeting and military service, but 
are not entitled (except in the Levant, where also freedom 
from arrest and trial is the rule) to have private chapels in their 
houses. The right of consuls to exhibit their national arms and 
flag over the door of the bureau is not disputed. 

Until the year 1825 British consuls were usually merchants 
engaged in trade in the foreign countries in which they acted 
as consuls, and their remuneration consisted entirely of fees. 
An act of that year, however, organized the consular service 
as a branch of the civil service, with payment by a fixed salary 
instead of by fees; consuls were forbidden also to engage in 
trade, and the management of the service was put under the 
control of a separate department of the foreign office, created 
for the purpose. In 1832 the restriction as to engaging in trade 
was withdrawn, except as regards salaried members of the British 
consular service. 

1 i.e. as regards the organization of the system. Consuls, or 
consuls-general, of other countries have sometimes a diplomatic or 
quasi-diplomatic status. Consuls-general charge's d'affaires, e.g., 
rank as diplomatic agents. Of these the most notable is the British 
agent and consul-general in Egypt, whose position is unique. The 
diplomatic agent of Belgium at Buenos Aires, e.g., is minister-resident 
and consul-general, and the minister of Ecuador in London is consul- 
general charg6 d'affaires. 

The duty of consuls, under the " General Instructions to 
British Consuls," is to advise His Majesty's trading subjects, 
to quiet their differences, and to conciliate as much as possible 
the subjects of the two countries. Treaty rights he is to support 
in a mild and moderate spirit; and he is to check as far as 
possible evasions by British traders of the local revenue laws. 
Besides assisting British subjects who are tried for offences in 
the local courts, and ascertaining the humanity of their treat- 
ment after sentence, he has to consider whether home or foreign 
law is more appropriate to the case, having regard to the con- 
venience of witnesses and the time required for decision; and, 
where local courts have wrongfully interfered, he puts the 
home government in motion through the consul-general or 
ambassador. He sends in reports on the labour, manufacture, 
trade, commercial legislation and finance, technical education, 
exhibitions and conferences of the country or district in which 
he resides, and, generally, furnishes information on any subject 
which may be desired of him. He acts as a notary public; he 
draws up marine and commercial protests, attests documents 
brought to him, and, if necessary, draws up wills, powers of 
attorney, or conveyances. He celebrates marriages in accordance 
with the provisions of the Foreign Marriage Act 1892, and, 
where the ministrations of a clergyman cannot be obtained, 
reads the burial service. At a seaport he has certain duties 
to perform in connexion with the navy. In the absence of any 
of His Majesty's ships he is senior naval officer; he looks after 
men left behind as stragglers, or in hospital or prison, and sends 
them on in due course to the nearest ship. He is also em- 
powered by statute to advance for the erection or maintenance 
of Anglican churches, hospitals, and places of interment sums 
equal to the amount subscribed for the purpose by the resident 
British subjects. 

As the powers and duties of consuls vary with the particular 
commercial interests they have to protect, and the civilization 
of the state in whose territory they reside, instead of abstract 
definition, we summarize the provisions on this subject of the 
British Merchant Shipping Acts. 2 Consuls are bound to send 
to the Board of Trade such reports or returns on any matter 
relating to British merchant shipping or seamen as they may 
think necessary. Where a consul suspects that the shipping or 
navigation laws are being evaded, he may require the owner or 
master to produce the log-book or other ship documents (such 
as the agreement with the seamen, the account of the crew, the 
certificate of registration); he may muster the crew, and order 
explanations with regard to the documents. Where an offence 
has been committed on the high seas, or aboard ashore, by 
British seamen or apprentices, the consul makes inquiry on oath, 
and may send home the offender and witnesses by a British ship, 
particulars for the Board of Trade being endorsed on the agree- 
ment for conveyance. He is also empowered to detain a foreign 
ship the master or seamen of which appear to him through their 
misconduct or want of skill to have caused injury to a British 
vessel, until the necessary application for satisfaction or security 
be made to the local authorities. Every British mercantile 
ship, not carrying passengers, on entering a port gives into the 
custody of the consul to be endorsed by him the seamen's agree- 
ment, the certificate of registry, and the official log-book; a 
failure to do this is reported to the registrar-general of seamen. 
The following five provisions are also made for the protection of 
seamen. If a British master engage seamen at a foreign port, 
the engagement is sanctioned by the consul, acting as a super- 
intendent of Mercantile Marine Offices. The consul collects the 
property (including arrears of wages) of British seamen or 
apprentices dying abroad, and remits to H.M. paymaster-general. 
He also provides for the subsistence of seamen who are ship- 
wrecked, discharged, or left behind, even if their service was with 
foreign merchants; they are generally sent home in the first 
British ship that happens to be in want of a complement, and 
the expenses thus incurred form a charge on the parliamentary 
fund for the relief of distressed seamen, the consul receiving a 

* Sec also instructions to consuls prepared by the Board of Trade 
and approved by the secretary of state for foreign affairs. 



commission of 25 % on the amount disbursed. Complaints by 
crews as to the quality and quantity of the provisions on board 
are investigated by the consul, who enters a statement in the 
log-book and reports to the Board of Trade. Money disbursed 
by consuls on account of the illness or injury of seamen is generally 
recoverable from the owner. With regard to passenger vessels, 
the master is bound to give the consul facilities for inspection 
and for communication with passengers, and to exhibit his 
" master's list," or list of passengers, so that the consul may 
transmit to the registrar-general, for insertion in the Marine 
Register Book, a report of the passengers dying and children 
born during the voyage. The consul may even defray the 
expenses of maintaining, and forwarding to their destination, 
passengers taken off or picked up from wrecked or injured 
vessels, if the master does not undertake to proceed in six weeks; 
these expenses becoming, in terms of the Passenger Acts 1855 
and 1863, a debt due to His Majesty from the owner or charterer, 
where a salvor is justified in detaining a British vessel, the 
master may obtain leave to depart by going with the salvor 
before the consul, who, after hearing evidence as to the service 
rendered and the proportion of ship's value and freight 
claimed, fixes the amount for which the master is to give 
bond and security. In the case of a foreign wreck the consul 
is held to be the agent of the foreign owner. Much of the 
notarial business which is imposed on consuls, partly by 
statute and partly by the request of private parties, consists 
in taking the declarations as to registry, transfers, &c., under 
the Mercantile Shipping Acts. Consuls in the Ottoman empire, 
China, Siam and Korea have extensive judicial and executive 

Since the incorporation of the British consular service in the 
civil service there have been several proposals to " reform " the 
system with the view of increasing its usefulness, more particularly 
from the point of view of providing assistance to British trade 
abroad (see Reports of Special Committees of the House of 
Commons on the Consular Service, 1858, 1872, 1903). It has been 
frequently urged that British consuls in their commercial know- 
ledge and intercourse with foreign merchants compare unfavour- 
ably, for example, with the consuls of the United States. It 
must be remembered, however, that there are points of striking 
dissimilarity between the duties of the consuls of these two 
countries. The American consul is necessarily brought much 
into touch with the trade and commerce of the country to which 
he is assigned through the system of consular invoices (see 
AD VALOREM) ; in his ordinary reports he is not confined to one 
stereotyped form, and when preparing special reports (a valuable 
feature of the United States consular service) he is liberally 
treated as regards any expense to which he has been put 
in obtaining information. He is practically free from the 
multifarious duties which the English consul has to discharge in 
connexion with the mercantile marine, nor has he to perform 
marriage ceremonies; and financially he is much better off, 
being allowed to retain as personal all fees obtained from his 
notarial duties. The Committee of 1903 was appointed to in- 
quire, inter alia, whether the limits of age 25 to 50 for candi- 
dates should be altered, and whether service as a vice-consul 
for a certain period should be required to qualify for promotion 
to the rank of consul; whether means could not be adopted to 
give consular officers opportunities of increasing their practical 
knowledge of commercial matters and to bring them more into 
personal contact with the commercial community. The sugges- 
tions of the committee as the result of its inquiries were adopted 
in principle by the Foreign Office. The consular service is now 
grouped into three main divisions: (i) the general service; (2) 
Levant and Persia; and (3) China, Japan, Korea and Siam. 
The general consular service is graded into three divisions: 
first grade, consuls-general, salary 1000 with local allowances; 
second grade, consuls-general and consuls, salary 800 and local 
allowances; third grade, consuls, salary 600, with local 
allowances. Vice-consuls have an annual salary of 350, rising 
by annual increments of 15 to 450. In the general consular 
service appointments are sometimes made to the higher offices 

from the ranks, but more usually from a select list of nominees, 
who must pass a qualifying examination. A proportion of the 
vacancies are reserved for competition amongst candidates who 
have had actual commercial experience. Divisions 2 and 3 are 
recruited by open competition. There were at one time a small 
number of commercial agents whose business consisted in watch- 
ing and reporting on the commerce, industries and products of 
special districts, and in answering inquiries on commercial sub- 
jects. Their duties were subsequently transferred to the consular 
staff, and a new class of officers, consular attaches, created. 
The consular attaches divide their time between special in- 
vestigations abroad, and visits to manufacturing districts in 
the United Kingdom. The headquarters of the commercial 
attaches in Europe, except those at Paris and Constantinople, 
were transferred to London, without defined districts, in 1907 
(see Report on the System of British Commercial Attaches and 
Agents, 1908, Cd. 3610). " Pro-consuls " are frequently appointed 
for the purpose of administering oaths, taking affidavits or 
affirmations, and performing notarial acts under the Com- 
missioners for Oaths Acts 1889. 

The position of the United States consuls is minutely described 
in the Regulations, Washington, 1896. Under various treaties 
and conventions they enjoy large privileges and jurisdiction. 
By the treaty of 1816 with Sweden the United States government 
agreed that the consuls of the two states respectively should be 
sole judges in disputes between captains and crews of vessels. 
(Up to 1906 there were eighteen treaties containing this clause.) 
By convention with France in 1853 they likewise agreed that the 
consuls of both countries should be permitted to hold real estate, 
and to have the " police interne des navires a commerce." In 
Borneo,China, Korea, Morocco, Persia, Siam, Tripoli and Turkey 
an extensive jurisdiction, civil and criminal, is exercised by 
treaty stipulation in cases where United States subjects are 
interested. Exemption from liability to appear as a witness is 
often stipulated. The question was raised in France in 1843 by 
the case of the Spanish consul Seller at Aix, and in America in 
1854 by the case of Dillon, the French consul at San Francisco, 
who, on being arrested by Judge Hoffmann for declining to give 
evidence in a criminal suit, pulled down his consular flag. So, 
also, inviolability of national archives is often stipulated. To 
the consuls of other nations the United States government have 
always accorded the privileges of arresting deserters, and of being 
themselves amenable only to the Federal and not to the States 
courts. They also recognize foreign consuls as representative 
suitors for absent foreigners. 

The United States commercial agents are appointed by the 
president, and usually receive an exequatur. They form a class 
by themselves, and are distinct from the consular agents, who 
are simply deputy consuls in districts where there is no principal 

By a law of April 1906 the U.S. consular service was re- 
organized and graded, the office of consul-general being divided 
into seven classes, and that of consul into nine classes; and on 
June 27 an executive order was issued by President Roosevelt 
governing appointments and promotions. 

See A. de Miltitz, Manuel des consuls (London and Berlin, 1837- 
1843); Baron Ferdinand de Cussy, Dictionnaire du diplomate et du 
consul (Leipzig, 1846), and Reglements consulaires des principaux 
etats maritimes de I'Europe et de I Amerique (ib., 1851) ; Tuson, British 
Consul's Manual (London, 1856); De Clercq, Guide pratique des 
consulats (ist ed., 1858, gth ed. by de Vallat, Paris, 1898); C. I. 
Tarring, British Consular Jurisdiction in the East (London, 1887); 
Lippmann, Die Konsularjurisdiktion im Orient (Berlin, 1898) ; Zorn, 
Die Konsulargesetzgebung des deutschen Reichs (2nd ed., Berlin, 1901) ; 
v. Konig, Handbuch des deutschen Konsularwesens (6th ed., Berlin, 
1902) ; Martens, Das deutsche Konsular- und Kolonialrecht (Leipzig, 
1904) ; Malfatti di Monte Tretto, Handbuch des osterreichisch- 
ungarischen Konsularwesens (2 vols., 2nd ed., Vienna, 1904). See 
also the Parliamentary Reports referred to in the text. For British 
consuls much detailed information, including, e.g., minute directions 
for the uniforms of the various grades, will be found in the official 
Foreign Office List published annually. As regards American consuls, 
see C. L. Jones, The Consular Service of the U. S. A. (Philadelphia, 
1906) ; Publications of Univ. of Pennsylvania, " Series in Pol. Econ. 
and Public Law," No. 18; and Fred. Van Dyne, Our Foreign Service 
(Rochester, N.Y., 1909). 


"CONSULATE OF THE SEA," a celebrated collection of 
maritime customs and ordinances (see also SEA LAWS) in the 
Catalan language, published at Barcelona in the latter part oi 
the isth century. Its proper title is The Book of the Consulate, 
or in Catalan, Lo Libre de Consolat, the name being derived from 
the fact that it embodied the rules of law followed in the mari- 
time cities of the Mediterranean coast by the commercial judges 
known generally as consuls (q.v.). The earliest extant edition 
of the work, which was printed at Barcelona in 1494, is without 
a title-page or frontispiece, but it is described by the above- 
mentioned title in the epistle dedicatory prefixed to the table 
of contents. The only known copy of this edition is preserved in 
the National Library in Paris. The epistle dedicatory states 
that the work is an amended version of the Book of the Consulate, 
compiled by Francis Celelles with the assistance of numerous 
shipmasters and merchants well versed in maritime affairs. 
According to a statement made by Capmany in his Codigo de los 
costumbras maritimas de Barcelona, published at Madrid in 1791, 
there was extant to his knowledge in the last century a more 
ancient edition of the Book of the Consulate, printed in semi- 
Gothic characters, which he believed to be of a date prior to 1484. 
This is the earliest period to which any historical record of the 
Book of the Consulate being in print can be traced back. There 
are, however, two Catalan MSS. preserved in the National Library 
in Paris, the earliest of which, being MS. Espagnol 124, contains 
the two first treatises which are printed in the Book of the Con- 
sulate of 1494, and which are the most ancient portion of its 
contents, written in a hand of the i4th century, on paper of that 
century. The subsequent parts of this MS. are on paper of the 
15th century, but there is no document of a date more recent 
than 1436. The later of the two MSS., being MS. Espagnol 56, 
is written throughout on paper of the isth century, and in a hand 
of that century, and it purports, from a certificate on the face of 
the last leaf, to have been executed under the superintendence 
of Peter Thomas, a notary public, and the scribe of the Consulate 
of the Sea at Barcelona. 

The edition of 1494, which is justly regarded as the editio 
princeps of the Book of the Consulate, contains, in the first place, 
a code of procedure issued by the kings of Aragon for the guidance 
of the courts of the consuls of the sea, in the second place, a 
collection of ancient customs of the sea, and thirdly, a body of 
ordinances for the government of cruisers of war. A colophon 
at the end of these ordinances informs the readers that " the book 
commonly called the Book of the Consulate ends here"; after 
which there follows a document known by the title of The 
Acceptations, which purports to record that the previous chapters 
and ordinances had been approved by the Roman people in the 
nth century, and by various princes and peoples in the i2th and 
i3th centuries. Capmany was the first person to question the 
authenticity of this document in his Memorias historicas sobre 
la marina, &*c., de Barcelona, published at Madrid in 1779-1792. 
Pardessus and other writers on maritime law followed up the 
inquiry in the igth century, and have conclusively shown that 
the document, whatever may have been its origin, has no proper 
reference to the Book of the Consulate, and is, in fact, of no histori- 
cal value whatsoever. The paging of the edition of 1494 ceases 
with this document, at the end of which is the printer's colophon, 
reciting that " the work was completed on the i4th of July 1494, 
at Barcelona, by Pere Posa, priest and printer." The remainder 
of the volume consists of what may be regarded as an appendix 
to the original Book of the Consulate. This appendix contains 
various maritime ordinances of the kings of Aragon and of the 
councillors of the city of Barcelona, ranging over a period from 
1340 to 1484. It is printed apparently in the same type with the 
preceding part of the volume. The original Book of the Consulate, 
coupled with this appendix, constitutes the work which has 
obtained general circulation in Europe under the title of The Con- 
sulate of the Sea, and which in the course of the i6th century was 
translated into the Castilian, the Italian, and the French 
languages. The Italian translation, printed at Venice in 1 549 
by Jean Baptista Pedrezano, was the version which obtained 
the largest circulation in the north of Europe, and led many 

jurists to suppose the work to have been of Italian origin. In 
the next following century the work was translated into Dutch 
by Westerven, and into German by Engelbrecht, and it is also 
said to have been translated into Latin. 

An excellent translation into French of " The Customs of the Sea," 
which are the most valuable portion of the Book of the Consulate, was 
published by Pardessus in the second volume of his Collection des 
his maritimes (Paris, 1834), under the title of " La Compilation 
connue sous le nom de consulat de la mer." See introduction, by Sir 
T ravers Twiss, to the Black Book of the Admiralty (London, 1874), 
which in the appendix to vol. iii. contains his translation of " The 
Customs of the Sea," with the Catalan text. (T. T.) 

CONSUMPTION (Lat. consumere), literally, the act of consum- 
ing or destroying. Thus the word is popularly applied to 
phthisis, a " wasting away " of the lungs due to tuberculosis 
(q.v.). In economics the word has a special significance as a 
technical term. It has been defined as the destruction of utilities, 
and thus opposed to " production," which is the creation of 
utilities, a utility in this connexion being anything which satisfies 
a desire or serves a purpose. Consumption may be either pro- 
ductive or unproductive; productive where it is a means directly 
or indirectly to the satisfaction of any economic want, unpro- 
ductive when it is devoted to pleasures or luxuries. Its place in 
the science of economics, and its close relation with production, 
are treated of in every text-book, but special reference may be 
made to W. Roscher, Nationalokonomie, 1883, and G. Schonberg, 
Handbuch d. polit. Okonomie, 1890-1891. 

CONSUS, an ancient Italian deity, originally a god of agricul- 
ture. The time at which his festival was held (after harvest 
and seed-sowing), the nature of its ceremonies and amusements, 
his altar at the end of the Circus Maximus always covered with 
earth except on such occasions, all point to his connexion with 
the earth. In accordance with this, the name has been derived 
from condere ( = Condius, as the " keeper " of grain or the 
" hidden " god, whose life-producing influence works in the 
depths of the earth). Another etymology is from conserere 
(" sow," cf. Ops ConsivaandherfestivalOpiconsivia). Amongst 
the ancients (Livy i. 9; Dion. Halic. ii. 31) Census was most 
commonly identified with HoveiSuv "Lnrtos (Neptunus Equester), 
and in later Latin poets Census is used for Neptunus, but this 
idea was due to the horse and chariot races which took place at 
his festival; otherwise, the two deities have nothing in common. 
According to another view, he was the god of good counsel, 
who was said -to have "advised" Romulus to carry off the 
Sabine women (Ovid, Fasti, iii. 199) when they visited Rome 
for the first celebration of his festival (Consualia). In later 
times, with the introduction of Greek gods into the Roman 
theological system, Consus, who had never been the object of 
special reverence, sank to the level of a secondary deity, whose 
character was rather abstract and intellectual. 

His festival was celebrated on the 2ist of August and the 
1 5th of December. On the former date, the flamen Quirinalis, 
assisted by the vestals, offered sacrifice, and the pontifices 
presided at horse and chariot races in the circus. It was a day 
of public rejoicing; all kinds of rustic amusements took place, 
amongst them running on ox-hides rubbed with oil (like the 
Gr. AffKoXuxcrjuos) . Horses and mules, crowned with garlands, 
were given rest from work. A special feature of the games in 
the circus was chariot racing, in which mules, as the oldest 
draught beasts, took the place of horses. The origin of these 
games was generally attributed to Romulus; but by some 
they were considered an imitation of the Arcadian Mnrwcpdreio 
introduced by Evander. There was a sanctuary of Consus on 
the Aventine, dedicated by L. Papirius Cursor in 272, in early 
times wrongly identified with the altar in the circus. 

See W. W. Fowler, The Roman Festivals (1899); G. Wissowa, 
Religion und Kultus der Romer (1902); Preller- Jordan, Romischc 
Mythologie (1881). 

CONTANGO, a Stock Exchange term for the rate of interest 
Daid by a " bull " who has bought stock for the rise and does 
not intend to pay for it when the Settlement arrives. He 
arranges to carry over or continue his bargain, and does so by 
entering into a fresh bargain with his seller, or some other party, 


by which he sells the stock for the Settlement and buys it again 
for the next, the price at which the bargain is entered being 
called the making-up price. The rate that he pays for this 
accommodation, which amounts to borrowing the money 
involved until the next Settlement, is called the contango. 

CONTARINI, the name of a distinguished Venetian family, 
who gave to the republic eight doges and many other eminent 
citizens. The story of their descent from the Roman family 
of Cotta, appointed prefects of the Reno valley (whence Cotta 
Reni or Conti del Reno), is probably a legend. One Mario Con- 
tarini was among the twelve electors of the doge Paulo Lucio 
Anafesto in 697. Domenico Contarini, elected doge in 1043, 
subjugated rebellious Dalmatia and recaptured Grado from the 
patriarch of Aquileia. He died in 1070. Jacopo was doge 
from 1275 to 1280. Andrea was elected doge in 1367, and during 
his reign the war of Chioggia took place (1380); he was the 
first to melt down his plate and mortgage his property for the 
benefit of the state. Other Contarini doges were: Francesco 
(1623-1624), Niccolo (1630-1631), who built the church of the 
Salute, Carlo (1655-1656), during whose reign the Venetians 
gained the naval victory of the Dardanelles, Domenico (1659- 
1675) and Alvise (1676-1684). There were at one time no less 
than eighteen branches of the family; one of the most important 
was that of Contarini dallo Zaffo or di Giaffa, who had been 
invested with the countship of Jaffa in Syria for their services to 
Caterina Cornaro, queen of Cyprus; another was that of Con- 
tarini degli Scrigni (of the coffers) 1 , so called on account of their 
great wealth. Many members of the family distinguished 
themselves in the service of the republic, in the wars against the 
Turks, and no less than seven Contarini fought at Lepanto. 
One Andrea Contarini was beheaded in 1430 for having wounded 
the doge Francesco Foscari (q.v.) on the nose. Other members 
of the house were famous as merchants, prelates and men of 
letters; among these we may mention Cardinal Gasparo Con- 
tarini (1483-1542), and Marco Contarini (1631-1689), who was 
celebrated as a patron of music and collected at his -villa of 
Piazzola a large number of valuable musical MSS., now in the 
Marciana library at Venice. The family owned many palaces in 
various parts of Venice, and several streets still bear its name. 

See J. Fontana, "Sulla patrizia famiglia Contarini," in II 
Gondotiere (1843). (L. V.*) 

CONTAT, LOUISE FRANCHISE (1760-1813), French actress, 
made her dSbut at the Comedie Francaise in 1766 as Atalide in 
Bajazet. It was in comedy, however, that she made her first 
success, as Suzanne in Beaumarchais's Mariage de Figaro; and 
in several minor character parts, which she raised to the first 
importance, and as the soubrette in the plays of Moliere and 
Marivaux, she found opportunities exactly fitted to her talents. 
She retired in 1809 and married de Parny, nephew of the poet. 
Her sister Marie Emilie Contat (1769-1846), an admirable 
soubrette, especially as the pert servant drawn by Moliere and 
de Regnard, made her d6but in 1784, and retired in 1815. 

CONTE, literally a " story," derived from the Fr. confer, to 
narrate, through low Lat. and Provencal forms contare and 
comtar. This word, although not recognized by the New English 
Dictionary as an English term, is yet so frequently used in 
English literary criticisms that some definition of it seems to be 
demanded. A conle, in French, differs from a r&cit or a rapport 
in the element of style; it may be described as an anecdote told 
with deliberate art, and in this introduction of art lies its peculiar 
literary value. According to Littre, there is no fundamental 
difference between a conle and a roman, and all that can be said 
is that the conle is the generic term, covering long stories and 
short alike, whereas the roman (or novel) must extend to a 
certain length. But if this is the primitive and correct significa- 
tion of the word, it is certain that modern criticism thinks of a 
conle essentially as a short story, and as a short story exclusively 
occupied in illustrating one set of ideas or one disposition of 
character. As early as the i3th century, the word is used in 
French literature to describe an anecdote thus briefly and 
artistically told, in prose or verse. The fairy-tales of Perrault 
and the apologues of La Fontaine were alike spoken of as conies, 

and stories of peculiar extravagance were known as conies bleus, 
because they were issued to the common public in coarse blue 
paper covers. The most famous conies in the i8th century were 
those of Voltaire, who has been described as having invented 
the conle philosophique. But those brilliant stories, Candide, 
Zadig, L'Ingenu, La Princesse de Babylone and Le Taureau blanc, 
are not, in the modern sense, conies at all. The longer of these 
are romans, the shorter nouiielles; not one has the anecdotical 
unity required by a conle. The same may be said of those of 
Marmontel, and of the insipid imitations of Oriental fancy which 
were so popular at the close of the i8th century. The most per- 
fect recent writer of conies is certainly Guy de Maupassant, and 
his celebrated anecdote called " Boule de suif " may be taken 
as an absolutely perfect example of this class of literature, the 
precise limitations of which it is difficult to define. (E. G.) 

CONTE, NICOLAS JACQUES (1755-1805), French mechanical 
genius, chemist and painter, was born at Aunou-sur-Orne, near 
Sees, on the 4th of August 1755, of a family of poor farm labourers. 
At the age of fourteen he displayed precocious artistic talent 
in a series of religious panels, remarkably fine in colour and 
composition, for the principal hospital of Sees, where he was 
employed to help the gardener. With the advice of Greuze he 
took up portrait painting, quickly became the fashion, and laid 
by in a few years a fair competency. From that time he gave free 
rein to his passion for the mechanical arts and scientific studies. 
He attended the lectures of J. A. C. Charles, L. N. Vaquelin and 
J. B. Leroy, and exhibited before the Academy of Science an 
hydraulic machine of his own invention of which the model was 
the subject of a flattering report, and was placed in Charles's 
collection. The events of the Revolution soon gave him an 
opportunity for a further display of his inventive faculty. The 
war with England deprived France of plumbago; he substituted 
for it an artificial substance obtained from a mixture of graphite 
and clay, and took out a patent in 1795 for the form of pencil 
which still bears his name. At this time he was associated with 
Monge and Berthollet in experiments in connexion with the 
inflation of military balloons, was conducting the school for that 
department of the engineer corps at Meudon, was perfecting the 
methods of producing hydrogen in quantity, and was appointed 
(1796) by the Directory to the command of all the aerostatic 
establishments. He was at the head of the newly created 
Conservatoire des arts et metiers, and occupied himself with 
experiments in new compositions of permanent colours, and in 
1798 constructed a metal-covered barometer for measuring 
comparative heights, by observing the weight of mercury 
issuing from the tube. Summoned by Bonaparte to take part 
as chief of the aerostatic corps in the expedition to Egypt, he 
considerably extended his field of activity, and for three years 
and a half was, to quote Berthollet, " the soul of the colony." 
The disaster of Aboukir and the revolt of Cairo had caused the 
loss of the greater part of the instruments and munitions taken 
out by the French. Conte, who, as Monge says, " had every 
science in his head and every art in his hands," and whom the 
First Consul described as " good at everything," seemed to be 
everywhere at once and triumphed over apparently insur- 
mountable difficulties. He made, in an almost uncivilized 
country, utensils, tools and machinery of every sort from simple 
windmills to stamps for minting coin. Thanks to his activity 
and genius, the expedition was provided with bread, cloth, arms 
and munitions of war; the engineers with the exact tools of 
their trade; the surgeons with operating instruments. He 
made the designs, built the models, organized and supervised 
the manufacture, and seemed to be able to invent immediately 
anything required. On his return to France in 1802 he was 
commissioned by the minister of the interior, Chaptal, to super- 
intend the publication of the great work of the commission on 
Egypt, and an engraving machine of his construction materially 
shortened this task, which, however, he did not live to see 
finished. He died at Paris on the 6th of December 1805. 
Napoleon had included him in his first promotions to the Legion 
of Honour. A bronze statue was erected to his memory in 1852 
at Sees, by public subscription. 


CONTEMPT OF COURT, in English law, any disobedience 
or disrespect to the authority or privileges of a legislative body, 
or interference with the administration of a court of justice. 

1. The High Court of Parliament. Each of the two houses 
of Parliament has by the law and custom of parliament power 
to protect its freedom, dignity and authority against insult, 
disregard or violence by resort to its own process and not to 
ordinary courts of law and without having its process interfered 
with by those courts. The nature and limits of this authority 
to punish for contempt have been the subject of not infrequent 
conflict with the courts of law, from the time when Lord Chief 
Justice Holt threatened to commit the speaker for attempting 
to stop the trial of Ashby v. White (1701), as a breach of privilege, 
to the cases of Burdetl v. Abbott (1810), Stockdale v. Hansard 
and Howard v. Cosset (1842, 1843), and Bradlaugh v. Cosset 
(1884). It is now the accepted view that the power of either 
House to punish contempt is exceptional and derived from 
ancient usage, and does not flow from their being courts of 
record. Orders for committal by the Commons are effectual 
only while the House sits; orders by the Lords may be for a 
time specified, in which event prorogation does not operate as 
a discharge of the offender. It was at one time considered that 
the privilege of committing for contempt was inherent in every 
deliberative body invested with authority by the constitution, 
and consequently that colonial legislative bodies had by the 
nature of their functions the power to commit for contempt. 
But in Kielley v. Carson (1843; 4 Moore, P.C. 63) it was held 
that the power belonged to parliament by ancient usage only 
and not on the theory abve stated, and in each colony it is 
necessary to inquire how far the colonial legislature has acquired, 
by order in council or charter or from the imperial legislature, 
power to punish breach of privilege by imprisonment or com- 
mittal for contempt. This power has in some cases been_given 
directly, in others by authority to make laws and regulations 
under sanctions like those enforced by the Houses of the imperial 
parliament. In the case of Nova Scotia the provincial assem- 
bly has power to give itself by statute authority to commit 
for contempt (Fielding v. Thomas, 1896; L.R.A.C. 600). In 
Barton v. Taylor (1886; n A.C. 197) the competence of the 
legislative assembly of New South Wales to make standing 
orders punishing contempt was recognized to exist under the 
colonial constitution, but the particular standing orders under 
consideration are held not to cover the acts which had been 
punished. (See May, Parl. Pr., loth ed., 1896; Anson, Law 
and Custom of the Constitution, 3rd ed., 1897.) 

2. Courts of Justice. The term contempt of court, when used 
with reference to the courts or persons to whom the exercise 
of the judicial functions of the crown has been delegated, means 
insult offered to such court or person by deliberate defiance of 
its authority, disobedience to its orders, interruption of its 
proceedings or interference with the due course of justice, or 
any conduct calculated or tending to bring the authority or 
administration of the law into disrespect or disregard, or to 
interfere with or prejudice parties or witnesses during the 
litigation. The ingenuity of the judges and of those who are 
concerned to defeat or defy justice have rendered contempt 
almost Protean in its character. But for practical purposes 
most, if not all, contempts fall within the classification which 

(a) Disobedience to the judgment or order of a court com- 
manding the doing or abstaining from a particular act, e.g. an 
order to execute a conveyance of property or an order on a 
person in a fiduciary capacity to pay into court trust moneys 
as to which he is an accounting party. This includes disobedience 
by the members of a local authority to a mandamus to do some 
act which they are by law bound to do; and proceedings for 
contempt have been taken in the case of guardians of the poor 
who have refused to enforce the Vaccination Acts, e.g. at 
Keighley and Leicester, and of town councillors who have 
refused to comply with an order to take specified measures to 
drain their borough (e.g. Worcester) . This process for compelling 
obedience is in substance a process of civil execution for the 

benefit of the injured party rather than a criminal process for 
punishing the disobedience; and for purposes of appeal orders 
dealing with these forms of contempt have hitherto been treated 
as civil proceedings. 

(b) Disobedience by inferior judges or magistrates to the 
lawful order of a superior court. Such disobedience, if amounting 
to wilful misconduct, would usually give ground for amotion 
or removal from office, or for prosecution or indictment or 
information for misconduct (Archbold, Criminal Pleading, 147, 
23rd ed.). 

(c) Disobedience or misconduct by executive officers of the 
law, e.g. sheriffs and their bailiffs or gaolers. The contempt 
consists in not complying with the terms of writs or warrants 
sent for execution. For instance, a judge of assize having 
ordered the court to be cleared on account of some disturbance, 
the high sheriff issued a placard protesting against " this un- 
lawful proceeding," and " prohibiting his officer from aiding 
and abetting any attempt to bar out the public from free access 
to the court." The lord chief justice of England, sitting in the 
other court, summoned the sheriff before him and fined him 
500 for the contempt, and 500 more for persisting in addressing 
the grand jury in court, after he had been ordered to desist. 
A sheriff who fails to attend the assizes is liable to severe fine 
as being in contempt (Oswald, 51). And in Harvey's case 
(1884, 26 Ch. D. 644) steps were taken to attach a sheriff who 
had failed to execute a writ of attachment for contempt of court 
in the mistaken belief that he was not entitled to break open 
doors to take the person in contempt. The Sheriffs Act 1887 
enumerates many instances in which misconduct is punishable 
under that act, but reserves to superior courts of record power 
to deal with such misconduct as a contempt (s. 29). 

(d) Misconduct or neglect of duty by subordinate officials 
of courts of justice, including solicitors. In these cases it is 
more usual for the superior authorities to remove the offender 
from office, or for disciplinary proceedings to be instituted by 
the Law Society. But in the case of an unqualified person 
assuming to act as a solicitor or in the case of breach of an 
undertaking given by a solicitor to the court, proceedings for 
contempt are still taken. 

(e) Misconduct by parties, jurors or witnesses. Jurors who 
fail to attend in obedience to a jury summons and witnesses 
who fail to attend on subpoena are liable to punishment for 
contempt, and parties, counsel or solicitors who practise a 
fraud on the court are similarly liable. 

(/) Contempt in facie curiae. " Some contempts." says 
Blackstone, " may arise in the face of the court, as by rude 
and contumelious behaviour, by obstinacy, perverseness or 
prevarication, by breach of the peace, or any wilful disturbance 
whatever "; in other words, direct insult to or interference 
with a sitting court is treated as contempt of the court. It is 
immaterial whether the offender is juror, party, witness, counsel, 
solicitor or a stranger to the case at hearing, and occasionally 
it is found necessary to punish for contempt persons under 
trial for felony or misdemeanour if by violent language or conduct 
they interrupt the proceedings at their trial. Judges have even 
treated as contempt the continuance outside the court-house 
after warning of a noise sufficient to disturb the proceedings 
of the court; and in Victoria Chief Justice Higginbotham 
committed for contempt a builder who persisted after warning 
in building operations close to the central criminal court in 
Melbourne, which interfered with the due conduct of the business 
of the sittings. 

(g) Attempts to prevent or interfere with the due course 
of justice, whether made by a person interested in a particular 
case or by an outsider. This branch of contempt takes many 
forms, such as frauds on the court by justices, solicitors cr counsel 
(e.g. by fraudulently circularizing shareholders of a company 
against which a winding-up petition had been filed), tampering 
with witnesses by inducing them through threats or persuasion 
not to attend or to withhold evidence or to commit perjury, 
threatening judge or jury or attempting to bribe them and the 
like; and also by "scandalizing the court itself" by abusing 


the parties concerned in a pending case, or by creating prejudice 
against such persons before their cause is heard. 

The locus classicus on the subject of contempt by attacks 
on judges is a judgment prepared by Sir Eardley-Wilmot in the 
case of an application for an attachment against 
invectives j Almon in 1765, for publishing a pamphlet libelling 
fcfdVes the court of king's bench. The judgment was not 
actually delivered as the case was settled, but has long 
been accepted as correctly stating the law. Sir Eardley-Wilmot 
said that the offence of libelling judges in their judicial capacity 
is the most proper case for an attachment, for the " arraignment 
of the justice of the judges is arraigning the king's justice; it 
is an impeachment of his wisdom and goodness in the choice of 
his judges; and excites in the minds of the people a general 
dissatisfaction with all judicial determinations, and indisposes 
their minds to obey them. To be impartial, and to be universally 
thought 'so, are both absolutely necessary for the giving justice 
that free, open and uninterrupted current which it has for many 
ages found all over this kingdom, and which so eminently 
distinguishes and exalts it above all nations upon the earth." 
Again, " the constitution has provided very apt and proper 
remedies for correcting and rectifying the involuntary mistakes 
of judges, and for punishing and removing them for any perver- 
sion of justice. But if their authority is to be trampled on by 
pamphleteers and news-writers, and the people are to be told 
that the power given to the judges for their protection is prosti- 
tuted to their destruction, the court may retain its power some 
little time, but I am sure it will eventually lose all its authority." 

The object of the discipline enforced by the court by proceed- 
ings for contempt of court is not now, if it ever was, to vindicate 
the personal dignity of the judges or to protect them from 
insult as individuals, but to vindicate the dignity and authority 
of the court itself and to prevent acts tending to obstruct the 
due course of justice. The question whether a personal invective 
against judges should be dealt with brevi manu by the court 
attacked, or by proceedings at the instance of the attorney- 
general by information or indictment for a libel on the adminis- 
tration of justice or on the judge attacked, or should be dealt 
with by a civil action for damages, depends on the nature and 
occasion of the attack on the judge. 

There has at times been a disposition by judges in colonial 
courts to use the process of the court to punish criticisms on 
their acts by counsel or parties or even outsiders, which the 
privy council has been prone to discourage. For instance in a 
Nova Scotia case a barrister was suspended from practice for 
writing to the chief justice of the province a letter relating to 
a case in which the barrister was suitor. The privy council 
while considering the letter technically a contempt, held the 
punishment inappropriate. In Maclcod v. St Aubyn (1899, 
A.C. 549) it was said that proceedings for scandalizing the 
court itself were obsolete in England. But in 1900 the king's 
bench division, following the Almon case, summarily punished 
a scurrilous personal attack on a judge of assize with reference 
to his remarks in a concluded case, published immediately after 
the conclusion of the case (R. v. Gray, 1900, 2 Q.B. 36). The 
same measure may be meted out to those who publish invectives 
against judges or juries with the object of creating suspicion 
or contempt as to the administration of justice. But the exist- 
ence of this power does not militate against the right of the press 
to publish full reports of trials and judgments or to make with 
fairness, good faith, candour and decency, comments and 
criticisms on what passed at the trial and on the correctness of 
the verdict or the judgment. To impute corruption is said to go 
beyond the limits of fair criticism. Shortt (Law relating to 
Works of Literature) states the law to be that the temperate and 
respectful discussion of judicial determination is not prohibited, 
but mere invective and abuse, and still more the imputation of 
false, corrupt and dishonest motives is punishable. In an 
information granted in 1788 against the corporation of Yarmouth 
for having entered upon their books an order " stating that the 
assembly were sensible that Mr W. (against whom an action had 
been brought for malicious prosecution, and a verdict for 3000 

returned, which the court refused to disturb) was actuated by 
motives of public justice, of preserving the rights of the corpora- 
tion to their admiralty jurisdiction, and of supporting the honour 
and credit of the chief magistrate, " Mr Justice Buller said, " The 
judge and jury who tried the case, confirmed by the court of 
common pleas, have said that instead of his having been actuated 
by motives of public justice, or by any motives which should 
influence the actions of an honest man, he had been actuated 
by malice. These opinions are not reconcilable; if the one be 
right the other must be wrong. It is therefore a direct insinua- 
tion that the court had judged wrong in all they have done in 
this case, and is therefore clearly a libel on the administration of 

The exact limits of the power to punish for contempt of court 
in respect of statements or comments on the action of judges and 
juries, or with reference to pending proceedings, have been the 
subject of some controversy, owing to the difficulty of reconciling 
the claims of the press to liberty and of the public to free dis- 
cussion of the proceedings of courts of justice with the claims of 
the judges to due respect and of the parties to litigation that 
their causes should not be prejudiced before trial by outside inter- 
ference. As the law now stands it is permissible to publish con- 
temporaneous reports of the proceedings in cases pending in any 
court (Law of Libel Amendment Act 1888, s. 3), unless the 
proceedings have taken place in private (in camera), or the court 
has in the interests of justice prohibited any report until the case 
is concluded, a course now rarely, if ever, adopted. But it is not 
permissible to make any comments on a pending case calculated 
to interfere with the due course of justice in the case, nor to 
publish statements about the cause or the parties calculated 
to have that effect. This rule applies even when the case has 
been tried and the jury has disagreed if a second trial is in 
prospect. Applications are frequently made to commit pro- 
prietors and editors who comment too freely or who undertake 
the task of trying in their newspapers a pending case. The courts 
are now slow to move unless satisfied that the statements or 
comments may seriously affect the course of justice, e.g. by 
reaching the jurors who have to try the case. 

The difference between pending and decided cases has been 
frequently recognized by the courts. What would be a fair 
comment in a decided case may tend to influence the mind 
of the judge or the jury in a case waiting to be heard, and will 
accordingly be punished as a contempt. In Tichborne v. Mostyn 
the publisher of a newspaper was held to have committed a 
contempt by printing in his paper extracts from affidavits in a 
pending suit, with comments upon them. In the case of R. v. 
Castro it was held that after a true bill has been found, and the 
indictment removed into the court of queen's bench, and a day 
fixed for trial, the case was pending; and it was a contempt 
of court to address public meetings, alleging that the defendant 
was not guilty, that there was a conspiracy against the defendant, 
and that he could not have a fair trial; and the court ordered 
the parties to answer for their contempt. In the case of the Moat 
Farm murder (1903) the high court punished as contempt a 
series of articles published in a newspaper while the preliminary 
inquiry was proceeding and before the case went to a jury 
(R. v. Parker, 1903, 2 K.B. 432). The like course was followed 
in 1905 in the case of statements made in a Welsh newspaper 
about a woman awaiting trial for attempted murder (R. v. 
Dames, 1906, i K.B. 32); and in the case of the Weekly Dis- 
patch in 1902 (R. v. Tibbits and Windust, i K.B. 77), two journal- 
ists were tried on indictment, and held to have been rightly 
convicted, for conspiring to prevent the course of justice by 
publishing matter calculated to interfere with the fair trial of 
persons who were under accusation. 

" In the superior courts the power of committing for con- 
tempt is inherent in their constitution, has been coeval with their 
original institution and has been always exercised " courts 
(Oswald, On Contempt, 3). The high court in which having 
these courts are merged is the only court which has 
a general jurisdiction to deal summarily with all forms 
of contempt. Each division of that court deals with 

ilon ' 




the particular contempts arising with reference to proceedings 
before the division; but the king's bench division, in the exercise 
of the supervisory authority inherited from the old court of king's 
bench as custos morum, also from time to time deals with acts 
constituting interference with justice in other inferior courts 
whether of record or not. The nature and limits of this jurisdic- 
tion after much discussion have been defined by decisions in 1903 
and 1905 in attempts to try by newspapers cases under inquiry 
by justices or awaiting trial at assizes or quarter sessions. The 
exercise of this authority in the king's bench division, being in 
a criminal cause or matter, is not the subject of appeal to any 
higher court. 

Inferior courts of record have, as a general rule, power to 
punish only those contempts which are committed in facie curiae 
or consist in disobedience to the lawful orders or judgments of 
the court. For instance, a county court may summarily punish 
persons who insult the judge or any officer of the court or any 
juror or witness, or wilfully interrupt the proceedings, or mis- 
behave in the court-house (County Court Act i888,'s. 162), and 
may also attack persons who having means refuse to comply 
with an order to pay money, or refuse to comply with an order 
to deliver up a specific chattel or disobey an injunction. A court 
of quarter sessions has at common law a like power as to con- 
tempts in facie curiae and is said to have power to punish its 
officials for contempt in non-attendance or neglect of duty. 

Contempt of court is a misdemeanour and is punishable by 
fine and imprisonment or either at discretion. The offence may 
be tried summarily, or may be prosecuted on informa- 
tion or on indictment as was done in the case of the 
Weekly Dispatch already mentioned. The prerogative 
of pardon extends to all contempts of court which are dealt with 
by a sentence of clearly punitive character; but it is doubtful 
whether it extends to committals for disobedience to orders 
made in aid of the execution of a civil judgment. 

Contempt is usually dealt with summarily by the court con- 
temned in the case of contempt in facie curiae. The offender 
may be instantly apprehended and without further proof or 
examination fined or sent to prison. In the case of other con- 
tempts the High Court not only can deal with contempts affecting 
itself, but can also intervene summarily to protect inferior courts 
from contempts. This jurisdiction was asserted and exercised 
in the Moat Farm case (1903) and the South Wales Post case 
(1905) already mentioned. 

Except in cases of contempt in facie curiae evidence on oath 
as to the alleged contempt must be laid before the court, and 
application made for the " committal " or " attachment " of 
the offender. The differences between the two modes are 
technical rather than substantial. 

The procedure for dealing with contempt of court varies 
somewhat according as the contempt consists in disobeying 
an order of the High Court made in a civil cause, or consists in 
interference with the course of justice by persons not present in 
court nor parties to the cause. In the first class of cases the court 
proceeds by order of committal or giving leave to issue writ of 
attachment. In either case the person said to be in contempt 
must have full notice of the proposed motion and of the grounds 
on which he is said to be in contempt; and the rules regulating 
such proceedings must be strictly complied with (R. v. Tuck, 
1906, 2 Ch. 692). In proceedings on the crown side of the king's 
bench division it is still usual to apply in the first place for a rule 
nisi for leave to attach the alleged offender who is given an 
opportunity of explaining, excusing or justifying the incriminated 
acts. It is essential that before punishment the alleged offender 
should have had full notice as to the specific offence charged 
and opportunity of answering to it. The king's bench procedure 
is that generally used for interference with the due course of 
criminal justice or disobedience to prerogative writs such as 

An order of committal is an order in execution specifying the 
nature of the detention to be suffered, or the penalty to be paid. 
The process of attachment merely brings the accused into court ; 
he is then required to answer on oath interrogatories administered 

to him, so that the court may be better informed of the circum- 
stances of the contempt. If he can clear himself on oath he is 
discharged; if he confesses the court will punish him by fine or 
imprisonment, or both, at its discretion. But in very many cases 
on proper apology and submission, and undertaking not to repeat 
the contempt, and payment of costs, the court allows the 
proceedings to drop without proceeding to fine or imprison. 

From time to time proposals have been made to deprive the 
superior courts of the power to deal summarily with contempts 
not committed in facie curiae, and to require proceedings on 
other charges for contempt to go before a jury. This distinction 
has already been made hi some British colonies, e.g. British 
Guiana, by an ordinance of 1900 (No. 31). Recent decisions 
in England have so fully defined the limits of the offence and 
declared the practice of the courts that it would probably only 
result in undue licence of the press if the power now carefully 
and judicially exercised of dealing summarily with journalistic 
interference with the ordinary course of justice were taken away 
and the delay involved in submitting the case to a jury were made 
inevitable. The courts now only act in clear cases, and in cases 
of doubt can always send the question to a jury. The experience 
of other countries makes it undesirable to part with the summary 
remedy so long as it is in the hands of a trusted judicature. 

Scotland. In Scotland the courts of session and justiciary have, 
at common law, and exercise the power of punishing contempt 
committed during a judicial proceeding by censure, fine or imprison- 
ment proprio motu without formal proceedings or a summary com- 
plaint. The nature of the offence is there in substance the same as 
in England (see Petrie, 1889: 7 Rettie Justiciary 3; Smith, 1892: 
20 Rettie Justiciary 52). 

Ireland. In Ireland the law of contempt is on the same lines as in 
England, but conflicts have arisen between the bench and popular 
opinion, due to political and religious differences, which have led 
to proposals for making juries and not judges arbiters in cases of 

British Dominions beyond Seas. The courts of most British 
possessions have acquired and freely exercise the power of the court 
of king's bench to deal summarily with contempt of court; and, 
as already stated, it is not infrequently the duty of the privy council 
to restrain too exuberant a vindication of the offended dignity of a 
colonial court. (W. F. C.) 

CONTI, PRINCES OF. The title of prince of Conti, assumed 
by a younger branch of the house of Conde, was taken from 
Conti-sur-Selles, a small town about 20 m. S.W. of Amiens, 
which came into the Conde family by the marriage of Louis of 
Bourbon, first prince of Conde, with Eleanor de Roye in 1551. 

FRANCOIS (1558-1614), the third son of this marriage, was 
given the title of marquis de Conti, and between 1581 and 1597 
was elevated to the rank of a prince. Conti, who belonged to 
the older faith, appears to have taken no part in the wars of 
religion until 1587, when his distrust of Henry, third duke of 
Guise, caused him to declare against the League, and to support 
Henry of Navarre, afterwards King Henry IV. of France. In 
1589 after the murder of Henry III., king of France, he was one 
of the two princes of the blood who signed the declaration 
recognizing Henry IV. as king, and he continued to support 
Henry, although on the death of Charles cardinal de Bourbon 
in 1590 he himself was mentioned as a candidate for the throne. 
In 1605 Conti, whose first wife Jeanne de Coeme, heiress of 
Bonnetable, had died in 1601, married the beautiful and witty 
Louise Marguerite (1574-1631), daughter of Henry duke of 
Guise and Catherine of Cleves, whom, but for the influence of 
his mistress Gabrielle d'Estrees, Henry IV. would have made 
his queen. Conti died in 1614. His only child Marie having 
predeceased him in 1610, the title lapsed. His widow followed 
the fortunes of Marie de' Medici, from whom she received many 
marks of favour, and was secretly married to Francois de 
Bassompierre (<?..), who joined her in conspiring against Cardinal 
Richelieu. Upon the exposure of the plot the cardinal exiled 
her to her estate at Eu, near Amiens, where she died. The 
princess wrote Aventures de la cour de Perse, in which, under the 
veil of fictitious scenes and names, she tells the history of her 
own time. 

In 1629 the title of prince de Conti was revived in favour of 
ARMAND DE BOURBON (1629-1666), second son of Henry II. of 


Bourbon, prince of Conde, and brother of Louis, the great 
Conde. He was destined for the church and studied theology 
at the university of Bourges, but although he received several 
benefices he did not take orders. He played a conspicuous 
part in the intrigues and fighting of the Fronde, became in 1648 
commander-in-chief of the rebel army, and in 1650 was with 
his brother Conde imprisoned at Vincennes. Released when 
Mazarin went into exile, he wished to marry Mademoiselle de 
Chevreuse (1627-1652), daughter of the famous confidante of 
Anne of Austria, but was prevented by his brother, who was now 
supreme in the state. He was concerned in the Fronde of 1651, 
but soon afterwards became reconciled with Mazarin, and in 
1654 married the cardinal's niece, Anne Marie Martinozzi 
(1630-1672), and secured the government of Guienne. He took 
command of the army which in 1654 invaded Catalonia, where 
he captured three towns from the Spaniards. He afterwards 
led the French forces in Italy, but after his defeat before Ales- 
sandria in 1657 retired to Languedoc, where he devoted himself 
to study and mysticism until his death. At Clermont Conti had 
been a fellow student of Moliere's for whom he secured an 
introduction to the court of Louis XIV., but afterwards, when 
writing a treatise against the stage entitled Traile de la comedie 
et des spectacles selon les traditions de l'glise (Paris, 1667), he 
charged the dramatist with keeping a school of atheism. Conti 
also wrote Leltres sur la grace, and Du devoir des grands et des 
devoirs des gouverneurs de province. 

Louis ARMAND DE BOURBON, prince de Conti (1661-1685), 
eldest son of the preceding, succeeded his father in 1666, and in 
1680 married Marie Anne, a daughter of Louis XIV. and Louise 
de la Valliere. He served with distinction in Flanders in 1683, 
and against the wish of the king went to Hungary, where he 
assisted the Imperialists to defeat the Turks at Gran in 1683. 
After a dissolute life he died at Fontainebleau from smallpox. 

FRANCOIS Louis DE BOURBON, prince de Conti (1664-1709), 
younger brother of the preceding, was known until 1685 as prince 
de la Roche-sur-Yon. Naturally of great ability, he received 
an excellent education and was distinguished both for the 
independence of his mind and the popularity of his manners. 
On this account he was not received with favour by Louis XIV.; 
so in 1683 he assisted the Imperialists in Hungary, and while 
there he wrote some letters in which he referred to Louis as le 
roi du th&dtre, for which on his return to France he was temporarily 
banished to Chantilly. Conti was a favourite of his uncle the 
great Conde, whose grand-daughter Marie Therese de Bourbon 
(1666-1732) he married in 1688. In 1689 he accompanied his 
intimate friend Marshal Luxembourg to the Netherlands, and 
shared in the French victories at Fleurus, Steinkirk and Neer- 
winden. On the death of his cousin, Jean Louis Charles, due 
de Longueville (1646-1694), Conti in accordance with his 
cousin's will, claimed the principality of Neuchatel against 
Marie, duchesse de Nemours (1625-1707), a sister of the duke. 
He failed to obtain military assistance from the Swiss, and by 
the king's command yielded the disputed territory to Marie, 
although the courts of law had decided in his favour. In 1697 
Louis XIV. offered him the Polish crown, and by means of 
bribes the abbe de Polignac secured his election. Conti started 
rather unwillingly for his new kingdom, probably, as St Simon 
remarks, owing to his affection for Francoise, wife of Philip II., 
duke of Orleans, and daughter of Louis XIV. and Madame de 
Montespan. When he reached Danzig and found his rival 
Augustus II., elector of Saxony, already in possession of the 
Polish crown, he returned to France, where he was graciously 
received by Louis, although St Simon says the king was vexed 
to see him again. But the misfortunes of the French armies 
during the earlier years of the war of the Spanish Succession 
compelled Louis to appoint Conti, whose military renown stood 
very high, to command the troops in Italy. He fell ill before 
he could take the field, and died on the 9th of February 1709, 
his death calling forth exceptional signs of mourning from all 

Louis ARMAND DE BOURBON, prince de Conti (1696-1727), 
eldest son of the preceding, was treated with great liberality 

by Louis XIV., and also by the regent, Philip duke of Orleans. 
He served under Marshal Villars in the War of the Spanish 
Succession, but he lacked the soldierly qualities of his father. 
In 1713 he married Louise Elisabeth (1693-1775), daughter of 
Louis Henri de Bourbon, prince de Conde, and grand-daughter 
of Louis XIV. He was a prominent supporter of the financial 
schemes of John Law, by which he made large sums of money. 

Louis FRANCOIS DE BOURBON, prince de Conti (1717-1776), 
only son of the preceding, adopted a military career, and when 
the war of the Austrian Succession broke out in 1741 accompanied 
Charles Louis, due de Belle-Isle, to Bohemia. His services 
there led to his appointment to command the army in Italy, 
where he distinguished himself by forcing the pass of Villafranca 
and winning the battle of Coni in 1744. In 1745 he was sent to 
check the Imperialists in Germany, and in 1746 was transferred 
to the Netherlands, where some jealousy between Marshal Saxe 
and himself led to his retirement in 1747. In this year a faction 
among the Polish nobles offered Conti the crown of that country, 
where owing to the feeble health of King Augustus III. a vacancy 
was expected. He won the personal support of Louis XV. for 
his candidature, although the policy of the French ministers 
was to establish the house of Saxony in Poland, as the dauphiness 
was a daughter of Augustus. Louis therefore began secret 
personal relations with his ambassadors in eastern Europe, who 
were thus receiving contradictory instructions; a policy known 
later as the secret du roi. Although Conti did not secure the Polish 
throne he remained in the confidence of Louis until 1755, when 
his influence was destroyed by the intrigues of Madame de 
Pompadour; so that when the Seven Years' War broke out in 
1756 he was refused the command of the army of the Rhine, 
and began the opposition to the administration which caused 
Louis to refer to him as " my cousin the advocate." In 1771 
he was prominent in opposition to the chancellor Maupeou. 
He supported the parlements against the ministry, was especially 
active in his hostility to Turgot, and was suspected of aiding a 
rising which took place at Dijon in 1775. Conti, who died on 
the 2nd of August 1776, inherited literary tastes from his father, 
was a brave and skilful general, and a diligent student of military 
history. His house, over which the comtesse de Boufflers 
presided, was the resort of many men of letters, and he was a 
patron of Jean Jacques Rousseau. 

Louis FRANCOIS JOSEPH, prince de Conti (1734-1814), son 
of the preceding, possessed considerable talent as a soldier, and 
distinguished himself during the Seven Years' War. He took 
the side of Maupeou in the struggle between the chancellor and 
the parlements, and in 1788 declared that the integrity of the 
constitution must be maintained. He emigrated owing to the 
weakness of Louis XVI., but refused to share in the plans for 
the invasion of France, and returned to his native country in 
1790. Arrested by order of the National Convention in 1793, 
he was acquitted, but was reduced to poverty by the confiscation 
of his possessions. He afterwards received a pension, but the 
Directory banished him from France, and as he refused to share 
in the plots of the royalists he lived at Barcelona till his death 
in 1814, when the house of Conti became extinct. 

See F. de Bassompierre, Memoires (Paris, 1877); G. Tallemant 
des Reaux, Historiettes (Paris, 1854-1860); L. de R. due de Saint 
Simon, Memoires (Paris, 1873); C. E. duchesse d'Orleans, Memoires 
(Paris, 1880); R. L. Marquis d'Areenson, Journal et memoires 
(Paris, 1859-1865); F. J. de P. cardinal de Bernis, Memoires et 
lettres (Paris, 1878) ; J. V. A. due de Broglie, Le Secret du roi (Paris, 
1878); P. A. Cheruel, Histoire de la minorite de Louis XIV et du 
ministere de Mazarin (Paris, 1879); E. Boutaric, Correspondance 
secrete de Louis XV sur la politique etrangere (Paris, 1866); P. 
Foncin, Essai sur le ministere de Turgot (Paris, 1877) ; E. Bourgeois 
Neuchatel et la politique prussienne en Franche-Comte (Paris, 1877). 

CONTI, NICOLO DE' (fl. 1410-1444), Venetian explorer and 
writer, was a merchant of noble family, who left Venice about 
1419, on what proved an absence of 25 years. We next find 
him in Damascus, whence he made his way over the north 
Arabian desert, the Euphrates, and southern Mesopotamia, 
to Bagdad. Here he took ship and sailed down the Tigris to 
Basra and the head of the Persian Gulf; he next descended 
the gulf to Ormuz, coasted along the Indian Ocean shore of 



Persia (at one port of which he remained some time, and entered 
into a business partnership with some Persian merchants), and 
so reached the gulf and city of Cambay, where he began his 
Indian life and observations. He next dropped down the west 
coast of India to Ely, and struck inland to Vijayanagar, the 
capital of the principal Hindu state of the Deccan, destroyed 
in IS55- Of this city Conti gives an elaborate description, one 
of the most interesting portions of his narrative. From Vijay- 
anagar and the Tungabudhra he travelled to Maliapur near 
Madras, the traditional resting-place of the body of St Thomas, 
and the holiest shrine of the native Nestorian Christians, then 
" scattered over all India," the Venetian declares, " as the Jews 
are among us." The narrative next refers to Ceylon, and gives 
a very accurate account of the Cingalese cinnamon tree; but, 
if Conti visited the island at all, it was probably on the return 
journey. His outward route now took him to Sumatra, where 
he stayed a year, and of whose cruel, brutal, cannibal natives 
he gained a pretty full knowledge, as of the camphor, pepper 
and gold of this " Taprobana." From Sumatra a stormy 
voyage of sixteen days brought him to Tenasserim, near the 
head of the Malay Peninsula. We then find him at the mouth 
of the Ganges, and trace him ascending and descending that 
river (a journey of several months), visiting Burdwan and 
Aracan, penetrating into Burma, and navigating the Irawadi to 
Ava. He appears to have spent some time in Pegu, from which 
he again plunged into the Malay Archipelago, and visited Java, 
his farthest point. Here he remained nine months, and then 
began his return by way of Ciampa (usually Cochin-China in 
later medieval European literature, but here perhaps some more 
westerly portion of Indo- China); a month's voyage from 
Ciampa brought him to Coloen, doubtless Kulam or Quilon, in 
the extreme south-west of India. Thence he continued his 
homeward route, touching at Cochin, Calicut and Cambay, to 
Sokotra, which he describes as still mainly inhabited by Nestorian 
Christians; to the " rich city " of Aden, " remarkable for its 
buildings "; to Gidda or Jidda, the port of Mecca; over the 
desert to Carras or Cairo; and so to Venice, where he arrived 
in 1444. 

As a penance for his (compulsory) renunciation of the Christian 
faith during his wanderings, Eugenius IV. ordered him to relate 
his history to Poggio Bracciolini, the papal secretary. The 
narrative closes with Conti's elaborate replies to Poggio's question 
on Indian life, social classes, religion, fashions, manners, customs 
and peculiarities of various kinds. Following a prevalent 
fashion, the Venetian divides his Indies into three parts, the first 
extending from Persia to the Indus; the second from the Indus 
to the Ganges; the third including all beyond the Ganges; 
this last he considered to excel the others in wealth, culture 
and magnificence, and to be abreast of Italy in civilization. 
We may note, moreover, Conti's account of the bamboo in the 
Ganges valley; of the catching, taming and rearing of elephants 
in Burma and other regions; of Indian tattooing and the use 
of leaves for writing; of various Indian fruits, especially the 
jack and mango; of the polyandry of Malabar; of the cock- 
fighting of Java; of what is apparently the bird of Paradise; 
of Indian funeral ceremonies, and especially suttee; of the self- 
mutilation and immolation of Indian fanatics; and of Indian 
magic, navigation (" they are not acquainted with the compass "), 
justice, &c. Several venerable legends are reproduced; and 
Conti's name-forms, partly through Poggio's vicious classicism, 
are often absolutely unrecognizable; but on the whole this is 
the best account of southern Asia by any European of the 
i$th century; while the traveller's visit to Sokotra is an almost 
though not quite unique performance for a Latin Christian of 
the middle ages. 

The original Latin is in Poggio's De varielate Fortunae, book iv. ; 
see the edition of the Abbe Oliva (Paris, 1723). The Italian version, 
printed in Ramusio's Navigationi et viaggi, vol. i., is only from 
a Portuguese translation made in Lisbon. An English translation 
with short notes was made by J. Winter Jones for the Hakluyt 
Society in the vol. entitled India in the Fifteenth Century (London, 
'857); an introductory account of the traveller and his work by 
R. H. Major precedes. (C. R. B.) 

CONTINENT (from Lat. continere, "to hold together"; 
hence " connected," " continuous "), a word used in physical 
geography of the larger continuous masses of land in contrast to 
the great oceans, and as distinct from the submerged tracts 
where only the higher parts appear above the sea, and from 
islands generally. 

On looking at a map of the world, continents appear generally 
as wedge-shaped tracts pointing southward, while the oceans 
have a polygonal shape. Eurasia is in some sense an exception, 
but all the southern terminations of the continents advance 
into the sea in the form of a wedge South America, South 
Africa, Arabia, India, Malaysia and Australia connected by a 
submarine platform with Tasmania. It is difficult not to 
believe that these remarkable characters have some relation 
to the structure of the great globe-mass, and according to T. C. 
Chamberlin and R. D. Salisbury, in their Geology (1906), " the 
true conception is perhaps that the ocean basins and continental 
platforms are but the surface forms of great segments of the 
lithosphere, all of which crowd towards the centre, the stronger 
and heavier the ocean basins taking precedence and squeezing 
the weaker and lighter ones the continents between them." 
" The area of the most depressed, or master segments, is almost 
exactly twice that of the protruding or squeezed ones. This 
estimate includes in the latter about 10,000,000 sq. m. now 
covered with shallow water. The volume of the hydrosphere 
is a little too great for the true basins, and it runs over, covering 
the borders of the continents " (see CONTINENTAL SHELF) . Several 
theories have been advanced to account for the roughly triangular 
shape of the continents, but that presenting the least difficulty 
is the one expressed above, "since in a spherical surface divided 
into larger and smaller segments the major part should be 
polygonal,while the minor residual segments are more likely 
to be triangular." 

As bearing on this geological idea, it is interesting to notice 
in this connexion that the areas of volcanic activity are mostly 
where continent and ocean meet; and that around the continents 
there is an almost continuous " deep" from 100 to 300 m. 
broad, of which the Challenger Deep (11,400 ft.) and the great 
Tuscarora Deep are fragments. If on a map of the world a 
broad inked brush be swept seawards round Africa, passing 
into the Mediterranean, round North and South America, 
round India, then continuously south of Java and round Australia 
south of Tasmania and northward to the tropic, this broad band 
will represent the encircling ribbon-like " deep," which gives 
strength to the suggestion that the continents in their main 
features are permanent forms and that their structural connexion 
with the oceans is not temporary and accidental. The great 
protruding or " squeezed " segments are the Eurasian (with 
an area roughly of twenty-four, reckoning in millions of square 
miles), strongly ridged on the south and east, and relatively 
flat on the north-west; the African (twelve), rather strongly 
ridged on the east, less abruptly on the west and north; the 
North American (ten), strongly ridged on the west, more gently 
on the east, and relatively flat on the north and in the interior ; the 
South American (nine), strongly ridged on the west and somewhat 
on the north-east and south-east, leaving ten for the smaller 
blocks. The sum of these will represent one-third of the earth's 
surface, while the remaining two-thirds is covered by the ocean. 

The foundation structure of the continents is everywhere 
similar. Their resulting rocks and soils are due to differential 
minor movements in the past, by which deposits of varying 
character were produced. These movements, taking place 
periodically and followed by long periods of rest, produce 
continued stability for the development and migration of forms 
of life, the -grading of rivers, the development of varied char- 
acteristic land forms, the migration and settlement of human 
beings, the facility or difficulty of intelligent intercourse between 
races and communities, with finally the commercial interchange 
of those commodities produced by varying climatic conditions 
upon different parts of the continental surface; in short, for 
those geographical factors which form the chief product of past 
and present human history. (See GEOGRAPHY.) 


CONTINENTAL SHELF, the term in physical geography for 
the submerged platform upon which a continent or island stands 
in relief. If a coin or medal be partly sunk under water the 
image and superscription will stand above water and represent 
a continent with adjacent islands; the sunken part just sub- 
merged will represent the continental shelf and the edge of the 
coin the boundary between it and the surrounding deep, called 
by Professor H. .K. H. Wagner the continental slope. If the 
lithosphere surface be divided into three parts, namely, the 
continent heights, the ocean depths, and the transitional area 
separating them, it will be found that this transitional area is 
almost bisected by the coast-line, that nearly one-half of it 
(.10,000,000 sq. m.) lies under water less than 100 fathoms deep, 
and the remainder 12,000,000 sq. m. is under 600 ft. in elevation. 
There are thus two continuous plain systems, one above water and 
one under water, and the second of these is called the continental 
shelf. It represents the area which would be added to the land 
surface if the sea fell 600 ft. This shelf varies in width. Round 
Africa except to the south and off the western coasts of 
America it scarcely exists. . It is wide under the British Islands 
and extends as a continuous platform under the North Sea, 
down the English Channel to the south of France; it unites 
Australia to New Guinea on the north and to Tasmania on the 
south, connects the Malay Archipelago along the broad shelf east 
of China with Japan, unites north-western America with Asia, 
sweeps in a symmetrical curve outwards from north-eastern 
America towards Greenland, curving downwards outside New- 
foundland and holding Hudson Bay in the centre of a shallow 
dish. In many places it represents the land planed down by 
wave action to a plain of marine denudation, where the waves 
have battered down the cliffs and dragged the material under 
water. If there were no compensating action in the differential 
movement of land and sea in the transitional area, the whole 
of the land would be gradually planed down to a submarine 
platform, and all the globe would be covered with water. There 
are, however, periodical warpings of this transitional area by 
which fresh areas of land are raised above sea-level, and fresh 
continental coast-lines produced, while the sea tends to sink 
more deeply into the great ocean basins, so that the continents 
slowly increase in size. " In many cases it is possible that the 
continental shelf is the end of a low plain submerged by 
subsidence; in others a low plain may be an upheaved con- 
tinental shelf, and probably wave action is only one of the factors 
at work " (H. R. Mill, Realm of Nature, 1897). 

CONTINUED FRACTIONS. In mathematics, an expression 

of the form 

where 01,02,03, . . . and 62,63,64, . are any quantities whatever, 
positive or negative, is called a " continued fraction." The 
quantities a\ . . . ,6 2 . . . may follow any law whatsoever. If the 
continued fraction terminates, it is said to be a terminating 
continued fraction; if the number of the quantities a\ . . ., 62 
is infinite it is said to be a non-terminating or infinite continued 
fraction. If 62/02, 6 3 /o 3 ..., the component fractions, as they 
are called, recur, either from the commencement or from some 
fixed term, the continued fraction is said to be recurring or 
periodic. It is obvious that every terminating continued fraction 
reduces to a commensurable number. 

The notation employed by English writers for the general con- 
tinued fraction is 

&2 b_ b 

' 0..-0 3 =t04 ' ' 

Continental writers frequently use the notation 

QZ Q& flU ja-2 

The terminating continued fractions 

bz f>2 bt . I 


reduced to the forms 
i 0102+63 


01020304 +620 304+630184 +6481 


020304+0463+3264 ' ' ' 

are called the successive convergent! to the general continued fraction. 

Their numerators are denoted by pi, fa, p,, p t ...\ their de- 
nominators by q\, 52, ?s, 54. .. 

We have the relations 

In the case of the fraction 01 - _J _ * ..., we have the 


relations /> = ap n -i b n p-i, q n = oOn-i 6g-s- 

Taking the quantities a t . ..,&.'.. to be all positive, a continued 
fraction of the form 01+^ , ~ , .is called a continued fraction of 

the first class a continued fraction of the form .is 

at o a f 

called a continued fraction of the second flass. 

A continued fraction of the form aH . , , .. where 

02+OJ + O4 + 

ai, 02, Oj, 04. .. are all positive integers, is called a simple continued 
fraction. In the case of this fraction Oi, O 2 , o 3 , a t . . . are called the 
successive partial quotients. It is evident that, in this case, 

Pi, P-i, Pt- , 2i> 22, qs- , 

are two series of positive integers increasing without limit if the 
fraction does not terminate. 

The general continued fraction QI-| - , , .. .is evidently 

02+03+04 + 

equal, convergent by convergent, to the continued fraction 

X 2 X 3 6 3 X 3 X.|64 
+ X 3 a, + \4fl4 +' ' 


where X 2> X 3 , \ t , . . . are any quantities whatever, so that by choos- 
ing X 2 6 2 = i, X2X 3 6 3 = i, &c., it can be reduced to any equivalent con- 

tinued fraction of the form ai+-j- . -j- , -r .... 

02+03+04 + 

Simple Continued Fractions. 

I. The simple continued fraction is both the most interesting 
and important kind of continued fraction. 

Any quantity, commensurable or incommensurable, can be 
expressed uniquely as a simple continued fraction, terminating in 
the case of a commensurable quantity, non-terminating in the case 
of an incommensurable quantity. A non-terminating simple con- 
tinued fraction must be incommensurable. 

In the case of a terminating simple continued fraction the number 
of partial quotients may be odd or even as we please by writing the 

last partial quotient, a, as a n I+T- 

The numerators and denominators of the successive convergents 
obey the law p n q^.i p n _iO = ( l) n , from which it follows at once 
that every convergent is in its lowest terms. The other principal 
properties of the convergents are : 

The odd convergents form an increasing series of rational fractions 
continually approaching to the value of the whole continued frac- 
tion ; the even convergents form a decreasing series having the same 

Every even convergent is greater than every odd convergent; 
every odd convergent is less than, and every even convergent 
greater than, any following convergent. 

Every convergent is nearer to the value of the whole fraction 
than any preceding convergent. 

Every convergent is a nearer approximation to the value of the 
whole fraction than any fraction whose denominator is less than 
that of the convergent. 

The difference between the continued fraction and the n'* con- 

vergent is less than - , and greater than " + * . These limits 

OnSn+l </..<?n,j 

may be replaced by the following, which, though not so close, are 
simpler, viz. and q ^ +qn+l) - 

Every simple continued fraction must converge to a definite limit; 
for its value lies between that of the first and second convergents 
and, since 

so that its value cannot oscillate. 

The chief practical use of the simple continued fraction is tha_t 
by means of it we can obtain rational fractions which approxi- 
mate to any quantity, and we can also estimate the error of our 


approximation. Thus a continued fraction equivalent to * (the 
ratio of the circumference to the diameter of a circle) is 

4.' _L I _L I i 
3+ 7 + 15 + 1+292 + 1 + 1 + ... 

of which the successive convergents are 

2 22 333 355 IQ3993 g. c 
i' 7' 106' 113' 33102 '" c " 

the fourth of which is accurate to the sixth decimal place, since the 
error lies between l/g?s or -0000002673 and a e /q,q, or -0000002665. 
Similarly the continued fraction given by Euler as equivalent to 
J( l) (e being the base of Napierian logarithms), viz. 

i i i _i I 

1+6+70+14+18 + -.-, 

may be used to approximate very rapidly to the value of e. 

For the application of continued fractions to the problem " To 
find the fraction, whose denominator does not exceed a given integer 
D, which shall most closely approximate (by excess or defect, as 
may be assigned) to a given number commensurable or incommen- 
surable," the reader is referred to G. Chrystal's Algebra, where also 
may be found details of the application of continued fractions to 
such interesting and important problems as the recurrence of eclipses 
and the rectification of the calendar (}..). 

Lagrange used simple continued fractions to approximate to the 
solutions of numerical equations; thus, if an equation has a root 
between two integers a and o+l, put x = a + l/y and form the 
equation in y\ if the equation in y has a root between b and 6+1, 
put y = b + i/z, and so on. Such a method is, however, too tedious, 
compared with such a method as Horner's, to be of any practical 

The solution in integers of the indeterminate equation ax+by=c 
may be effected by means of continued fractions. If we suppose a/6 
to be converted into a continued fraction and p/q to be the pen- 
ultimate convergent, we have aq bp = +l or I, according as 
the number of convergents is even or odd, which we can take them 
to be as we please. If we take aq bp = + i we have a general 
solution in integers of ax+by = c, viz. x = cq bt, y=atcp; if we 
take aq bp = I, we have x = bt cq, y = cpat. 

An interesting application of continued fractions to establish a 
unique correspondence between the elements of an aggregate of m 
dimensions and an aggregate of n dimensions is given by G. Cantor 
in vol. 2 of the Acta Mathematical. 

Applications of simple continued fractions to the theory of 
numbers, as, for example, to prove the theorem that a divisor of the 
sum of two squares is itself the sum of two squares, may be found 
in J. A. Serret's Cours d'Algebre Superieure. 

2. Recurring Simple Continued Fractions. The infinite continued 

where, after the n th partial quotient, the cycle of partial quotients 
61, 61, . . ., 6, recur in the same order, is the type of a recurring 
simple continued fraction. 

The value of such a fraction is the positive root of a quadratic 
equation whose coefficients are real and of which one root is negative. 
Since the fraction is infinite it cannot be commensurable and there- 
fore its value is a quadratic surd number. Conversely every positive 
quadratic surd number, when expressed as a simple continued 
fraction, will give rise to a recurring fraction. Thus 

_! 1 1 1 J 
V3 ~3+i+2+i+2+ --., 

The second case illustrates a feature of the recurring continued 
fraction which represents a complete quadratic surd. There is only 
one non-recurring partial quotient Hi. If 61, 6j, . . ., 6. is the cycle 
of recurring quotients, then b, = 2ai, 6i = 6_i, 6i = 6_ s , 6 3 = 6_j, &c. 

In the case of a recurring continued fraction which represents 
V N, where N is an integer, if n is the number of partial quotients in 
the recurring cycle, and p nr /q* the nr** 1 convergent, then p* M Ng 1 ., 
= ( i )", whence, if n is odd, integral solutions of the indeterminate 
equation x* Ny* = =*= i (the so-called Pellian equation) can be found. 
If n is even, solutions of the equation ** Ny* = + i can be found. 

The theory and development of the simple recurring continued 
fraction is due to Lagrange. For proofs of the theorems here stated 
and for applications to the more general indeterminate equation 
i 1 Ny* = H the reader may consult Chrystal's Algebra or Serret's 
Cours d'Algebre Superieure; he may also profitably consult a tract 
by T. Muir, The Expression of a Quadratic Surd as a Continued 
Fraction (Glasgow, 1874). 

The General Continued Fraction. 

I. The Evaluation of Continued Fractions. The numerators and 
denominators of the convergents to the general continued fraction 
both satisfy the difference equation K. = uM.i+6 ll a._2. When we 

can solve this equation we have an expression for the n" 1 convergent 
to the fraction, generally in the form of the quotient of two series, 
each of n terms. As an example, take the fraction (known as 
Brouncker's fraction, after Lord Brouncker) 

i !_' 3? 5' 7 1 

1+2+2+2+2+ ... 

Here we have 



and we readily find that 

2n I )'_, , 

= __ __ 

9 35 7 2n+i' 

whence the value of the fraction taken to infinity is Jr. 

It is always possible to find the value of the n 1 * 1 convergent to a 
recurring continued fraction. If r be the number of quotients in 
the recurring cycle, we can by writing down the relations connecting 
the successive p's and q's obtain a linear relation connecting 

P*r+m, p(n-l)r+m, P^n-l1r+m, 

in which the coefficients are all constants. Or we may proceed as 
follows. (We need not consider a fraction with a non-recurring part ) . 
Let the fraction be 



6,+6,+ ... +b,+F l + .-. 

then u.=-r 

leading to an 
, where A.B.C.D 

equation of the form 

are independent of n, which is readily solved. 

2. The Convergence of Infinite Continued Fractions. We have seen 
that the simple infinite continued fraction converges. The infinite 
general continued fraction of the first class cannot diverge for its 
value lies between that of its first two convergents. It may, how- 
ever, oscillate. We have the relation .g_i p_ig. = ( i)"6j&i. . .b,, 

from which s=i.= ( i)" *'" ". and the limit of the right- 
hand side is not necessarily zero. 

The tests for convergency are as follows : 

Let the continued fraction of the first class be reduced to the form 

<fi + T i J" i T j. then it is convergent if at least one of the series 

di+d t +dj+ . . ., dt+d t +dt + . . . diverges, and oscillates if both 
these series converge. 

For the convergence of the continued fraction of the second class 
there is no complete criterion. The following theorem covers a large 
number of important cases. 

" If in the infinite continued fraction of the second classas6+l 
for all values of n, it converges to a finite limit not greater than 

3. The Incommensurability of Infinite Continued Fractions. 
There is no general test for the incommensurability of the general 
infinite continued fraction. 

Two cases have been given by Legendre as follows : 
If at, QI, . . ., a., 6j, 63 6. are all positive integers, then 

I. The infinite continued fraction 

. . . , con- 

verges to an incommensurable limit if after some finite value of n 
the condition a.<f6. is always satisfied. 

II. The infinite continued fraction con- 

<Jj a . . . a, . . . 

verges to an incommensurable limit if after some finite value of n 
the condition o&6 + i is always satisfied, where the sign > need 
not always occur but must occur infinitely often. 


The functions p* and ?, regarded as functions of <ii, . . ., a,, 
6-, . . ., 6. determined by the relations 

with the conditions p\a\, po = t; qt = at, q\ = l, ?o=o, have been 
studied under the name of continuants. The notation adopted is 

and it is evident that we have 

The theory of continuants is due in the first place to Euler. The 
reader will find the theory completely treated in Chrystal's Algebra, 
where will be found the exhibition of a prime number of the form 
4p + i as the actual sum of two squares by means of continuants, 
a result given by H. J. S. Smith. 


The continuant K (^ , &.. . ., &\ is also equal to the 









u I a n -i 6 
o o i o 
from which point of view continuants have been treated by W. 
Spottiswoode, J. J. Sylvester and T. Muir. Most of the theorems 
concerning continued fractions can be thus proved simply from the 
properties of determinants (see T. Muir's Theory of Determinants, 
chap. iii.). 

Perhaps the earliest appearance in analysis of a continuant in its 
determinant form occurs in Lagrange's investigation of the vibra- 
tions of a stretched string (see Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound, 
vol. i. chap. iv.). 

The Conversion of Series and Products into Continued Fractions. 

I . A continued fraction may always be found whose n th convergent 
shall be equal to the sum to n terms of a given series or the product 
to n factors of a given continued product. In fact, a continued 

can ^ constructed having for the 

fraction . , +4. 

numerators of its successive convergents' any assigned quantities 
pi, pi, p ...... pn, and for their denominators any assigned 

quantities q\, qt, qs ..... ?. . . 

The partial fraction 6 n /o n corresponding to the n th convergent 
can be found from the relations 

p = a/>n-i+&nAi-2, qn=a n q a -i +b n q,-i ; 
and the first two partial quotients are given by 

bi = pi, ai=q t , biOv = p2, 0102+62 = 32- 

If we form then the continued fraction inwJiich pi, pi, p s , . . ., p n 
are i, Ui+ui, Ui+Ui+u s , . . ., i+2+ . . u n , and q,, 32, Cs, . . ., q n 
are all unity, we find the series i+ 2 + . . . + equivalent to the 
continued fraction 




which we can transform into 

ttl ttj Witts 


a result given by Euler. 

2. In this case the sum to n terms of the series is equal to the n th 
convergent of the fraction. There is, however, a different way in 
which a series may be represented by a continued fraction. We may 
require to represent the infinite convergent power series ao+OiX+ 
02^+ ... by an infinite continued fraction of the form 
ft ftjc fox fax 
I I I I ... 

Here the fraction converges to the sum to infinity of the series. Its 
n th convergent is not equal to the sum to n terms of the series. 
Expressions for ft, ft, ft, ... by means of determinants have been 
given by T. Muir (Edinburgh Transactions, vol. xxvii.). 

A method was given by I. H. Lambert for expressing as a con- 
tinued fraction of the preceding type the quotient of two convergent 
power series. It is practically identical with that of finding the 
greatest common measure of two polynomials. As an instance 
leading to results of some importance consider the series 

We have 

F(+i,*)-F(n,*) = - 
whence we obtain 

i + i + . . ., 

which may also be written 

7 x x 
7+7 + I+7 + 2+. .. 

By putting * ! /4 for x in F(o,x) and F(i,x), and putting at the same 
time 7 = 1/2, we obtain 

x x* x* x 1 

These results were given by Lambert, and used by him to (prove 
that T and ir 2 are incommensurable, and also any commensurable 
power of e. 

Gauss in his famous memoir on the hypergeometric series 

gave the expression for F(a, /3+i, 7+1, x)-^F(a, ft, y, x) as a con- 
tinued fraction, from which if we put /3 = o and write 7 1 for 7, 
we get the transformation 



2(7+1 -a) 




From this we may express several of the elementary series as 
continued fractions; thus taking 0=1, 7 = 2, and putting * for x, 

. . 
Taking 7=1, writing x/a for x and increasing o indefinitely, we 

I x x x x x 
haVCe -1-1 +2-3+2-5 + ... 

For some recent developments in this direction the reader may 
consult a paper by L. J. Rogers in the Proceedings of the London 
Mathematical Society (series 2, vol. 4). 

Ascending Continued Fractions. 

There is another type of continued fraction called the ascending 
continued fraction, the type so far discussed being called the descend- 
ing continued fraction. It is of no interest or importance, though 
both Lambert and Lagrange devoted some attention to it. The 
notation for this type of fraction is 

, , 

04 H 




It is obviously equal to the series 

1 ^'.i. bs , b, 

+ ... 

02 OoOs ' 020304 0203040* 
Historical Note. 

The invention of continued fractions is ascribed generally to 
Pietro Antonia Cataldi, an Italian mathematician who died in 
1626. He used them to represent square roots, but only for 
particular numerical examples, and appears to have had no 
theory on the subject. A previous writer, Rafaello Bombelli, 
had used them in his treatise on Algebra (about 1579), and it is 
quite possible that Cataldi may have got his ideas from him. 
His chief advance on Bombelli was in his notation. They next 
appear to have been used by Daniel Schwenter (1585-1636) 
in a Geometrica Practica published in 1618. He uses them for 
approximations. The theory, however, starts with the publica- 
tion in 1655 by Lord Brouncker of the continued fraction 

i i 2 '" ^ 2 

fj. - j-l-2 + 2+ as an equivalent of 7T/4. This he is supposed 

to have deduced, no one knows how, from Wallis' formula for 


3.3.5-5.7.7... . . 

John Wallis, discussing this fraction in his Arithmetica In- 
finitorum (1656), gives many of the elementary properties of the 
convergents to the general continued fraction, including the rule 
for their formation. Huygens (Descriptio automati planetarii, 
1703) uses the simple continued fraction for the purpose of 
approximation when designing the toothed wheels of his Planet- 
arium. Nicol Saunderson (1682-1739), Euler and Lambert 
helped in developing the theory, and much was done by Lagrange 
in his additions to the French edition of Euler's Algebra (1795). 
Moritz A. Stern wrote at length on the subject in Crelle's Journal 
(x., 1833; xi., 1834; xviii., 1838). The theory of the con- 
vergence of continued fractions is due to Oscar Schlomilch, 
P. F. Arndt, P. L. Seidel and Stern. O. Stolz, A. Pringsheim 
and E. B. van Vleck have written on the convergence of infinite 
continued fractions with complex elements. 

REFERENCES. For the further history of continued fractions we 
may refer the reader to two papers by Gunther and A. N. Favaro, 
Bulletins di bibliographia e di storia delle scienze mathematische e 
fisiche, t. vii., and to M. Cantor, Geschichte der Mathematik, 2nd Bd. 
For text-books treating the subject in great detail there are those 
of G. Chrystal in English; Serret's Cours d'algebre superieure in 
French ; and in German those of Stern, Schlomilch, Hatterdorff and 
Stolz. For the application of continued fractions to the theory of 



irrational numbers there is P. Bachmann's Vorlesungen uber die 
Natur der Irralionalzahnen (1892). For the application of continued 
fractions to the theory of lenses, see R. S. Heath's Geometrical Optics, 
chaps, iv. and v. For an exhaustive summary of all that has been 
written on the subject the reader may consult Bd. i of the Ency- 
klopddie der mathematischen Wissenschaften (Leipzig). (A. E. J.) 

CONTOUR, CONTOUR-LINE (a French word meaning generally 
" outline," from the Med. Lat. contornare, to round off) , in physical 
geography a line drawn upon a map through all the points upon 
the surface represented that are of equal height above sea-level. 
These points lie, therefore, upon a horizontal plane at a given 
elevation passing through the land shown on the map, and the 
contour-line is the intersection of that horizontal plane with 
the surface of the ground. The contour-line of o, or datum level, 
is the coastal boundary of any land form. If the sea be imagined 
as rising too ft., a new coast-line, with bays and estuaries indented 
in the valleys, would appear at the new sea-level. If the sea 
sank once more to its former level, the loo-ft. contour-line with 
all its irregularities would be represented by the beach mark 
made by the sea when 100 ft. higher. If instead of receding the 
sea rose continuously at the rate of 100 ft. per day, a series of 
levels 100 ft. above one another would be marked daily upon the 
land until at last the highest mountain peaks appeared as islands 
less than 100 ft. high. A record of this series of advances 
marked upon a flat map of the original country would give a 
series of concentric contour-lines narrowing towards the mountain- 
tops, which they would at last completely surround. Contour- 
lines of this character are marked upon most modern maps 
of small areas and upon all government survey and military maps 
at varying intervals according to the scale of the map. 

CONTRABAND (Fr. contrebande, from contra, against, and 
bannum, Low Lat. for " proclamation "), a term given generally 
to illegal traffic; and particularly, as " contraband of war," 
to goods, &c., which subjects of neutral states are forbidden by 
international law to supply to a belligerent. 

According to current practice contraband of war is of two 
kinds: (i) absolute or unconditional contraband, i.e. materials 
of direct application in naval or military armaments; and 
(2) conditional contraband, consisting of articles which are fit for, 
but not necessarily of direct application to, hostile uses. There is 
much difference of opinion among international jurists and states, 
however, as to the specific materials and articles which may 
rightfully be declared by belligerents to belong to either class. 
There is also disagreement as to the belligerent right where 
the immediate destination is a neutral but the ultimate an enemy 

An attempt was made at the Second Hague Conference to 
come to an agreement on the chief points of difference. The 
British delegates were instructed even to abandon the principle 
of contraband of war altogether, subject only to the exclusion 
by blockade of neutral trade from enemy ports. In the alterna- 
tive they were to do their utmost to restrict the definition of 
contraband within the narrowest possible limits, and to obtain 
exemption of food-stuffs destined for places other than be- 
leaguered fortresses and of raw materials required for peaceful 
industry. Though the discussions at the conference did not 
result in any convention, except on the subject of mails, it was 
agreed among the leading maritime states that an early attempt 
should be made to codify the law of naval war generally, in 
connexion with the establishment of an international prize 
court (see PRIZE). 

Meanwhile, on the subject of mails, important articles were 
adopted which figure in the " Convention on restric- 
tions in the right of capture " (No. 1 1 of the series 
as set out in the General Act, see PEACE CONFERENCE). They 
are as follows: 

ART. i. The postal correspondence of neutrals or belligerents, 
hatever its official or private character may be, found on the high 
seas on board a neutral or enemy ship is inviolable. If the ship is 
detained, the correspondence is forwarded by the captor with the 
least possible delay. 

The provisions of the preceding paragraph do not apply, in case 
of violation of blockade, to correspondence destined for, or proceeding 
from, a blockaded port. 

VII. 2 



ART. II. Theinviolability of postal correspondence does not exempt 
a neutral mail ship from the laws and customs of maritime war as 
to neutral merchant ships in general. The ship, however, may 
not be searched except when absolutely necessary, and then only 
with as much consideration and expedition as possible. 

As regards food-stuffs Great Britain has long and consistently 
held that provisions and liquors fit for the consumption of the 
enemy's naval or military forces are contraband. p oa- 
Her Prize Act, however, provides a palliative, in the stalls and 
case of " naval or victualling stores," for the penalty *"*' 
attaching to absolute contraband, the lords of the emptioa - 
admiralty being entitled to exercise a right of pre-emption over 
such stores, i:e. to purchase them without condemnation in a 
prize court. In practice, purchases are made at the market 
value of the goods, with an additional 10% for loss of profit. 

On the continent of Europe no such . palliative has yet been 
adopted; but moved by the same desire to distinguish unmistak- 
able from, so to speak, constructive contraband, and to protect 
trade against the vexation of uncertainty, many continental 
jurists have come to argue conditional contraband away al- 
together. This change of opinion has especially manifested 
itself in the discussions on the subject in the Institute of Inter- 
national Law, a body composed exclusively of recognized 
international jurists. The rules this body adopted in 1896, 
though they do not represent the unanimous feeling of its 
members, may be taken as the view of a large proportion of 
them. The majority comprised German, Danish, Italian, 
Dutch and French specialists. The rules adopted contain a 
clause, which, after declaring conditional contraband abolished, 
states that: " Nevertheless the belligerent has, at his option 
and on condition of paying an equitable indemnity, a right of 
sequestration or pre-emption as to articles (objets) which, on 
their way to a port of the enemy, may serve equally in war or 
in peace." This rule, it is seen, is of wider application than the 
above-mentioned provision of the British Prize Act. To become 
binding in its existing form, either an alteration of the text of 
the Declaration of Paris or a modification in the wording of 
the clause would be necessary, seeing that under the Declaration 
of Paris " the neutral flag covers enemy goods, except contra- 
band of war." It may be said that, in so far as the continent is 
concerned, expert opinion is, on the whole, favourable to the 
recognition of conditional contraband in the form of a right of 
sequestration or pre-emption and within the limits Great Britain 
has shown a disposition to set to it as against herself. 

As regards coal there is no essential difference between the 
position of coal to feed ships and that of provisions to feed men. 
Neither is per se contraband. At the West African . ComL 
Conference in 1884 the Russian representative pro- 
tested against its inclusion among contraband articles, but the 
Russian government included it in their declaration as to contra- 
band on the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. In 1898 
the British foreign office replied to an inquiry of the Newport 
Chamber of Commerce on the position of coal that: " Whether 
in any particular case coal is or is not contraband of war, is a 
matter prima facie for the determination of the Prize Court 
of the captor's nationality, and so long as such decision, when 
given, does not conflict with well-established principles of inter- 
national law, H.M.'s government will not be prepared to take 
exception thereto." The practical applications of the law and 
usage of contraband in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, 
however, brought out vividly the need of reform in these " well- 
established principles." 

The Japanese regulations gave rise to no serious difficulties. 
Those issued by Russia, on the other hand, led to Coatro . 
much controversy between the British government vcrsv w m, 
and that of Russia, in connexion with the latter's Russia la 
pretension to class coal, rice, provisions, forage, horses *"* 
and cotton with arms, ammunition, explosives, &c., as W ar. 
absolute contraband. On June i , i9O4,Lord Lansdowne 
expressed the surprise with which the British government learnt 
that rice and provisions were to be treated as unconditionally 
contraband " a step which they regarded as inconsistent with 



the law and practice of nations." They furthermore " felt 
themselves bound to reserve their rights by also protesting 
against the doctrine that it is for the belligerent to decide what 
articles are as a matter of course, and without reference to other 
considerations, to be dealt with as contraband of war, regard- 
less of the well-established rights of neutrals"; nor would the 
British government consider itself bound to recognize as valid 
the decision of any prize court which violated those rights. 
It did not dispute the right of a belligerent to take adequate 
precautions for the purpose of preventing contraband of war, 
in the hitherto accepted sense of the words, from reaching the 
enemy; but it objected to the introduction of a new doctrine 
underwhich " the well-understood distinction between conditional 
and unconditional contraband was altogether ignored, and under 
which, moreover, on the discovery of articles alleged to be 
contraband, the ship carrying them was, without trial and in 
spite of her neutrality, subjected to penalties which are reluct- 
antly enforced even against an enemy's ship;" (See section 
40 of Russian Instructions on Procedure in Stopping, Examining 
and Seizing Merchant Vessels, published in London Gazette of 
March 18, 1904.) In particular circumstances provisions might 
acquire a contraband character, as, for instance, if they should 
be consigned direct to the army or fleet of a belligerent, or to a 
port where such fleet might be lying, and if facts should exist 
raising the presumption that they were about to be employed 
in victualling the fleet of the enemy. In such cases it was not 
denied that the other belligerent would be entitled to seize the 
provisions as contraband of war, on the ground that they would 
afford material assistance towards the carrying on of warlike 
operations. But it could not be admitted that if such 
provisions were consigned to the port of a belligerent (even 
though it should be a port of naval equipment) they should 
therefore be necessarily regarded as contraband of war. The 
test was whether there were circumstances relating to any 
particular cargo to show that it was destined for military or 
naval use. 

' The Russian government replied that they could not admit 
that articles of dual use when addressed to private individuals 
in the enemy's country should be necessarily free from seizure 
and condemnation, since provisions and such articles of dual 
use, though intended for the military or naval forces of the 
enemy, would obviously, under such circumstances, be addressed 
to private individuals, possibly agents or contractors for the 
naval or military authorities. 

Lord Lansdowne in answer stated that while H.M. government 
did not contend that the mere fact that the consignee was a 
private person should necessarily give immunity from capture, 
they held that to take vessels for adjudication merely because 
their destination was the enemy's country would be vexatious, 
and constitute an unwarrantable interference with neutral 
commerce. To render a vessel liable to such treatment there 
should be circumstances giving rise to a reasonable suspicion 
that the provisions were destined for the enemy's forces, and 
it was in such a case for the captor " to establish the fact of 
destination for the enemy's forces before attempting to procure 
their condemnation " (September 30, 1904). 

The protests of Great Britain led to the reference of the subject 
by the Russian government to a departmental committee, with 
the result that on October 22, 1904, a rectifying notice was issued 
declaring that articles capable of serving for a warlike object, in- 
cluding rice and food-stuffs, should be considered as contraband 
of war, if they are destined for the government of the belligerent 
power or its administration or its army or its navy or its fortresses 
or its naval ports; or for the purveyors thereof; and that in 
cases where they were addressed to private individuals these 
articles should not be considered as contraband of war; but that 
in all cases horses and beasts of burden were to be considered 
as contraband. As regards cotton, explanations were given by 
the Russian government (May u, 1904) that the prohibition 
of cotton applied only to raw cotton suitable for the manufacture 
of explosives, and not to yarn or tissues. 

The carriage of belligerent despatches connected with the con- 

duct of a war or of persons in the service of a belligerent state 

falls within the prohibition of contraband traffic, 

but to distinguish such traffic from that of contraband, Analogues 

properly so called, the term applied to it in international 

law is " analogues of contraband." The penalty 

attaching to such carriage necessarily varies according to the 

degree of the analogy. 

Trade between neutrals has a prima facie right to go on, in 
spite of war, without molestation. But if the ultimate destina- 
tion of goods, though shipped first to a neutral port, 

,. . Continuous 

is enemy s territory, then, according to the doctrine voyages , 
of " continuous voyages," the goods may be treated 
as if they had been shipped to the enemy's territory direct. 
The doctrine is entirely Anglo-Saxon in its origin 1 and develop- 
ment. Only in one case does it seem ever to have been actually 
put in force by a foreign prize court, namely, in the case of the 
" Doelwijk," a Dutch vessel which was adjudged good prize 
by an Italian court on the ground that, although bound for 
Djibouti, a French port, it was laden with a provision of arms 
of a model which had gone out of use in Europe, and could only be 
destined for the Abyssinians, with whom Italy was at war. 

The Institute of International Law in 1896 adopted the 
following rule on the subject: 

" Destination to the enemy is presumed, where the shipment 
is to one of the enemy ports, or to a neutral port, if it is unquestion- 
ably proved by the facts that the neutral port was only a state 
(etape) towards the enemy as the final destination of a single com- 
mercial operation." 

During the South African War (1890-1902) Great Britain was 
involved in controversy with Germany, who at first declined 
to recognize the existence of any rule which could interfere 
with trade between neutrals, the German vessels in question 
having been stopped on their way to a neutral port. 

As stated above, the Second Hague Conference failed to come 
to any understanding on contraband, but the subject was exhaust- 
ively dealt with by the Conference of London (1908-1909) on 
the laws and customs of naval war, in the following articles : 

ART. 22. The following articles may, without notice, be treated 
as contraband of war, under the name of absolute contraband: (l) 
Arms of all kinds, including arms for sporting purposes, and their 
distinctive component parts; (2) projectiles, charges and cartridges 
of all kinds, and their distinctive component parts; (3) powder and 
explosives specially prepared for use in war; (4) gun-mountings, 
limber boxes, limbers, military wagons, field forges and their dis- 
tinctive component parts; (5) clothing and equipment of a distinct- 
ively military character; (6) all kinds of harness of a distinctively 
military character; (7) saddle, draught and pack animals suitable 
for use in war; (8) articles of camp equipment and their distinctive 
component parts; (9) armour plates; (10) warships, including boats, 
and their distinctive component parts of such a nature that they 
can only be used on a vessel of war; (l l) implements and apparatus 
designed exclusively for the manufacture of munitions of war, for the 
manufacture or repair of arms, or war material for use on land or sea. 

ART. 23. Articles exclusively used for war may be added to the 
list of absolute contraband by a declaration, which must be notified. 
Such notification must be addressed to the governments of other 
powers, or to their representatives accredited to the power making 
the declaration. A notification made after the outbreak of hostilities 
is addressed only to neutral powers. 

ART. 24. The following articles, susceptible of use in war as well 
as for purposes of peace, may, without notice, be treated as contra- 
band of war, under the name of conditional contraband: (i) Food- 
stuffs; (2) forage and grain, suitable for feeding animals; (3) 
clothing, fabrics for clothing, and boots and shoes, suitable for use 
in war; (4) gold and silver in coin or bullion; paper money; (5) 
vehicles of all kinds available for use in war, and their component 
parts; (6) vessels, craft and boats of all kinds; floating docks, parts 
of docks and their component parts; (7) railway material, both fixed 
and rolling-stock, and material for telegraphs, wireless telegraphs 
and telephones; (8) balloons and flying machines and their dis- 
tinctive component parts, together with accessories and articles 
recognizable as intended for use in connexion with balloons and 
flying machines; (9) fuel; lubricants; (10) powder and explosives 
not specially prepared for use in war; (u) barbed wire and imple- 
ments for fixing and cutting the same; (12) horseshoes and shoeing 
materials; (13) harness and saddlery; (14) field glasses, telescopes, 
chronometers and all kinds of nautical instruments. 

1 See Springbok case, 1866, 5 Wallace I.; on Doelwijk case see 
Brusa, Rev. gen. de droit international public (1897); Fauchille td. 
(1897), p. 291, also The Times, April 15, May 25, June I, 1897. 



ART. 25. Articles susceptible of use in war as well as for purposes 
of peace, other than those enumerated in Articles 22 and 24, may be 
added to the list of conditional contraband by a declaration, which 
must be notified in the manner provided for in the second paragraph 
of Article 23. 

ART. 26. If a power waives, so far as it is concerned, the right to 
treat as contraband of war an article comprised in any of the classes 
enumerated in Articles 22 and 24, such intention shall be announced 
by a declaration, which must be notified in the manner provided for 
in the second paragraph of Article 23. 

ART. 27. Articles which are not susceptible of use in war may not 
be declared contraband of war. 

ART. 28. The following may not be declared contraband of war: 
(l) Raw cotton, wool, silk, jute, flax, hemp and other raw materials of 
the textile industries, and yarns of the same; (2) oil seeds and nuts; 
copra; (3) rubber, resins, gums and lacs; hops; (4) raw hides 
and horns, bones and ivory; (5) natural and artificial manures, 
including nitrates and phosphates for agricultural purposes; (6) 
metallic ores; (7) earths, clays, lime, chalk, stone, including marble, 
bricks, slates and tiles; (8) Chinaware and glass; (9) paper and 
paper-making materials; (10) soap, paint and colours, including 
articles exclusively used in their manufacture, and varnish; (n) 
bleaching powder, soda ash, caustic soda, salt cake, ammonia, 
sulphate of ammonia and sulphate of copper; (12) agricultural, 
mining, textile and printing machinery; (13) precious and semi- 
precious stones, pearls, mother-of-pearl and coral; (14) clocks and 
watches, other than chronometers; (15) fashion and fancy goods; 
(16) feathers of all kinds, hairs and bristles; (17) articles of house- 
hold furniture and decoration; office furniture and requisites. 

ART. 29. Likewise the following may not be treated as contraband 
of war: (l) Articles serving exclusively to aid the sick and wounded. 
They can, however, in case of urgent military necessity and subject 
to the payment of compensation, be requisitioned, if their destination 
is that specified in Article 30; (2) articles intended for the use of the 
vessel in which they are found, as well as those intended for the use 
of her crew and passengers during the voyage. 

ART. 30. Absolute contraband is liable to capture if it is shown 
to be destined to territory belonging to or occupied by the enemy, 
or to the armed forces of the enemy. It is immaterial whether the 
carriage of the goods is direct or entails transhipment or a subsequent 
transport by land. 

ART. 31. Proof of the destination specified in Article 30 is com- 
plete in the following cases: (i) When the goods are documented 
for discharge in an enemy port, or for delivery to the armed forces 
of the enemy; (2) when the vessel is to call at enemy ports only, or 
when she is to touch at an enemy port or meet the armed forces of 
the enemy before reaching the neutral port for which the goods in 
question are documented. 

ART. 32. Where a vessel is carrying absolute contraband, her 
papers are conclusive proof as to the voyage on which she is engaged, 
unless she is found clearly out of the course indicated by her papers 
and unable to give adequate reasons to justify such deviation. 

ART. 33. Conditional contraband is liable to capture if it is shown 
to be destined for the use of the armed forces or of a government 
department of the enemy state, unless in this latter case the circum- 
stances show that the goods cannot in fact be used for the purposes 
of the war in progress. This latter exception does not apply to a 
consignment coming under Article 24 (4). 

ART. 34. The destination referred to in Article 33 is presumed to 
exist if the goods are consigned to enemy authorities, or to a con- 
tractor established in the enemy country who, as a matter of common 
knowledge, supplies articles of this kind to the enemy. A similar 
presumption arises if the goods are consigned to a fortified place 
belonging to the enemy, or other place serving as a base for the armed 
forces of the enemy. No such presumption, however, arises in the 
case of a merchant vessel bound for one of these places if it is sought 
to prove that she herself is contraband. In cases where the above 
presumptions do notarise, the destination is presumed to be innocent. 
The presumptions set up by this article may be rebutted. 

ART. 35. Conditional contraband is not liable to capture, except 
when found on board a vessel bound for territory belonging to or 
occupied by the enemy, or for the armed forces of the enemy, and 
when it is not to be discharged in an intervening neutral port. The 
ship's papers are conclusive proof both as to the voyage on which 
the vessel is engaged and as to the port of discharge of the goods, 
unless she is found clearly out of the course indicated by her papers, 
and unable to give adequate reasons to justify such deviation. 

ART. 36. Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 35, con- 
ditional contraband, if shown to have the destination referred to in 
Article 33, is liable to capture in cases where the enemy country has 
no seaboard. 

ART. 37. A vessel carrying goods liable to capture as absolute or 
conditional contraband may be captured on the high seas or in the 
territorial waters of the belligerents throughout the whole of her 
voyage, even if she is to touch at a port of call before reaching the 
hostile destination. 

ART. 38. A vessel may not be captured on the ground that she 
has carried contraband on a previous occasion if such carriage is in 
point of fact at an end. 

ART. 39. Contraband goods are liable to condemnation. 

ART. 40. A vessel carrying contraband may be condemned if the 
contraband, reckoned either by value, weight, volume or freight, 
forms more than half the cargo. 

ART. 41. If a vessel carrying contraband is released, she may be 
condemned to pay the costs and expenses incurred by the captor 
in respect of the proceedings in the national prize court and the 
custody of the ship and cargo during the proceedings. 

ART. 42. Goods which belong to the owner of the contraband 
and are on board the same vessel are liable to condemnation. 

ART. 43. If a vessel is encountered at sea while unaware of the 
outbreak of hostilities or of the declaration of contraband which 
applies to her cargo, the contraband cannot be condemned except 
on payment of compensation; the vessel herself and the remainder 
of the cargo are not liable to condemnation or to the costs and 
expenses referred to in Article 41. The same rule applies if the 
master, after becoming aware of the outbreak of hostilities, or of the 
declaration of contraband, has had no opportunity of discharging 
the contraband. A vessel is deemed to be aware of the existence of a 
state of war, or of a declaration of contraband, if she left a neutral 
port subsequently to the notification to the power to which such port 
belongs of the outbreak of hostilities or of the declaration of contra- 
band respectively, provided that such notification was made in 
sufficient time. A vessel is also deemed to be aware of the existence 
of a state of war if she left an enemy port after the outbreak of 

ART. 44. A vessel which has been stopped on the ground that she 
is carrying contraband, and which is not liable to condemnation on 
account of the proportion of contraband on board, may, when the 
circumstances permit, be allowed to continue her voyage if the 
master is willing to hand over the contraband to the belligerent 
warship. The delivery of the contraband must be entered by the 
captor on the logbook of the vessel stopped, and the master must 
give the captor duly certified copies of all relevant papers. The 
captor is at liberty to destroy the contraband that has been handed 
over to him under these conditions. 

See Hautefeuille, Des droits el devoirs des nations neutres (2nd ed., 
1858); Perels, Droit maritime international, traduit par Arendt 
(Paris, 1884) ; Moore, Digest of International Law (1906) ; L. Oppen- 
heim, International Law (1907); Barclay, Problems of International 
Practice and Diplomacy (1907). See also Hall, International Law on 
Analogues of Contraband', Smith and Sibley, International Law as 
interpreted during the Russo-Japanese War, 1905, on " Malacca " 
and " Prinz Heinrich " cases (mails). (T. BA.) 

CONTRACT (Lat. contractus, from contrahere, to draw together, 
to bind), the legal term for a bargain or agreement; some writers, 
following the Indian Contract Act, confine the term to agree- 
ments enforceable by law: this, though not yet universally 
adopted, seems an improvement. Enforcement of good faith 
in matters of bargain and promise is among the most important 
functions of legal justice. It might not be too much to say 
that, next after keeping the peace and securing property against 
violence and fraud so that business may be possible, it is the most 
important. Yet we shall find that the importance of contract is 
developed comparatively late in the history of law. The common- 
wealth needs elaborate rules about contracts only when it is 
advanced enough in civilization and trade to have an elaborate 
system of credit. The Roman law of the empire dealt with 
contract, indeed, in a fairly adequate manner, though it never 
had a complete or uniform theory; and the Roman law, as settled 
by Justinian, appears to have satisfied the Eastern empire long 
after the Western nations had begun to recast their institutions, 
and the traders of the Mediterranean had struck out a cosmo- 
politan body of rules and custom known as the Law Merchant, 
which claimed acceptance in the name neither of Justinian nor 
of the Church, but of universal reason. It was amply proved 
afterwards that the foundations of the Roman system were strong 
enough to carry the fabric of modern legislation. But the 
collapse of the Roman power in western Christendom threw 
society back into chaos, and reduced men's ideas of ordered 
justice and law to a condition compared with which the earliest 
Roman law known to us is modern. 

In this condition of legal ideas, which it would be absurd to 
call jurisprudence, the general duty of keeping faith is not 
recognized except as a matter of religious or social observance. 
Those who desire to be assured of anything that lies in promise 
must exact an oath, or a pledge, or personal sureties; and even 
then the court of their people in England the Hundred Court in 
the first instance will do nothing for them in the first case, 
and not much in the two latter. Probably the settlement 
of a blood-feud, with provisions for the payment of the fine 


by instalments, was the nearest approach to a continuing con- 
tract, as we now understand the term, which the experience of 
Germanic antiquity could furnish. Jt is also probable that the 
performance of such undertakings, as it concerned the general 
peace, was at an early time regarded as material to the common- 
weal; and that these covenants of peace, rather than the 
rudimentary selling and bartering of their day, first caused our 
Germanic ancestors to realize the importance of putting some 
promises at any rate under public sanction. We have not now 
to attempt any reconstruction of archaic judgment and justice, 
or the lack of either, at any period of the darkness and twilight 
which precede the history of the middle ages. But the history 
of the law, and even the present form of much law still common 
to almost all the English-speaking world, can be understood 
only when we bear in mind that our forefathers did not start 
from any general conception of the state's duty to enforce 
private agreements, but, on the contrary, the state's powers and 
functions in this regard were extended gradually, unsystematic- 
ally, and by shifts and devices of ingenious suitors and counsel, 
aided by judges, rather than by any direct provisions of princes 
and rulers. Money debts, it is true, were recoverable from an 
early time. But this was not because the debtor had promised 
to repay the loan; it was because the money was deemed still to 
belong to the creditor, as if the identical coins were merely in 
the debtor's custody. The creditor sued to recover money, for 
centuries after the Norman Conquest, in exactly the same form 
which he would have used to demand possession of land; the 
action of debt closely resembled the " real actions," and, like 
them, might be finally determined by a judicial combat; and 
down to Blackstone's time the creditor was said to have a 
property in the debt property which the debtor had " granted " 
him. Giving credit, in this way of thinking, is not reliance on 
the right to call hereafter for an act, the payment of so much 
current money or its equivalent, to be performed by the debtor, 
but merely suspension of the immediate right to possess one's 
own particular money, as the owner of a house let for a term 
suspends his right to occupy it. This was no road to the modern 
doctrine of contract, and the passage had to be made another way. 
In fact the old action of debt covered part of the ground of 
contract only by accident. It was really an action to recover 
any property that was not land; for the remedy of 
a dispossessed owner of chattels, afterwards known 
as detinue, was only a slightly varying form of it. 
If the property claimed was a certain sum of money, it might 
be due because the defendant had received money on loan, or 
because he had received goods of which the agreed price remained 
unpaid; or, in later times at any rate, because he had become 
liable in some way by judgment, statute or other authority of 
law, to pay a fine or fixed penalty to the plaintiff. Here the 
person recovering might be as considerable as the lord of a manor, 
or as mean as a " common informer "; the principle was the 
same. In every case outside this last class, that is to say, when- 
ever there was a debt in the popular sense of the word, it had to 
be shown that the defendant had actually received the money 
or goods; this value received came to be called quid pro quo 
a term unknown, to all appearance, out of England. Neverthe- 
less the foundation of the plaintiff's right was not bargain or 
promise, but the unjust detention by the defendant of the 
plaintiff's money or goods. 

We are not concerned here to trace the change from the 
ancient method of proof oath backed by " good suit," i.e. 
the oaths of an adequate number of friends and 
proof. neighbours through the earlier form of jury trial, in 
which the jury were supposed to know the truth of 
their own knowledge, to the modern establishment of facts by 
testimony brought before a jury who are bound to give their 
verdict according to the evidence. But there was one mode of 
proof which, after the Norman Conquest, made a material 
addition to the substantive law. This was the proof by writing, 
which means writing authenticated by seal. Proof by writing 
was admitted under Roman influence, but, once admitted, it 
acquired the character of being conclusive which belonged to all 

proof in early Germanic procedure. Oath, ordeal and battle 
were all final in their results. When the process was started 
there was no room for discussion. So the sealed writing was 
final too, and a man could not deny his own deed. We still say 
that he cannot, but with modern refinements. Thus the deed, 
being allowed as a solemn and probative document^ furnished 
a means by which a man could bind himself, or rather effectually 
declare himself bound, to anything not positively forbidden by 
law. Whoever could afford parchment and the services of a 
clerk might have the benefit of a " formal contract " in the 
Roman sense of the term. At this day the form of deed called 
a bond or " obligation " is, as it stands settled after various 
experiments, extremely artificial; but it is essentially a solemn 
admission of liability, though its conclusive stringency has been 
relaxed by modern legislation and practice in the interest of sub- 
stantial justice. By this means the performance of all sorts of 
undertakings, pecuniary and otherwise, could be and was legally 
secured. Bonds were well known in the I3th century, and from 
the 1 4th century onwards were freely used for commercial 
and other purposes; as for certain limited purposes they still 
are. The " covenant " of modern draftsmen is a direct promise 
made by deed; it occurs mainly as incident to conveyances of 
land. The medieval " covenant," conventio, was, when we first 
hear of it, practically equivalent to a lease, and never became 
a common instrument of miscellaneous contracting, though the 
old books recognize the possibility of turning it to various uses 
of which there are examples; nor had it any sensible influence 
on the later development of the law. On the whole, in the old 
common law one could do a great deal by deed, but very little 
without deed. The minor bargains of daily life, so far as they 
involved mutual credit, were left to the jurisdiction of inferior 
courts, of the Law Merchant, and last, not least of the Church. 

Popular custom, in all European countries, recognized simpler 
ways of pledging faith than parchment and seal. A handshake 
was enough to bind a bargain. Whatever secular law 
might say, the Church said it was an open sin to break i ae lio. 
plighted faith; a matter, therefore, for spiritual 
correction, in other words, for compulsion exercised on the 
defaulter by the bishop's or the archdeacon's court, armed 
with the power of excommunication. In this way the ecclesiasti- 
cal courts acquired much business which was, in fact, as secular 
as that of a modern county court, with the incident profits. 
Medieval courts lived by the suitors' fees. What were the king's 
judges to do? However high they put their claims in the 
course of the rivalry between Church and Crown, they could not 
effectually prohibit the bishop or his official from dealing with 
matters for which the king's court provided no remedy. Con- 
tinental jurists had seen their way, starting from the Roman 
system as it was left by Justinian, to reduce its formalities 
to a vanishing quantity, and expand their jurisdiction to the 
full breadth of current usage. English judges could not do this 
in the isth century, if they could ever have done so. Nor would 
simplification of the requisites of a deed, such as has now been 
introduced in many jurisdictions, have been of much use at a 
time when only a minority even of well-to-do laymen could 
write with any facility. 

There was no principle and no form of action in English law 
which recognized any general duty of keeping promises. But 
could not breach of faith by which a party had suffered be 
treated as some kind of legal wrong ? There was a known action 
of trespass and a known action of deceit, this last of a special 
kind, mostly for what would now be called abuse of the process 
of the court ; but in the later middle ages it was an admitted 
remedy for giving a false warranty on a sale of goods. Also 
there was room for actions " on the case," on facts analogous 
to those covered by the old writs, though not precisely within 
their terms. If the king's judges were to capture this important 
branch of business from the clerical hands which threatened to 
engross it, the only way was to devise sorne new form of action 
on the case. There were signs, moreover, that the court of 
chancery would not neglect so promising a field if the common 
law judges left it open. 



The mere fact of unfulfilled promise was not enough, in the 
eyes of medieval English lawyers, to give a handle to the law. 
Attamaslt. But i n J urv caused by reliance on another man's under- 
taking was different. The special undertaking or 
" assumption " creates a duty which is broken by fraudulent 
or incompetent miscarriage in the performance. I profess to be 
a skilled farrier, and lame your horse. It is no trespass, because 
you trusted the horse to me; but it is something like a trespass, 
and very like a deceit. I profess to be a competent builder; you 
employ me to build a house, and I scamp the work so that the 
house is not fit to live in. An action on the case was allowed 
without much difficulty for such defaults. The next step, and 
a long one, was to provide for total failure to perform. The 
builder, instead of doing bad work, does nothing at all within 
the time agreed upon for completing the house. Can it be said 
that he has done a wrong? At first the judges felt bound to 
hold that this was going too far; but suitors anxious to have 
the benefit of the king's justice persevered, and in the course 
of the isth century the new form of action, called assumpsit from 
the statement of the defendant's undertaking on which it was 
founded, was allowed as a remedy for non-performance as well 
as for faulty performance. Being an action for damages, and 
not for a certain amount, it escaped the strict rules of proof 
which applied to the old action of debt; being in form for a kind 
of trespass, and thus a privileged appeal to the king to do right 
for a breach of his peace, it escaped likewise the risk of the 
defendant clearing himself by oath according to the ancient 
popular procedure. Hence, as time went on, suitors were em- 
boldened to use " assumpsit " as an alternative for debt, though 
it had been introduced only for cases where there was no other 
remedy. By the end of the i6th century they got their way ; 
and it became a settled doctrine that the existence of a debt 
was enough for the court to presume an undertaking to pay it. 
The new form of action was made to cover the whole ground 
of informal contracts, and, by extremely ingenious devices of 
pleading, developed from the presumption or fiction that a man 
had promised to pay what he ought, it was extended in time 
to a great variety of cases where there was in fact no contract 
at all. 

The new system gave no new force to gratuitous promises. 
For it was assumed, as the foundation of the jurisdiction, that 
the plaintiff had been induced by the defendant's 
undertaking, and with the defendant's consent, to 
alter his position for the worse in some way. He had 
paid or bound himself to pay money, he had parted with goods, 
he had spent time in labour, or he had foregone some profit or 
legal right. If he had not committed himself to anything on the 
strength of the defendant's promise, he had suffered no damage 
and had no cause of action. Disappointment of expectations 
is unpleasant, but it is not of itself damnum in a legal sense. To 
sum up the effect of this in modern language, the plaintiff must 
have given value of some kind, more or less, for the defendant's 
undertaking. This something given by the promisee and accepted 
by the promisor in return for his undertaking is what we now 
call the consideration for the promise. In cases where debt 
would also lie, it coincides with the old requirement of value 
received (quid pro quo) as a condition of the action of debt being 
available. But the conception is far wider, for the consideration 
for a promise need not be anything capable of delivery or 
possession. It may be money or goods; but it may also be an 
act or series of acts ; further (and this is of the first importance 
for our modern law), it may itself be a promise to pay money or 
deliver goods, or to do work, or otherwise to act or not to act in 
some specified way. Again, it need not be anything which is 
obviously for the promisor's benefit. His acceptance shows 
that he set some value on it; but in truth the promisee's burden, 
and not the promisor's benefit, is material. The last refinement 
of holding that, when mutual promises are exchanged between 
parties, each promise is a consideration for the other and makes 
it binding, was conclusively accepted only in the lyth century. 
The result was that promises of mere bounty could no more be 
enforced than before, but any kind of lawful bargain could; 

and there is no reason to doubt that this was in substance what 
most men wanted. Ancient popular usage and feeling show 
little more encouragement than ancient law itself to merely 
gratuitous alienation or obligations. Also (subject, till quite 
modern times, to the general rule of common-law procedure 
that parties could not be their own witnesses, and subject to 
various modern statutory requirements in various classes of 
cases) no particular kind of proof was necessary. The necessity 
of consideration for the validity of simple contracts was un- 
fortunately confused by commentators, almost from the beginning 
of its history, with the perfectly different rules of the Roman 
law about nudum paclum, which very few English lawyers took 
the pains to understand. Hasty comparison of misunderstood 
Roman law, sometimes in its civil and sometimes in its ecclesi- 
astical form, is answerable for a large proportion of the worst 
faults in old-fashioned text-books. Doubtless many canonists, 
probably some common lawyers, and possibly some of the judges 
of the Renaissance time, supposed that ex nudo pacio non oritur 
actio was in some way a proposition of universal reason; but it 
is a long way from this to concluding that the Roman law had 
any substantial influence on the English. 

The doctrine of consideration is in fact peculiar to those 
jurisdictions where the common law of England is in force, or 
is the foundation of the received law, or, as in South Africa, has 
made large encroachments upon it in practice. Substantially 
similar results are obtained in other modern systems by professing 
to enforce all deliberate promises, but imposing stricter conditions 
of proof where the promise is gratuitous. 

As obligations embodied in the solemn form of a deed were 
thereby made enforceable before the doctrine of consideration 
was known, so they still remain. When a man has Deeds 
by deed declared himself bound, there is no need to 
look for any bargain, or even to ask whether the other party 
has assented. This rugged fragment of ancient law remains 
embedded in our elaborate modern structure. Nevertheless 
gratuitous promises, even by deed, get only their strict and bare 
rights. There may be an action upon them, but the powerful 
remedy of specific performance often the only one worth 
having is defied them. For this is derived from the extra- 
ordinary jurisdiction of the chancellor, and the equity ad- 
ministered by the chancellor was not for plaintiffs who could 
not show substantial merit as well as legal claims. The singular 
position of promises made by deed is best left out of account 
in considering the general doctrine of the formation of contracts; 
and as to interpretation there is no difference. In what follows, 
therefore, it will be needless, as a rule, to distinguish between 
" parol " or " simple " contracts, that is, contracts not made by 
deed, and obligations undertaken by deed. 

From the conception of a promise being valid only when 
given in return for something accepted in consideration of 
the promise, it follows that the giving of the promise 
and of the consideration must be simultaneous. Words aad otfer 
of promise uttered before there is a consideration for 
them can be no more than an offer; and, on the other hand, the 
obligation declared in words, or inferred from acts and conduct, on 
the acceptance of a consideration, is fixed at that time, and cannot 
be varied by subsequent declaration, though such declarations 
may be material as admissions. It was a long while, however, 
before this consequence was clearly perceived. In the i8th 
century it was attempted, and for a time with considerable 
success, to extend the range of enforceable promises without 
regard to what the principles of the law would bear, in order 
to satisfy a sense of natural justice. This movement was checked 
only within living memory, and traces of it remain in certain 
apparently anomalous rules which are indeed of little practical 
importance, but which private writers, at any rate, cannot 
safely treat as obsolete. However, the question of " past 
consideration " is too minute and technical to be pursued here. 
The general result is that a binding contract is regularly consti- 
tuted by the acceptance of an offer, and at the moment when it 
is accepted; and, however complicated the transaction may be, 
there must always, in the theory of English law, be such a 


moment in every case where a contract is formed. It also 
follows that an offer before acceptance creates no duty of any 
kind (" A revocable promise is unknown to our law " Anson) ; 
which is by no means necessarily the case in systems where 
the English rule of consideration is unknown. The question 
what amounts to final acceptance of an offer is, on the other 
hand, a question ultimately depending on common sense, and 
must be treated on similar lines in all civilized countries where 
the business of life is carried on in a generally similar way. The 
rules that an offer is understood to be made only for a reasonable 
time, according to the nature of the case, and lapses if not 
accepted in due time; that an expressed revocation of an offer 
can take effect only if communicated to the other party before 
he has accepted; that acceptance of an offer must be according 
to its terms, and a conditional or qualified acceptance is only 
a new proposal, and the like, may be regarded as standing on 
general convenience as much as on any technical ground. 

Great difficulties have arisen, and in other systems as well 

as in the English, as to the completion of contracts between 

persons at a distance. There must be some rule, and 

spondeace. y et anv ru ^ e ^at can ^ e f fame d must seem arbitrary 

in some cases. On the whole the modern doctrine 

is to some such effect as the following: 

The proposer of a contract can prescribe or authorize any 
mode, or at least any reasonable mode, of acceptance, and if he 
specifies none he is deemed to authorize the use of any reasonable 
mode in common use, and especially the post. Acceptance in 
words is not always required; an offer may be well accepted 
by an act clearly referable to the proposed agreement, and 
constituting the whole or part of the performance asked for 
say the despatch of goods in answer to an order by post, or the 
doing of work bespoken; and it seems that in such cases further 
communication unless expressly requested is not necessary 
as matter of law, however prudent and desirable it may be. 
Where a promise and not an act is sought (as where a tradesman 
writes a letter offering goods for sale on credit), it must be 
communicated; in the absence of special direction letter post 
or telegraph may be used; and, further, the acceptor having 
done his part when his answer is committed to the post, English 
courts now hold (after much discussion and doubt) that any 
delay or. miscarriage in course of post is at the proposer's risk, 
so that a man may be bound by an acceptance he never received. 
It is generally thought though there is no English decision 
that, in conformity with this last rule, a revocation by telegraph 
of an acceptance already posted would be inoperative. Much 
more elaborate rules are laid down in some continental codes. 
It seems doubtful whether their complication achieves any gain 
of substantial justice worth the price. At first sight it looks 
easy to solve some of the difficulties by admitting an interval 
during which one party is bound and the other not. But, apart 
from the risk of starting fresh problems as hard as the old ones, 
English principles, as above said, require a contract to be con- 
cluded between the parties at one point of time, and any excep- 
tion to this would have to be justified by very strong grounds of 
expediency. We have already assumed, but it should be specific- 
ally stated, that neither offers nor acceptances are confined to 
communications made in spoken or written words. Acts or 
signs may and constantly do signify proposal and assent. One 
does not in terms request a ferryman to put one across the river. 
Stepping into the boat is an offer to pay the usual fare for being 
ferried over, and the ferryman accepts it by putting off. This is 
a very simple case, but the principle is the same in all cases. 
Acts fitted to convey to a reasonable man the proposal of an 
agreement, or the acceptance of a proposal he has made, are as 
good in law as equivalent express words. The term " implied 
contract " is current in this connexion, but it is unfortunately 
ambiguous. It sometimes means a contract concluded by acts, 
not words, of one or both parties, but still a real agreement; 
sometimes an obligation imposed by law where there is not any 
agreement in fact, for which the name " quasi-contract " is 
more appropriate and now usual. 

The obligation of contract is an obligation created and deter- 

mined by the will of the parties. Herein is the characteristic 
difference of contract from all other branches of law. 
The business of the law, therefore, is to give effect so 
far as possible to the intention of the parties, and all 
the rules for interpreting contracts go back to this fundamental 
principle and are controlled by it. Every one knows that its 
application is not always obvious. Parties often express them- 
selves obscurely; still oftener they leave large parts of their 
intention unexpressed, or (which for the law is the same thing) 
have not formed any intention at all as to what is to be done 
in certain events. But even where the law has to fill up gaps by 
judicial conjecture, the guiding principle still is, or ought to be, 
the consideration of what either party has given the other 
reasonable cause to expect of him. The court aims not at 
imposing terms on the parties, but at fixing the terms left blank 
as the parties would or reasonably might have fixed them if all 
the possibilities had been clearly before their minds. For this 
purpose resort must be had to various tests: the court may 
look to the analogy of what the parties have expressly provided 
in case of other specified events, to the constant or general 
usage of persons engaged in like business, and, at need, ultimately 
to the court's own sense of what is just and expedient. All 
auxiliary rules of this kind are subject to the actual will of the 
parties, and are applied only for want of sufficient declaration 
of it by the parties themselves. A rule which can take effect 
against the judicially known will of the parties is not a rule of 
construction or interpretation, but a positive rule of law. How- 
ever artificial some rules of construction may seem, this test 
will always hold. In modern times the courts have avoided 
laying down new rules of construction, preferring to keep a free 
hand and deal with each case on its merits as a whole. It should 
be observed that the fulfilment of a contract may create a 
relation between the parties which, once established, is governed 
by fixed rules of law not variable by the preceding agreement. 
Marriage is the most conspicuous example of this, and perhaps 
the only complete one in our modern law. 

There are certain rules of evidence which to some extent 
guide or restrain interpretation. In particular, oral testimony 
is not allowed to vary the terms of an agreement BvU a 
reduced to writing. This is really in aid of the parties' 
deliberate intention, for the object of reducing terms to writing 
is to make them certain. There are apparent exceptions to the 
rule, of which the most conspicuous is the admission of evidence 
to show that words were used in a special meaning current in 
the place or trade in question. But they are reducible, it will be 
found, to applications (perhaps over-subtle in some cases) of 
the still more general principles that, before giving legal force 
to a document, we must know that it is really what it purports 
to be, and that when we do give effect to it according to its 
terms we must be sure of what its terms really say. The rules 
of evidence here spoken of are modern, and have nothing to do 
with the archaic rule already mentioned as to the effect of adeed. 

Every contracting party is bound to perform his promise 
according to its terms, and in case of any doubt in the sense 
in which the other party would reasonably understand 
the promise. Where the performance on one or both formance. 
sides extends over an appreciable time, continuously 
or by instalments, questions may arise as to the right of either 
party to refuse or suspend further performance on the ground 
of some default on the other side. Attempts to lay down hard 
and fast rules on such questions are now discouraged, the aim 
of the courts being to give effect to the true substance and intent 
of the contract in every case. Nor will the court hold one part 
of the terms deliberately agreed to more or less material than 
another in modern business dealings. " In the contracts of 
merchants time is of the essence," as the Supreme Court of the 
United States has said in our own day. Certain ancient rules 
restraining the apparent literal effect of common provisions 
in mortgages and other instruments were in truth controlling 
rules of policy. New rules of this kind can be made only by 
legislation. Whether the parties did or did not in fact intend 
the obligation of a contract to be subject to unexpressed 




conditions is, however, a possible and not uncommon question of 
interpretation. One class of cases giving rise to such questions 
is that in which performance becomes impossible by some 
external cause not due to the promisor's own fault; a similar 
but not identical one is that in which the agreement could be 
literally performed, and yet the performance would not give 
the promisor the substance of what he bargained for; as 
happened in the " coronation .cases " arising out of the post- 
ponement of the king's coronation in 1902. As to promises 
obviously absurd or impossible from the first, they are un- 
enforceable only on the ground that the parties cannot have 
seriously meant to create a liability. For precisely the same 
reason, supported by the general usage and understanding of 
mankind, common social engagements, though they often fulfil 
all other requisites of a contract, have never been treated as 
binding in law. 

In all matters of contract, as we have said, the ascertained 
will of the parties prevails. But this means a will both lawful 
and free. Hence there are limits to the force of the 
general rule, fixed partly by the law of the land, which 
is above individual will and interests, partly by the need of 
securing good faith and justice between the parties themselves 
against fraud or misadventure. Agreements cannot be enforced 
when their performance would involve an offence against the 
law. There may be legal offence, it must be remembered, not 
only in acts commonly recognized as criminal, disloyal or 
immoral, but in the breach or non-observance of positive regula- 
tions made by the legislature, or persons having statutory 
authority, for a great variety of purposes. It would be useless 
to give details on the subject here. Again, there are cases where 
an agreement may be made and performed without offending 
the law, but on grounds of " public policy " it is not thought 
right that the performance should be a matter of legal obligation, 
even if the ordinary conditions of an enforceable contract are 
satisfied. A man may bet, in private at any rate, if he likes, 
and pay or receive as the event may be; but for many years 
the winner has had no right of action against the loser. Un- 
fortunate timidity on the part of the judges, who attempted 
to draw distinctions instead of saying boldly that they would 
not entertain actions on wagers of any. kind, threw this topic 
into the domain of legislation; and the laudable desire of 
parliament to discourage gambling, so far as might be, without 
attempting impossible prohibitions, has brought the law to a 
state of ludicrous complexity in both civil and criminal jurisdic- 
tion. But what is really important under this doctrine of public 
policy is the confinement of " contracts in restraint of trade " 
within special limits. In the middle ages and down to modern 
times there was a strong feeling not merely an artificial legal 
doctrine against monopolies and everything tending to mono- 
poly. Agreements to keep up prices or not to compete were 
regarded as criminal. Gradually it was found that some kind of 
limited security against competition must be allowed if such 
transactions as the sale of a going concern with its goodwill, 
or the retirement of partners from a continuing firm, or the 
employment of confidential servants in matters involving trade 
secrets, were to be carried on to the satisfaction of the parties. 
Attempts to lay down fixed rules in these matters were made 
from time to time, but they were finally discredited by the 
decision of the House of Lords in the Maxim-Nordenfelt Com- 
pany's case in 1894. Contracts " in restraint of trade " will now 
be held valid, provided that they are made for valuable considera- 
tion (this even if they are made by deed), and do not go beyond 
what can be thought reasonable for the protection of the interests 
concerned, and are not injurious to the public. (The Indian 
Contract Act, passed in 1872, has unfortunately embodied 
views now obsolete, and remains unamended.) All that remains 
of the old rules in England is the necessity of valuable considera- 
tion, whatever be the form of the contract, and a strong pre- 
sumption but not an absolute rule of law that an unqualified 
agreement not to carry on a particular business is not 

Where there is no reason in the nature of the contract for not 


enforcing it, the consent of a contracting party may still not be 
binding on him because not given with due knowledge, or, if he 
is in a relation of dependence to the other party, with inde- 
pendent judgment. Inducing a man by deceit to enter into a 
contract may always be treated by the deceived party 
as a ground for avoiding his obligation, if he does so 
within a reasonable time after discovering the truth, and, in 
particular, before any innocent third person has acquired rights 
for value on the faith of the contract (see FRAUD). Coercion 
would be treated on principle in the same way as fraud, but 
such cases hardly occur in modern times. There is a kind of 
moral domination, however, which our courts watch with the 
utmost jealousy, and repress under the name of "undue influence" 
when it is used to obtain pecuniary advantage. Persons in a 
position of legal or practical authority guardians, confidential 
advisers, spiritual directors, and the like must not abuse their 
authority for selfish ends. They are not forbidden to take 
benefits from those who depend on them or put their trust in 
them; but if they do, and the givers repent of their bounty, 
the whole burden of proof is on the takers to show that the gift 
was in the first instance made freely and with understanding. 
Large voluntary gifts or beneficial contracts, outside the limits 
within which natural affection and common practice justify 
them, are indeed not encouraged in any system of civilized 
law. Professional money-lenders were formerly checked by 
the usury law: since those laws were repealed in 1854, courts 
and juries have shown a certain astuteness in applying the 
rules of law as to fraud and undue influence the latter with 
certain special features to transactions with needy " expectant 
heirs " and other improvident persons which seem on the whole 
unconscionable. The Money Lenders Act of 1900 has fixed 
and (as finally interpreted by the House of Lords) also sharpened 
these developments. In the case of both fraud and undue 
influence, the person entitled to avoid a contract may, if so 
advised, ratify it afterwards; and ratification, if made with 
full knowledge and free judgment, is irrevocable. A contract 
made with a person deprived by unsound mind or intoxication 
of the capacity to form a rational judgment is on the same 
footing as a contract obtained by fraud, if the want of capacity 
is apparent to the other party. 

There are many cases in which a statement made by one party to 
the other about a material fact will enable the other to avoid the 
contract if he has relied on it, and it was in fact untrue, 
though it may have been made at the time with honest 
belief in its truth. This is so wherever, according to the 
common course of business, it is one party's business to know 
the facts, and the other practically must, or reasonably may, 
take the facts from him. In some classes of cases even inadver- 
tent omission to disclose any material fact is treated as a mis- 
representation. Contracts of insurance are the most important; 
here the insurer very seldom has the means of making any 
effective inquiry of his own. Misdescription of real property 
on a sale, without fraud, may according to its importance be 
a matter for compensation or for setting aside the contract. 
Promoters of companies are under special duties as to good faith 
and disclosure which have been worked out at great length in 
the modern decisions. But company law has become so complex 
within the present generation that, so far from throwing much 
light on larger principles, it is hardly intelligible without some 
previous grasp of them. Sometimes it is said that misrepre- 
sentation (apart from fraud) of any material fact will serve to 
avoid any and every kind of contract. It is submitted that this 
is certainly not the law as to the sale of goods or as to the contract 
to marry, and therefore the alleged rule cannot be laid down 
as universal. But it must be remembered that parties can, if 
they please, and not necessarily by the express terms of the 
contract itself, make the validity of their contract conditional 
on the existence of any matter of fact whatever, including the 
correctness of any particular statement. If they have done this, 
and the fact is not so, the contract has no force; not because 
there has been a misrepresentation, but because the parties 
agreed to be bound if the fact was so and not otherwise. It is 


a question of interpretation whether in a given case there was 
any such condition. 

Mistake is said to be a ground for avoiding contracts, and there 
are cases which it is practically convenient to group under this 
Mistake, head. On principle they seem to be mostly reducible to 
failure of the acceptance to correspond with the offer, or 
absence of any real consideration for the promise. In such cases, 
whether there be fraud or not, no contract is ever formed, and 
therefore there is nothing which can be ratified a distinction 
which may have important effects. Relief against mistake is 
given where parties who have really agreed, or rather their 
advisers, fail to express their intention correctly. Here, if the 
original true intention is fully proved as to which the court 
is rightly cautious the faulty document can be judicially 

By the common law an infant (i.e. a person less than twenty-one 
years old) was bound by contracts made for " necessaries," i.e. 
Disability. sucn commodities as a jury holds, and the court thinks 

they may reasonably hold, suitable and required for 
the person's condition; also by contracts otherwise clearly for 
his benefit; all other contracts he might confirm or avoid after 
coming of age. An extremely ill-drawn act of 1874 absolutely 
deprived infants of the power of contracting loans, contracting 
for the supply of goods other than necessaries, and stating an 
account so as to bind themselves; it also disabled them from 
binding themselves by ratification. The liability for necessaries 
is now declared by legislative authority in the Sale of Goods Act 
1893; the modern doctrine is that it is in no case a true liability 
on contract. There is an obligation imposed by law to pay, not 
the agreed price, but a reasonable price. Practically, people 
who give credit to an infant do so at their peril, except in cases 
of obvious urgency. 

Married women were incapable by the common law of con- 
tracting in their own names. At this day they can hold separate 
property and bind themselves to the extent of that property 
not personally by contract. The law before the Married 
Women's Property Acts (1882 and 1893, and earlier acts now 
superseded and repealed) was a very peculiar creature of the 
court of chancery; the number of cases in which it is necessary 
to go back to it is of course decreasing year by year. But a 
married woman can still be restrained from anticipating the 
income of her separate property, and the restriction is still 
commonly inserted in marriage settlements. 

There is a great deal of philosophical interest about the nature 
and capacities of corporations, but for modern practical purposes 
it may be said that the legal powers of British corporations are 
directly or indirectly determined by acts of parliament. For 
companies under the Companies Acts the controlling instrument 
or written constitution is the memorandum of association. 
Company draftsmen, taught by experience, nowadays frame 
this in the most comprehensive terms. Questions of either 
personal or corporate disability are less frequent than they 
were. In any case they stand apart from the general principles 
which characterize our law of contract. 

The rights created by contract are personal rights against the 
promisors and their legal representatives, and therefore different 

in kind from the rights of ownership and the like 

which are available against all the world. Nevertheless 
property, they may be and very commonly are capable of 

pecuniary estimation and estimated as part of a man's 
assets. Book debts are the most obvious example. Such rights 
are property in the larger sense: they are in modern law trans- 
missible and alienable, unless the contract is of a kind implying 
personal confidence, or a contrary intention is otherwise shown. 
The rights created by negotiable instruments are an important 
and unique species of property, being not only exchangeable 
but the very staple of commercial currency. Contract and 
conveyance, again, are distinct in their nature, and sharply 
distinguished in the classical Roman law. But in the common 
law property in goods is transferred by a complete contract of 
sale without any further act, and under the French civil code 
and systems which have followed it a like rule applies not only 

to movables but to immovables. In English law procuring a 
man to break his contract is a civil wrong against the other 
contracting party, subject to exceptions which are still not 
clearly defined. 

AUTHORITIES. History: Ames, "The History of Assumpsit," 
Harvard Law Rev. ii. I, 53 (Cambridge, Mass. 1889); Pollock and 
Maitland, History of English Law, 2nd ed., ii. 184-239 (Cambridge, 
1898). Modern: Pollock, article " Contract " in Encyclopaedia of 
the Laws of England (2nd ed., London, 1907), a technical summary 
of the modern law ; the same writer's edition of the Indian Contract 
Act (assisted by D. F. Mulla, London and Bombay, 1905) restates 
and discusses the principles of the common law besides commenting 
on the provisions of the Act in detail. Of the text-books, Anson, 
English Law of Contract, reached an eleventh edition in 1906; 
Harriman, Law of Contracts (second edition, 1901) ; Leake, Principles 
of the Law of Contract (fifth edition by Randall, 1906); Pollock, 
Principles of Contract (eighth edition, 1910, third American edition, 
Wald's completed by Williston, New York, 1906). O. W. Holmes's 
(justice of the Supreme Court of the United States) The Common Law 
(Boston, Mass. 1881) is illuminating on contract as on other legal 
topics, though the percent writer cannot accept all the learned 
judge's historical conjectures. (F. Po.) 

CONTRACTILE VACUOLE, in biology, a spherical space rilled 
with liquid, which at intervals discharges into the medium; it 
is found in all fresh- water groups of Protozoa, and some marine 
forms, also in the naked aquatic reproductive cells of Algae and 
Fungi. It is absent in states with a distinct cell-wall to resist 
excessive turgescence, such as would lead to the rupture of a 
naked cell, and we conclude that its chief function is to prevent 
such turgescence in unprotected naked cells. It fulfils also 
respiratory and renal functions, and is comparable, physiologi- 
cally, to the contractile vesicle or bladder of Rotifers and 
Turbellarians. In many species it is part of a complex of canals 
or spaces in the protoplasm. 

See M. Hartog, British Association Reports, and Degen, Botanische 
Zeitung, vol. Ixiii. Abt. I (1905) (see also PROTOZOA; PROTOPLASM). 

CONTRADICTION, PRINCIPLE OF (principium contradic- 
tionis), in logic, the term applied to the second of the three 
primary " laws of thought." The oldest statement of the law 
is that contradictory statements cannot both at the same time 
be true, e.g. the two propositions " A is B " and " A is not B" 
are mutually exclusive. A may be B at one time, and not at 
another; A may be partly B and partly not B at the same time; 
but it is impossible to predicate of the same thing, at the same 
time, and in the same sense, the absence and the presence of the 
same quality. This is the statement of the law given by Aristotle 
(ri> yap aM md.p-x.tiv re /cat ^17 inrapxtiv adwarov rtf aiir<f 
KO.L Kara TO avro, Metaph. F 3, 1005 b 19). It takes no 
account of the truth of either proposition; if one is true, the 
other is not; one of the two must be true. 

Modern logicians, following Leibnitz and Kant, have generally 
adopted a different statement, by which the law assumes an 
essentially different meaning. Their formula is "A is not 
not-A "; in other words it is impossible to predicate of a thing 
a quality which is its contradictory. Unh'ke Aristotle's law 
this law deals with the necessary relation between subject and 
predicate in a single judgment. Whereas Aristotle states that 
one or other of two contradictory propositions must be false, 
the Kantian law states that a particular kind of proposition is 
in itself necessarily false. On the other hand there is a real 
connexion between the two laws. The denial of the statement 
" A is not-A " presupposes some knowledge of what A is, i.e. 
the statement A is A. In other words a judgment about A is 
implied. Kant's analytical propositions depend on presupposed 
concepts which are the same for all people. His statement, 
regarded as a logical principle purely and apart from material 
facts, does not therefore amount to more than that of Aristotle, 
which deals simply with the significance of negation. 

See text-books of Logic, e.g. C. Sigwart's Logic (trans. Helen 
Dendy, London, 1895), vol. i. pp. 142 foil. ; for the various expressions 
of the law see Ueberweg's Logik, 77; also J. S. Mill, Examination 
of Hamilton, 471 ; Venn, Empirical Logic. 

(Fr. contrebasson; Ger. Kontrafagott), a wood-wind instrument 
of the double reed family, which it completes as grand bass, 
the other members being the oboe, cor anglais, and bassoon. 


The contrafagotto corresponds to the double bass in strings, 
to the contrabass tuba in the brass wind, and to the pedal 
clarinet in the single reed wood wind. 

There are at the present day three distinct makes of contra- 
fagotto. (i) The modern German (fig. i) is founded on the 

older models, resembling 
the bassoon, the best- 
known being Heckel's of 
Biebrich-am-Rhein, used 
at Bayreuth and in many 
German orchestras. In 
this model the character- 
istics of the bassoon are 
preserved, and the tone 
is of true fagotto quality 
extended in its lower 
register. The Heckel con- 
trafagotto consists of a 
wooden tube 16 ft. 4 in. 
long with a conical bore, 
and doubled back four 
times upon itself to make 
it less unwieldy. It is 
thus about the same 
length as the bassoon and 
terminates in a bell 4 in. 
in diameter pointing 
downwards. The crook 
consists of a small brass 
tube about 2 ft. long, 
having avery narrow bore , 
to which is bound the 
double-reed mouthpiece. 
(2) The modern English 
double bassoon is one 
designed by Dr W. H. 
Stone, and made under 
his superintendence by 
Haseneier of Coblenz. It 

From Capt. C. R. Day's ls stated that instruments 
Cat. of MUS, inst. by of this pattern are less 

permission of Fyre & f .. . 11 ., 

Spottiswoode. fatiguing to blow than 

FIG. I. Contra- 
fagotto, German 
model (Wilhelm 

FIG. 2. Contra- those resembling the bas- 
fagotto, Haseneier- soon . The bore is truly 
conical, starting with a 

diameter of J in. at the reed and ending in a diameter of 
4 in. at the open end of the tube which points upwards and has 
no defined bell, being merely finished with a rim. Alfred Morton, 
in England, has constructed double bassoons on Dr Stone's 
design (fig. 2). (3) The third model is of brass and consists of 
a conical tube of wide calibre some 15 or 16 ft. long, curved 
round four times upon itself and having a brass tuba or euphonium 
bell which points upwards. This brass model, usually known 
as the Belgian or French (fig. 3), was really of Austrian origin, 
having been first introduced by Schollnast of Presburg about 
1839. B. F. Czerveny of Koniggratz and Victor Mahillon of 
Brussels both appear to have followed up this idea independently; 
the former producing a metal contrafagotto in Eb in 1856 and one 
in E\> which he called sub-contrafagotto in 1867, while Mahillon's 
was ready in 1868. In the brass contrafagotto the lateral holes 
are pierced at theoretically correct intervals along the bore, and 
have a diameter almost equal to the section of the bore at the 
point where the hole is pierced. The octave harmonic only is 
obtainable on this instrument owing to the great length of the 
bore and its large calibre. There are therefore two octave keys 

which give a chromatic compass 

-* 8va. baa. 

The modern wooden contrafagotto has a pitch one octave 
below that of the bassoon and three below that of the oboe; its 
compass extending from 16 ft. C. to middle C. The harmonics 
of the octave in the middle register and of the 1 2th in the upper 

register are obtained by skilful manipulation of the reed with 
the lips and increased pressure of the breath. The notes of both 
extremes are difficult to produce. 

Although the double bassoon is not a transposing instrument 
the music for it is written an octave higher than the real sounds 

Back. Front. 

FIG. 3. The French or Belgian Contrafagotto. 

in order to avoid the ledger lines. The quality of tone is some- 
what rough and rattling in the lowest register, the volume of 
sound not being quite adequate considering the depth of the pitch. 
In the middle and upper registers the tone of the wooden contra- 
fagotto possesses all the characteristics of the bassoon. The 
contrafagotto has a complete chromatic compass, and it may 
therefore be played in any key. Quick passages are avoided 
since they would be neither easy nor effective, the instrument 
being essentially a slow-speaking one. The lowest notes are only 
possible to a good player, and cannot be obtained piano; never- 
theless, the instrument forms a fine bass to the reed family, and 
supplies in the orchestra the notes missing in the double bass 
in order to reach 16 ft. C. 

The origin of the contrafagotto, like that of the oboe (?..) must be 
sought in the highest antiquity (seeAuLOs). Its immediate forerunner 
was the double bombard or bombardino or the great double quint- 

pommer whose compass extended downwards to E 

It is not known precisely when the change took place, though it was 
probably soon after the transformation of the bassoon, but Handel 
scored for the instrument and it was used in military bands before 
being adopted in the orchestra. The original instrument made for 
Handel by T. Stanesby, junior, and played by J. F. Lampc at the 
Marylebone Gardens',in 1739, was exhibited at the Royal Military 
Exhibition, London, in 1890. Owing to its faulty construction and 
weak rattling tone the double bassoon fell into disuse, in spite of the 
fact that the great composers Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven scored 
for it abundantly; the last used it in the C minor and choral sym- 
phonies and wrote an obblieato for it in Fidelia. It was restored to 
favour in England by Dr W. H. Stone. (K. S.) 

CONTRALTO (from Ital. contra-alto, i.e. next above the alto), 
the term for the lowest variety of the female voice, as dis- 
tinguished from the soprano and mezzo-soprano. Originally 
it signified, in choral music, the part next higher than the alto, 
given to the falsetto counter-tenor. 

CONTRAPUNTAL FORMS, in Music. The forms of music 
may be considered in two aspects, the texture of the music from 
moment to moment, and the shape of the musical design as a 
whole. Historically the texture of music became definitely 


organized long before the shape could be determined by any 
but external or mechanical conceptions. The laws of musical 
texture were known as the laws of " counterpoint " (see COUNTER- 
POINT and HARMONY). The " contrapuntal " forms, then, 
are historically the earliest and aesthetically the simplest in 
music; the simplest, that is to say, in principle, but not neces- 
sarily the easiest to appreciate or to execute. Their simplicity 
is like that of mathematics, the simplicity of the elements 
involved; but the intricacy of their details and the subtlety 
of their expression may easily pass the limits of popularity, 
while art of a much more complex nature may masquerade in 
popular guise; just as mathematical science is seldom popular- 
ized, while biology masquerades in infant schools as " natural 
history." Fere, however, the resemblance between counterpoint 
and mathematics ends, for the simplicity of genuine contrapuntal 
style is a simplicity of emotion as well as of principle; and if 
the style has a popular reputation of being severe and abstruse, 
this is largely because the popular conception of emotion is 
conventional and dependent upon an excessive amount of 
external nervous stimulus. 

i. Canonic Forms and Devices. 

In the canonic forms, the earliest known in music as an inde- 
pendent art, the laws of texture also determine the shape of the 
whole, so that it is impossible, except in the light of historical 
knowledge, to say which is prior to the other. The principle 
of canon being that one voice shall reproduce the material of 
another note for note, it follows that in a composition where 
all parts are canonic and where the material of the leading part 
consists of a pre-determined melody, such as a Gregorian chant 
or a popular song, there remains no room for further considera- 
tion of the shape of the work. Hence, quite apart from their 
expressive power and their value in teaching composers to attain 
harmonic fluency under difficulties, the canonic forms played 
the leading part in the music of the isth and i6th centuries; 
nor indeed have they since fallen into neglect without grave 
injury to the art. But strict canon soon proved inadequate, 
and even dangerous, as the sole regulating principle in music; 
and its rival and cognate principle, the basing of polyphonic 
designs upon a given melody to which one part (generally the 
tenor) was confined, proved scarcely less so. Nor were these 
two principles, the canon and the canto fermo, likely, by com- 
bination in their strictest forms, to produce better artistic 
results than separately. Both were rigid and mechanical 
principles; and their development into real artistic devices 
was due, not to a mere increase in the facility of their use, but 
to the fact that, just as the researches of alchemists led to the 
foundations of chemistry, so did the early musical puzzles lead 
to the discovery of innumerable harmonic and melodic resources 
which have that variety and freedom of interaction which can 
be organized into true works of art and can give the ancient 
mechanical devices themselves a genuine artistic character 
attainable by no other means. 

The earliest canonic form is the rondel or rota as practised 
in the izth century. It is, however, canonic by accident rather 
than in its original intention. It consists of a combination of 
short melodies in several voices, each melody being sung by 
each voice in turn. Now it is obvious that if one voice began 
alone, instead of all together, and if when it went on to the 
second melody the second voice entered with the first, and so on, 
the result would be a canon in the unison. Thus the difference 
between the crude counterpoint of the rondel and a strict canon 
in the unison is a mere question of the point at which the com- 
position begins, and a i2th century rondel is simply a canon at 
the unison begun at the point where all the voices have already 
entered. There is some reason to believe that one kind of rondeau 
practised by Adam de la Hale was intended to be sung in the 
true canonic manner of the modern round; and the wonderful 
English rota, " Sumer is icumen in," shows in the upper four 
parts the true canonic method, and in its two-part pes the 
method in which the parts began together. In these archaic 
works the canonic form gives the whole a consistency and stability 

contrasting oddly with the dismal warfare between nascent 
harmonic principles and ancient anti-harmonic criteria which 
hopelessly wrecks them as regards euphony. As soon as harmony 
became established on a true artistic basis, the unaccompanied 
round took the position of a trivial but refined art-form, with 
hardly more expressive possibilities than the triolet in poetry, a 
form to which its brevity and lightness renders it fairly compar- 
able. Orlando di Lasso's Celebrons sans cesse is a beautiful 
example of the i6th century round, which was at that time 
little cultivated by serious musicians. In more modern times 
the possibilities of the round in its purest form have enormously 
increased; and with the aid of elaborate instrumental accom- 
paniments it plays an important feature in such portions of 
classical operatic ensemble as can with dramatic propriety be 
devoted to expressions of feeling uninterrupted by dramatic 
action. In the modern round the first voice can execute a long 
and complete melody before the second voice joins in. Even if 
this melody be not instrumentally accompanied, it will imply 
a certain harmony, or at all events arouse curiosity as to what 
the harmony is to be. And the sequel may shed a new light 
upon the harmony, and thus by degrees the whole character 
of the melody may be transformed. The power of the modern 
round for humorous and subtle, or even profound, expression 
was first fully revealed by Mozart, whose astounding unaccom- 
panied canons would be better known if he had not unfortunately 
set many of them to extemporized texts unfit for publication. 
The round or the catch (which is simply a specially jocose round) 
is a favourite English art-form, and the English specimens of 
it are probably more numerous and uniformly successful than 
those of any other nation. Still they cannot honestly be said 
to realize the full possibilities of the form. It is so easy to write 
a good piece of free and fairly contrapuntal harmony in three or 
more parts, and so arrange it that it remains correct when the 
parts are brought in one by one, that very few composers seem 
to have realized that any further artistic device was possible 
within such limits. Even Cherubini gives hardly more than a 
valuable hint that the round may be more than a jeu d' esprit; 
and, unless he be an adequate exception, the unaccompanied 
rounds of Mozart and Brahms stand alone as works that raise 
the round to the dignity of a serious art-form. With the addition 
of an orchestral accompaniment the round obviously becomes 
a larger thing; and when we consider such specimens as that 
in the finale of Mozart's Cosi fan tutte, the quartet in the last 
act of Cherubini's Faniska, the wonderfully subtle quartet 
" Mir ist so wunderbar " in Beethoven's Fidelia, and the very 
beautiful numbers in Schubert's masses where Schubert finds 
expression for his genuine contrapuntal feeling without incurring 
the risks resulting from his lack of training in fugue-form, we 
find that the length of the initial melody, the growing variety 
of the orchestral accompaniment and the finality and climax 
of the free coda, combine to give the whole a character closely 
analogous to that of a set of contrapuntal variations, such as 
the slow movement of Haydn's " Emperor " string quartet, or 
the opening of the finale of Beethoven's pth Symphony. Berlioz 
is fond of beginning his largest movements like a kind of round; 
e.g. his Dies Irae, and Scene aux Champs. 

A moment's reflection will show that three conditions are 
necessary to make a canon into a round. First, the voices 
must imitate each other in the unison; secondly, they must 
enter at equal intervals of time; and thirdly, the whole melodic 
material must be as many times longer than the interval of time 
as the number of voices; otherwise, when the last voice has 
finished the first phrase, the first voice will not be ready to return 
to the beginning. Strict canon is, however, possible under 
innumerable other conditions, and even a round is possible with 
some of the voices at the interval of an octave, as is of course 
inevitable in writing for unequal voices. And in a round for 
unequal voices there is obviously a new means of effect in the 
fact that, as the melody rotates, its- different parts change 
their pitch in relation to each other. The art by which this is 
possible without incorrectness is that of double, triple and 
multiple counterpoint (see COUNTERPOINT). Its difficulty is 



variable, and with an instrumental accompaniment there is 
none. In fugues, multiple counterpoint is one of the normal 
resources of music; and few devices are more self-explanatory 
to the ear than the process by which the subject and counter- 
subjects of a fugue change their positions, revealing fresh melodic 
and acoustic aspects of identical harmonic structure at every 
turn. This, however, is rendered possible and interesting by 
the fact that the passages in such counterpoint are separated 
by episodes and are free to appear in different keys. Many 
fugues of Bach are written throughout in multiple counterpoint; 
but the possibility of this, even to composers such as Bach and 
Mozart, to whom difficulties seem unknown, depends upon the 
freedom of the musical design which allows the composer to 
select the most effective permutations and combinations of his 
counterpoint, and also to put them into whatever key he chooses. 
An unaccompanied round for unequal voices would bring about 
the permutations and combinations in a mechanical order; 
and unless the melody were restricted to a compass common to 
soprano and alto each alternate revolution would carry it beyond 
the bounds of one or the other group of voices. The technical 
difficulties of such a problem are destructive to artistic invention. 
But they do not appear in the above-mentioned operatic rounds, 
though these are for unequal voices, because here the length of 
the initial melody is so great that the composition is quite long 
enough before the last voice has got farther than the first or 
second phrase, and, moreover, the free instrumental accompani- 
ment is capable of furnishing a bass to a mass of harmony 
otherwise incomplete. 

The resources of canon, when emancipated from the principles 
of the round, are considerable when the canonic form is strictly 
maintained, and are inexhaustible when it is treated freely. A 
canon need not be in the unison; and when it is in some other 
interval the imitating voice alters the expression of the melody 
by transferring it to another part of the scale. Again, the 
imitating voice may follow the leader at any distance of time; 
and thus we have obviously a definite means of expression in 
the difference of closeness with which various canonic parts may 
enter, as, for instance, in the stretto of a fugue. Again, if the 
answering part enters on an unaccented beat where the leader 
began on the accent, there will be artistic value in the resulting 
difference of rhythmic expression. This is the device known 
as per arsin et thesin. All these devices are, in skilful hands, 
quite definite in their effect upon the ear, and their expressive 
power is undoubtedly due to their special canonic nature. The 
beauty of the pleading, rising sequences in crossing parts that 
we find in the canon in the 2nd at the opening of the Recordare 
in Mozart's Requiem is attainable by no other technical means. 
The close canon in the 6th at the distance of one minim in re- 
versed accent in Bach's eighteenth Goldberg variation owes all 
its smooth harmonic expression to the fact that the two canonic 
parts move in sixths which would be simultaneous but for the 
pause of the minim which reverses the accents of the upper 
part while it creates that chain of suspended discords which 
give harmonic variety to the whole. 

Two other canonic devices have important artistic value, 
namely, augmentation and diminution (two different aspects of 
the same thing) and inversion. In augmentation the imitating 
part sings twice as slow as the leader, or sometimes still slower. 
This obviously should impart a new dignity to the melody, and 
in diminution the expression is generally that of an accession 
of liveliness. 1 Neither of these devices, however, continues to 
appeal to the ear if carried on for long. In augmentation the 
answering part lags so far behind the leader that the ear cannot 
long follow the connexion, while a diminished answer will 
obviously soon overtake the leader, and can proceed on the 
same plan only by itself becoming the leader of a canon in 
augmentation. Beethoven, in the fugues in his sonatas op. 106 
and no, adapted augmentation and diminution to modern 
varieties of thematic expression, by employing them in triple 

1 But see the E. major fugue in the second book of the WoM- 
temperirtes Klavier, where the entry of the diminished subject (in 
a new position of the scale) is very tender and solemn. 

time, so that, by doubling the length of the original notes across 
this triple rhythm, they produce an entirely new rhythmic 
expression. This does not seem to have been applied by any 
earlier composer with the same consistency or intention. 

The device of inversion consists in the imitating part reversing 
every interval of the leader, ascending where the leader descends 
and vice versa. Its expressive power depends upon such subtle 
matters of the harmonic expression of melody that its artistic 
use is one of the surest signs of the difference between classical 
and merely academic music. There are many melodies of which 
the inversion is as natural as the original form, and does not 
strikingly alter its character. Such are, for instance, the theme 
of Bach's Kunst der Fuge, most of Purcell's contrapuntal themes, 
the theme in the fugue of Beethoven's sonata, op. no, and the 
eighth of Brahms's variations on a theme by Haydn. In such 
cases inversion sometimes produces harmonic variety as well 
as a sense of melodic identity in difference. But where a melody 
has marked features of rise and fall, such as long scale passages 
or bold skips, the inversion, if productive of good harmonic 
structure and expression, may be a powerful method of trans- 
formation. This is admirably shown in the twelfth of Bach's 
Goldberg Variations, in the fifteenth fugue of the first book of 
his Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues, in the finale of Beethoven's 
sonata, op. 106, and in the second subjects of the first and last 
movements of Brahms's clarinet trio. 

The only remaining canonic device which figures in classical 
music is that known as cancrizans, in which the imitating part 
reproduces the leader backwards. It is of extreme rarity in 
serious music; and, though it sometimes happens by accident 
that a melody or figure of uniform rhythm will produce something 
equally natural when read backwards, there is only one example 
of its use that appeals to the ear as well as the eye. This is to 
be found in the finale of Beethoven's sonata, op. 106, where it is 
applied to a theme with such sharply contrasted rhythmic and 
melodic features that with long familiarity a listener would 
probably feel not only the wayward humour of the passage in 
itself, but also its connexion with the main theme. Nevertheless, 
the prominence given to the device in technical treatises, and the 
fact that this is the one illustration which hardly any of them 
cite, show too clearly the way in which music is treated not only 
as a dead language but as if it had never been alive. 

All these devices are also independent of the canonic idea, 
since they are so many methods of transforming themes 
in themselves and need not always be used in contrapuntal 

2. Fugue. 

As the composers of the i6th century made progress in har- 
monic and contrapuntal expression through the discipline of 
strict canonic forms, it became increasingly evident that there 
was no necessity for the maintenance of strict canon throughout 
a composition. On the contrary, the very variety of canonic 
possibilities, apart from the artistic necessity of breaking up the 
uniform fulness of harmony, suggested the desirability of changing 
one kind of canon for another, and even of contrasting canonic 
texture with that of plain masses of non-polyphonic harmony. 
The result is best known in the polyphonic 16th-century motets. 
In these the essentials of canonic effect are embodied in the entry 
of one voice after another with a definite theme stated by each 
voice in that part of the scale which best suits its compass, thus 
producing a free canon for as many parts as there are voices, 
in alternate intervals of the 4th, 5th and octave, and at such 
distances of time as are conducive to clearness and variety of 
proportion. It is not necessary for the later voices to imitate 
more than the opening phrase of the earlier, or, if they do 
imitate its continuation, to keep to the same interval. 

Such a texture differs in no way from that of the fugue of more 
modern times. But the form is not what is now understood as 
fugue, inasmuch as 16th-century composers did not normally 
think of writing long movements on one theme or of making a 
point of the return of a theme after episodes. With the appear- 
ance of new words in the text, the 16th-century composer 



naturally took up a new theme without troubling to design it for 
contrapuntal combination with the opening; and the form 
resulting from this treatment of words was faithfully reproduced 
in the instrumental ricercari of the time. Occasionally, however, 
breadth of treatment and terseness of design combined to produce 
a short movement on one idea indistinguishable in form from a 
fughetta of Bach; as in the Kyrie of Palestrina's Mass, Salve 

But in Bach's art the preservation of a main theme is more 
necessary the longer the composition; and Bach has an incalcul- 
able number of methods of giving his fugues a symmetry of form 
and balance of climax so subtle and perfect that we are apt to 
forget that the only technical rules of a fugue are those which 
refer to its texture. In the Kunst der Fuge Bach has shown with 
the utmost clearness how hi his opinion the various types of 
fugue may be classified. That extraordinary work is a series of 
fugues, all on the same subject. The earlier fugues show how 
an artistic design may be made by simply passing the subject 
from one voice to another in orderly succession (in the first ex- 
ample without any change of key except from tonic to dominant). 
The next stage of organization is that in which the subject is 
combined with inversions, augmentations and diminutions of 
itself. Fugues of this kind can be conveniently called stretto- 
fugues. 1 The third and highest stage is that in which the fugue 
combines its subject with contrasted counter-subjects, and thus 
depends upon the resources of double, triple and quadruple 
counterpoint. But of the art by which the episodes are con- 
trasted, connected climaxes attained, and keys and subtle 
rhythmic proportions so balanced as to give the true fugue- 
forms a beauty and stability second only to those of the true 
sonata forms, Bach's classification gives us no direct hint. A 
comparison of the fugues in the Kunst der Fuge with those else- 
where in his works reveals a necessary relation between the nature 
of the fugue-subject and the type of fugue. In the Kunst der Fuge 
Bach has obvious didactic reasons for taking the same subject 
throughout; and, as he wishes to show the extremes of technical 
possibility, that subject must necessarily be plastic rather than 
characteristic. Elsewhere Bach prefers very lively or highly 
characteristic themes as subjects for the simplest kind of instru- 
mental fugue. On the other hand, there comes a point when the 
mechanical strictness of treatment crowds out the proper develop- 
ment of musical ideas; and the 7th fugue (which is one solid mass 
of stretto in augmentation, diminution and inversion) and the 
1 2th and i3th (which are invertible bodily) are academic exercises 
outside the range of free artistic work. On the other hand, 
the less complicated stretto-fugues and the fugues in double 
and triple counterpoint are perfect works of art and as beautiful as 
any that Bach wrote without didactic purpose. 

Fugue is still, as in the i6th century, a texture rather 
than a form; and the rules given in most technical treatises 
for its general shape are based, not on the practice of the 
great composers, but on the necessities of beginners, whom 
it would be as absurd to ask to write a fugue without giving 
them a form as to ask a schoolboy to write so many pages of 
Latin verses without a subject. But this standard form, what- 
ever its merits may be in combining progressive technique with 
musical sense, has no connexion with the true classical types of 
fugue, though it played an interesting part in the renaissance 
of polyphony during the growth of the sonata style, and even gave 
rise to valuable works of art (e.g. the fugues in Haydn's quartets, 
op. 20). One of its rules was that every fugue should have a 
stretto. This rule, like most of the others, is absolutely without 
classical warrant; for in Bach the ideas of stretto and of counter- 
subject almost exclude one another except in the very largest 
fugues, such as the 22nd hi the second book of the Forty-eight; 
while Handel's fugue- writing is a masterly method, adopted 
as occasion requires, and with a lordly disdain for recognized 
devices. But the pedagogic rule proved to be not without 
artistic point in more modern music; for fugue became, since the 
rise of the sonata-form, for some generations a contrast with 
the normal means of expression instead of being itself normal. 

1 For technical terms see articles COUNTERPOINT and FUGUE. 

And while this was so, there was considerable point in using 
every possible means to enhance the rhetorical force of its 
peculiar devices, as is shown by the astonishing modern fugues 
in Beethoven's last works. Nowadays, however, polyphony is 
universally recognized as a permanent type of musical texture, 
and there is no longer any reason why if it crystallizes into the 
fugue-form at all it should not adopt the classical rather than 
the pedagogic type. 

It is still an unsatisfied wish of accurate musicians that the term 
fugue should be used to imply rather a certain type of polyphonic 
texture than the whole form of a composition. At present one 
runs the risk of grotesque misconceptions when one quite rightly 
describes as " written in fugue " such passages as the first subjects 
in Mozart's Zauberflote overture, the andantes of Beethoven's 
first symphony and C minor quartet, or the first and second 
subjects of the finale of Mozart's G major quartet, the second 
subject of the finale of his D major quintet, and the exposition 
of quintuple counterpoint in the coda of the finale of the Jupiter 
Symphony, and countless other passages in the developments and 
main subjects of classical and modern works in sonata form. The 
ordinary use of the term implies an adherence to a definite set 
of rules quite incompatible with the sonata style, and therefore 
inapplicable to these passages, and at the same time equally 
devoid of real connexion with the idea of fugue as understood 
by the great masters of the i6th century who matured it. In. 
the musical articles in this Encyclopaedia we shall therefore 
speak of writing "in fugue" as we would speak of a poet writing 
in verse, rather than weaken our descriptions by the orthodox 
epithet of " loose fugato." 

3. Counterpoint on a Canto Fermo. 

The early practice of building polyphonic designs on a voice- 
part confined to a given plain-song or popular melody furnishes 
the origin for every contrapuntal principle that is not canonic, 
and soon develops into a canonic principle in itself. When the 
canto fermo is in notes of equal length and is sung without inter- 
mission, it is of course as rigid a mechanical device as an acrostic. 
Yet it may have artistic value in furnishing a steady rhythm 
in contrast to suitable free motion in the other parts. When it 
is in the bass, as in Orlando di Lasso's six-part Regina Coeli, 
it is apt to cramp the harmony; but when it is in the tenor 
(its normal place in 16th-century music), or any other part, it 
determines little but the length of the composition. It may or 
may not appeal to the ear; if not, it at least does no harm, for 
its restricting influence on the harmony is small if its pace is 
slower than that of its surroundings. If, on the other hand, its 
melody is characteristic, or can be enforced by repetition, it 
may become a powerful means of effect, as in the splendid close 
of Fayrfax's Mass Albanus quoted by Professor Wooldridge 
on page 320 in the second volume of the Oxford History of Music. 
Here the tenor part ought to be sung by a body of voices that 
can be distinctly heard through the glowing superincumbent 
harmony; and then the effect of its five steps of sequence in 
a melodious figure of nine semibreves will reveal itself as the 
principle which gives the passage consistency of drift and finality 
of climax. 

When the rhythm of the canto fermo is not uniform, or when 
pauses intervene between its phrases, whether these are different 
figures or repetitions of one figure in different parts of the scale, 
the device passes into the region of free art, and an early example 
of its simplest use is described in the article Music as it appears 
in Josquin's wonderful Miserere. Orlando di Lasso's work is 
full of instances of it, one of the most dramatic of which is the 
motet Fremuit spiritu Jesus (Magnum Opus No. 553 [378]), 
in which, while the other voices sing the scripture narrative 
of the death and raising of Lazarus, the tenor is heard singing 
to an admirably appropriate theme the words, Lazare, veni 
foras. When the end of the narrative is reached, these words fall 
into their place and are of course taken up in a magnificent 
climax by the whole chorus. 

The free use of phrases of canto fermo in contrapuntal texture, 
whether confined to one part or taken up in fugue by all, 



constitutes the whole fabric of 16th-century music; except where 
polyphonic device is dispensed with altogether, as in Palestrina's 
two settings of the Slabat Mater, his Litanies, and all of his later 
Lamentations except the initials. A 16th-century mass, when 
it is not derived in this way from those secular melodies to which 
the council of Trent objected, is so closely connected with 
Gregorian tones, or at least with the themes of some motet 
appropriate to the holy day for which it was written, that in a 
Roman Catholic cathedral service the polyphonic music of the 
best period co-operates with the Gregorian intonations to produce 
a consistent musical whole with a thematic coherence almost 
suggestive of Wagnerian Leitmotif. In later times the Protestant 
music of Germany attained a similar consistency, under more 
complicated musical conditions, by the use of chorale-tunes; and 
in Bach's hands the fugal and other treatment of chorale-melody 
is one of the most varied and expressive of artistic resources. 
It seems to be less generally known that the chorale plays a 
considerable though not systematic part in Handel's English 
works. The passage " the kingdoms of the world " in the 
"Hallelujah Chorus" (down to "and He shall live for ever 
and ever") is a magnificent development of the second part of 
the chorale Wachet auf (" Christians wake, a voice is calling "); 
and it would be easy to trace a German or Roman origin for many 
of the solemn phrases in long notes which in Handel's choruses 
so often accompany quicker themes. 

From the use of an old canto fermo to the invention of an original 
one is obviously a small step; and as there is no limit to the 
possibilities of varying the canto fermo, both in the part which 
most emphatically propounds it and in the imitating or contrasted 
parts, so there is no line of demarcation between the free develop- 
ment of counterpoint on a canto fermo and the general art of 
combining melodies which gives harmony its deepest expression 
and musical texture its liveliest action. Nor is there any such 
line to separate polyphonic from non-polyphonic methods of 
accompanying melody; and Bach's Orgelbilchlein and Brahms's 
posthumous organ-chorales show every conceivable gradation 
between plain harmony or arpeggio and the most complex canon. 
In Wagnerian polyphony canonic devices are rare except in 
such simple moments of anticipation or of communion with 
nature as we have before the rise of the curtain in the Rheingold 
and at the daybreak in the second act of the Gotterdammerung. 
On the other hand, the art of combining contrasted themes 
crowds almost every other kind of musical texture (except 
tremolos and similar simple means of emotional expression) 
into the background, and is itself so transformed by new harmonic 
resources, many of which are Wagner's own discovery, that it 
may almost be said to constitute a new form of art . The influence 
of this upon instrumental music is as yet helpful only in those 
new forms which are breaking away from the limits of the sonata 
style; and it is impossible at present to sift the essential from 
the unessential in that marvellous compound of canonic device, 
Wagnerian harmony, original technique and total disregard of 
every known principle of musical grammar, which renders the 
work of Richard Strauss the most remarkable musical pheno- 
menon of recent years. All that is certain is that the two 
elements in which the music of the future will finally place its 
main organizing principles are not those of instrumentation and 
external expression, on which popular interest and controversy 
are at present centred, but rhythmic flow and counterpoint. These 
have always been the elements which suffered from neglect or 
anarchy in earlier transition-periods, and they have always been 
the elements that gave rationality to the new art to which the 
transitions led. (D. F. T.) 

CONTREXEVILLE, a watering-place of north-eastern France, 
in the department of Vosges, on the Vair, 39 m. W. of Epinal by 
rail. Pop. (1006) 940. The mineral springs of Contrexeville 
have been in local repute since a remote period, but became 
generally known only towards the end of the i8th century; and 
the modern reputation of the place p.s a health resort dates from 
1864, when it began to be developed by a company, the Societ6 
des Eaux de Contrex6ville, and more particularly from about 
1895. In the ten years after this latter date many improvements 

were made for the accommodation of visitors, for whom the season 
is from May to September. The waters of the Source Pavilion, 
which are used chiefly for drinking, have a temperature of 53 F. 
and are characterized chiefly by the presence of calcium sulphate. 
They are particularly efficacious in the treatment of gravel and 
kindred disorders, by the elimination of uric acid. 

See Thirty-five years at Contrexeville (1903), by Dr Debout 

CONTROL (Fr. conlrdle, older form centre rolle, from Med. Lat. 
contra-rotulus, a counter roll or copy of a document used to check 
the original; there is no instance in English of the use of "con- 
trol " in this, its literal, meaning) , a substantive (whence the verb) 
for that which checks or regulates anything, and so especially 
command of body or mind by the will, and generally the power 
of regulation. In England the " Board of Control," abolished 
in 1858, was the body which supervised the East India Company 
in the administration of India. In the case of " controller," 
a general term for a public official who checks expenditure, the 
more usual form " comptroller " is a wrong spelling due to a 
false connexion with " accompt " or " account." A "control" 
or " control-experiment," in science, is an experiment used, by 
an application of the method of difference, to check the inferences 
drawn from another experiment. 

CONTUMACY (Lat. contumacia, obstinacy; derived from the 
root tern-, as in temnere, to despise, or possibly from the root 
turn-, as in tumere, to swell, with anger, &c.), a stubborn refusal 
to obey authority, obstinate resistance; particularly, in law, 
the wilful contempt of the order or summons of a court (see 
CONTEMPT or COURT). In ecclesiastical law, the contempt of 
the authority of an ecclesiastical court is dealt with by the 
issue of a writ de contumace capiendo from the court of chancery 
at the instance of the judge of the ecclesiastical court; this writ 
took the place of that de excommunicate capiendo in 1813, by an 
act of George III. c. 127 (see EXCOMMUNICATION). 

CONUNDRUM (a word of unknown origin, probably coined 
in burlesque imitation of scholastic Latin, as " hocus-pocus " 
or "panjandrum"), originally a term meaning whim, fancy or 
ridiculous idea; later applied to a pun or play upon words, and 
thus, in its usual sense, to a particular form of riddle in which 
the answer depends on a pun. In a transferred sense the word 
is also used of any puzzling question or difficulty. 

CONVENT (Lat. comientus, from convenire, to come together), 
a term applied to an association of persons secluded from the 
world and devoted to a religious life, and hence to the building 
in which they live, a monastery or (more particularly) nunnery. 
The diminution "conventicle" (comienliculum) , generally used 
in a contemptuous sense as implying sectarianism, secrecy or 
illegality, is applied to the meetings or meeting-places of religious 
or other dissenting bodies. 

CONVENTION (Lat. conventio, an assembly or agreement, 
from convenire, to come together), a meeting or assembly; an 
agreement between parties; a general agreement on which is 
based some custom, institution, rule of behaviour or taste, or 
canon of art; hence extended to the abuse of such an agreement, 
whereby the rules based upon it become lifeless and artificial. 
The word is of some interest historically and politically. It is 
used of an assembly of the representatives of a. nation, state or 
party, and is particularly contrasted with the formal meetings 
of a legislature. It is thus applied to those parliaments in English 
history which, owing to the abeyance of the crown, have as- 
sembled without the formal summons of the sovereign; in 1660 
a convention parliament restored Charles II. to the throne, 
and in 1689 the Houses of Commons and Lords were summoned 
informally to a convention by William, prince of Orange, as 
were the Estates of Scotland, and declared the throne abdicated 
by James II. and settled the disposition of the realm. Similarly, 
the assembly which ruled France from September 1792 to 
October 1795 was known as the National Convention (see below) ; 
the statutory assembly of delegates which framed the constitution 
of the United States of America in 1787 was called the Constitu- 
tional Convention; and the various American state constitutions 
have been drafted and sometimes revised by constitutional 

4 6 


conventions. In the party system of the United States the 
nomination of party candidates for office or election is in the 
hands of delegates, chosen by the primaries, meeting in the 
convention of the party; the convention system is universal, 
from the national conventions of the Republican and Democratic 
parties, which nominate the candidates for the presidency 
and vice-presidency, down to a ward convention, which nomi- 
nates the candidate for a town-councillorship. In diplomacy, 
"convention" is a general name given to international agree- 
ments other than treaties, but not necessarily differing either 
in form or subject-matter from a treaty, and sometimes used 
quite widely of all forms of such agreements. Many con- 
ventions have been made for the formation of international 
"unions" to regulate and protect various economic, industrial 
and other non-political interests, such as postal and telegraphic 
services, trade-marks, patents, copyright, quarantine, &c. 
Thus the Latin Monetary Union was created in 1865 by the 
Convention of Paris, and the abolition of bounties on the pro- 
duction and exportation of sugar by the Convention of Brussels 
in 1902 (see TREATIES). 

CONVENTION, THE NATIONAL, in France, the constitutional 
and legislative assembly which sat from the 2oth of September 
1792 to the 26th of October 1795 (the 4th of Brumaire of the 
year IV.). On the loth of August 1792, when the populace 
of Paris stormed the Tuileries and demanded the abolition of 
the monarchy, the Legislative Assembly decreed the provisional 
suspension of the king and the convocation of a national conven- 
tion which should draw up a constitution. At the same time 
it was decided that the deputies to that convention should be 
elected by all Frenchmen 25 years old, domiciled for a year and 
living by the product of their labour. The National Convention 
was therefore the first French assembly elected by universal 
suffrage, without distinctions of class. The age limit of the 
electors was further lowered to 21, and that of eligibility was 
fixed at 25 years. 

The first session was held on the 2oth of September 1792. 
The next day royalty was abolished, and on the 22nd it was 
decided that all documents should be henceforth dated from the 
year I. of the French Republic. The Convention was destined 
to last for three years. The country was at war, and it seemed 
best to postpone the new constitution until peace should be 
concluded. At the same time as the Convention prolonged its 
powers it extended them considerably in order to meet the 
pressing dangers which menaced the Republic. Though a 
legislative assembly, it took over the executive power, entrusting 
it to its own members. This "confusion of powers," which was 
contrary to the philosophical theories those of Montesquieu 
especially which had inspired the Revolution at first, was 
one of the essential characteristics of the Convention. The 
series of exceptional measures by which that confusion of 
powers was created constitutes the "Revolutionary government" 
in the strict sense of the word, a government which was princi- 
pally in vigour during the period called "the Terror." It is 
thus necessary to distinguish, in the work of the Convention, the 
temporary expedients from measures intended to be permanent. 

The Convention held its first session in a hall of the Tuileries, 
then it sat in the hall of Manege, and finally from the zoth of 
May 1793 in that of the Spectacles (or Machines), an immense 
hall in which the deputies were but loosely scattered. This 
last hall had tribunes for the public, which often influenced the 
debate by interruptions or applause. The full number of deputies 
was 749, not counting 33 from the colonies, of whom only a 
section arrived in Paris. Besides these, however, the depart- 
ments annexed from 1792 to 1793 were allowed to send deputa- 
tions. Many of the original deputies died or were exiled during 
the Convention, but not all their places were filled by suppliants. 
Some of those proscribed during the Terror returned after the 
9th of Thermidor. Finally, many members were sent away 
either to the departments or to the armies, on missions which 
lasted sometimes for a considerable length of time. For all 
these reasons it is difficult to find out the number of deputies 
present at any given date, for votes by roll-call were rare. In 

the Terror the number of those voting averaged only 250. The 
members of the Convention were drawn from all classes of 
society, but the most numerous were lawyers. Seventy-five 
members had sat in the Constituent Assembly, 183 in the 

According to its own ruling, the Convention elected its presi- 
dent every fortnight. He was eligible for re-election after the 
lapse of a fortnight. Ordinarily the sessions were held in the 
morning, but evening sessions were also frequent, often extending 
late into the night. Sometimes in exceptional circumstances 
the Convention declared itself in permanent session and sat 
for several days without interruption. For both legislative and 
administrative purposes the Convention used committees, with 
powers more or less widely extended and regulated by successive 
laws. The most famous of these committees are those of Public 
Safety, of General Security, of Education (Comilt de salut public, 
Comit6 de sureti generate, Comite de I' instruction). 

The work of the Convention was immense in all branches of 
public affairs. To appreciate it without prejudice , one should 
recall that this assembly saved France from a civil war and 
invasion, that it founded the system of public education (Mustum, 
Ecole Poly technique, Ecole Normale Superieure, Ecole des Langues 
orientales, Conservatoire), created institutions of capital im- 
portance, like that of the Grand Lime de la Dette publique, 
and definitely established the social and political gains of the 


BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Convention published a Prods-verbal of its 
sessions, which, although lacking the value of those published by 
assemblies to-day, is an official document of capital importance. 
Copies of it are rare, however, and it has been too much neglected 
by historians. See F. A. Aulard, Recueil des actes du comite de Salut 
Public avec la correspondance officielle des representants en mission, 
et le registre du conseil executif provisoire (Paris, 1889 et set].); 
M. J. Guillaume, Prods-verbaux du comite d' Instruction Publique 
de la Convention Nationale (Paris, 18911904, 5 vols. 4to); F. A. 
Aulard, Histoire politique de la Revolution franfaise (Paris, 1903); 
Mortimer-Ternaux, Histoire de la Terreur (1862-1881), a work 
based on and comprising documents, but written with strong 
royalist bias; Eugene Despois, Le Vandalisms revolulionnaire (1868), 
for the scientific work of the Convention. A detailed bibliography 
of the documents relating to the Convention is given in the Repertoire 
general des sources manuscrites de I'histoire de Paris pendant la 
Revolution francaise, vol. yiii. &c. (1908), edited by A. Tueley under 
the auspices of the municipality of Paris. For a more summary 
bibliography see M. Tourneux, Bibliog. de I'histoire de Paris pendant 
la Revolution francaise, i. 89-95 (Paris, 1890). (R. A.*) 

CONVERSANO, a town and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, 
in the province of Bari, 17 m. S.E. by rail from the town of Bari. 
Pop. (1901)13,685. It has a fine southern Romanesque cathedral 
of the end of the nth century, with a modernized interior, and 
a castle which from 1456 belonged to the Acquaviva family, 
dukes of Atri and counts of Conversano. The convent of 
S. Benedetto is one of the earliest offshoots of Montecassino. 
(See S. Simone, II Duomo di Conversano, Trani, 1896). Here, 
or in the vicinity, is the site of the unimportant ancient town 
of Norba. 

CONVERSION (Lat. conversio, from convertere, to turn or 
change), ageneral term for the operation of converting, changing, 
or transposing; used technically in special senses in logic, 
theology and law. 

i. In logic, conversion is one of three chief methods of im- 
mediate inference by which a conclusion is obtained directly 
from a single premise without the intervention of another 
premise or middle term. A proposition is said to be "converted" 
when the subject and the predicate change places; the original 
proposition is the "convertend," the new one the "converse." 
The chief rule governing conversion is that no term which was not 
distributed 1 in the convertend may be distributed in the con- 
verse; nor may the quality of the proposition (affirmative or 
negative) be changed. It follows that of the four possible forms 

1 A term is said to be " distributed " when It is taken universally: 
in the proposition " men are mortal " (meaning " all men ") the 
term " men " is " distributed " while " mortal " is undistributed, 
because there are mortal beings which are not men. 



of propositions A, E, I and O (see article A), E and I can be 
converted simply. If no A is B (E), it follows that no B is A; 
if some A is B, it follows that some B is A. This form of con- 
version is called Simple Conversion; E propositions convert into 
E, and I into I. On the other hand, A cannot be converted 
simply. If all men are mortal, the most that can follow by 
conversion is that some mortals are men. This is called Con- 
version by Limitation or Per Accidens. Only if it be known 
from external or non-logical sources that the predicate also is 
distributed can there be simple conversion of a universal affirma- 
tive. Neither of these forms of conversion can be applied to 
the particular negative proposition O, which has to be dealt 
with under a secondary system of conversion, as follows. The 
terminology by which these secondary processes are described 
is not altogether satisfactory, and logicians are not agreed as to 
the application of the terms. The following system is perhaps the 
most commonly used. We have seen that the converse of "all 
A is B" is "some B is A"; we can, in addition, derive from it 
another, though purely formal, proposition "no A is not-B"; 
i.e. an E proposition. This process is called Obversion, Permuta- 
tion or Immediate Inference by Privative Conception; it is 
applicable to every proposition including O.. A further process, 
known as Contraposition or Conversion by Negation, consists 
of conversion following on obversion. Thus from "all A is B," 
we get " no not-B is A." In the case of the O proposition we 
get (by obversion) " some A is not-B " and then (by conversion) 
"some not-B is A" (i.e. an I proposition). In the case of the 
I proposition the contrapositive is impossible, as infringing the 
main rule of conversion. Another term, Inversion, has been 
used by some logicians for a still more complicated process by 
the alternative use of conversion and obversion, which is applic- 
able to A and E, and results in obtaining a proposition concerning 
the contradictory of the original subject; thus "all A is B" 
becomes "some not-A is not B." 

Considerable discussion has centred on the problem as to 
whether the process of conversion can properly be regarded as 
inference. The essence of inference is that the conclusion should 
embody knowledge which is not in the premise or premises, and 
many logicians have contended that no fact is stated in the 
converse which was not in the convertend, or, in other words, 
that conversion is merely a transformation or verbal change 
of the same statement. Hence the term Eductions and Equiva- 
lent Prepositional Forms have been given to converse proposi- 
tions. It is clear, for instance, that if the universal affirmative 
is taken connotatively as a scientific law, and not historically, 
no real inference is achieved by stating as another scientific fact 
its converse, the particular affirmative. Moreover, even if the 
convertend is stated as an historic fact, though there is acquired 
a certain new significance, it may well be argued that the 
inference is not immediate but syllogistic. 

For this controversy see J. S. Mill, Logic, II. i. 2; Bradley, Logic, 
III. pt. i. chap. ii. 30-37; H. W. B. Joseph, Introduction to Logic 
(1906), pp. 209 foil.; J. N. Keynes, Formal Logic (3rd ed., 1894). 

2. In theology, conversion (the equivalent of the Gr. arpt^av, 
eirio-Tfx<t>uv} is originally the acceptation of Christianity by 
heathens. It is also used generally for a change from one re- 
ligion to another, or in a narrower sense for a complete change 
of attitude towards God, involving a deeper conviction of the 
ultimate religious and moral truths. Considerable difference of 
opinion has always existed, and still exists, within the Christian 
Church as to the true nature and the causes of conversion, 
especially in the sense last described. Some have held that man 
is merely the passive recipient of the Divine Grace, a view based 
largely on the rendering of the Authorized Version of Isaiah 
vi. 10 as quoted in Matt. xiii. 15, Mark iv. 12, and John xii. 40. 
Others again hold that baptism, as involving a second birth of 
the baptized person, makes subsequent conversion unnecessary 
or even meaningless, or conversely that conversion is this very 
second birth and renders baptism unnecessary. The reply 
generally made to such arguments is that baptism implies 
regeneration only, which is a change wrought from the outside 
by the Divine Spirit in general disposition or spiritual status, 

while conversion is a positive or concrete demonstration of that 
change, not merely the negative beginning of a new life but the 
positive "returning" to God in faith and repentance. The 
precise connexion between conversion and repentance is again 
a vexed question. How far and in what sense does man take an 
active part in his own conversion? To this it is frequently 
answered that while the initial stage of conversion is and can be 
the work of the Holy Spirit alone, it lies with man to make it 
complete by accepting the proffered grace in repentance and faith 
(cf. Acts vii. 51, " Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and 
ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost"). A man may of his 
own free will avoid those surroundings which predispose him to 
such "resistance." The view that man cannot convert himself 
is clearly stated in Article X. by the Church of England. " The 
condition of man after the fall of Adam is such that he cannot 
turn (sese comierlere) and prepare himself by his own natural 
strength and good works, to faith, and calling upon God: where- 
fore we have no power to do good works pleasant and acceptable 
to God, without the grace of God by Christ preventing us that 
we may have a good will, and working with us, when we have 
that good will." Further problems are connected with the 
possibility of repeated conversions of the same man, the necessity 
of a single strongly marked conversion completed in a single 
process, the significance of sudden conversion of persons in a 
highly emotional state, such as has been common in revivalist 
meetings, especially in Wales and the United States of America. 
Conversions of the last kind have followed frequently on striking 
physical phenomena, perceived in many cases only by the con- 
vert himself, such as a sudden bright light or a noise like a clap of 
thunder. 1 In all cases of conversion, however, the criterion of its 
validity is generally taken to be the resultant change of a man's 
character as manifested in his mode of life and thought, in the 
abstention from sin, and in devotion to good works. (X.) 

3. In English law, conversion is the unauthorized exercise 
of dominion by one person over the property (other than money 
or chattels real) of another, in a manner inconsistent with his 
rights of possession, or the unauthorized assumption by another 
of the powers of the true owner of goods. The history and 
exact definition of this form of actionable wrong have occupied 
the attention of many learned writers, and the incidents of 
actions to assert the rights of the true owner form a considerable 
part of treatises on the rules and forms of civil pleading. There 
are many ways in which the wrong may be committed. In 
some cases the exercise of the dominion may amount to an act 
of trespass or to a crime, e.g. where the taking amounts to 
larceny, or fraudulent appropriation by a bailee or agent en- 
trusted with the property of another (Larceny Acts of 1861 and 
1901). But in such cases, except where money is taken, the 
civil remedy of the owner is by action for conversion or detention 
of the property, subject in the case of larceny to the rule that 
criminal prosecution should precede restitution by the taker. 
The remedy in use in these cases used to be by what was called 
an action on the case for trover and conversion, the plaintiff 
putting aside all suggestions of trespass and of crime, and resting 
his case on the fiction that the defendant had found and used 
goods not his own. The fictitious averment of loss was abolished 
in 1852, and under the present procedure, in which the old forms 
of action are not in use, the remedy is by a claim (still usually 
called conversion) for wrongfully depriving the true owner of 
personal property of its use by some specified act inconsistent 
with his dominion over it, usually by dealing with the property 
in a manner inconsistent with the owner's rights. Originally, 
the action of trover and conversion was limited to goods and 
chattels, but it is now accepted as applying to valuable securities, 
such as cheques and bills of exchange. 

The gist of the action is in the unauthorized dealing, for 
however short a time and for however limited a purpose, with 
the personal property of another. Even refusal to deliver up 
to the owner is sufficient to prove conversion, though it is often 

1 Numerous instances, drawn from other religions besides Chris- 
tianity, are given in Professor William James's The Varieties of 
Religious Experience (1902). 


made the ground of an action for detinue, if the plaintiff desires 
to have the property returned in specie. The knowledge, motive 
or good faith of the person wrongfully dealing with the property 
of another is for civil purposes immaterial, and the action is 
often brought to try the title of two claimants to the same goods ; 
e.g. where a person who has innocently bought or taken in pledge 
goods stolen or illegally procured resists the claim of the original 
owner for the return of the goods. A warehouseman may 
render himself liable to the owner of goods deposited with him, 
through delivering the goods to a third person on a forged 
authority or without authority, or by issuing a warehouse 
receipt representing the goods to be in his possession or control 
when they have ceased to be so. 

The exact measure of compensation due to a plaintiff whose 
goods have been wrongfully converted may be merely nominal 
if the wrong is technical and the defendant can return the goods; 
it may be limited to the actual damage where the goods can be 
returned, but the wrong is substantial; but in ordinary cases 
it is the full value to the owner of the goods of which he has 
been deprived. 

Fraudulent conversion by any person to his own use (or that 
of persons other than the owner) of property entrusted to him 
is a crime in the case of custodians of property, factors, trustees 
under express trusts in writing (Larceny Act, 1861, ss. 77-85; 
Larceny Act, 1901). 

The law of Ireland, of most British possessions, and of the 
United States, follows that of England as to the civil or criminal 
remedies for conversion. 

The term " conversion " is also used in English law with reference 
to the rule of courts of equity which, in certain cases (following 
the maxim of treating as done what ought to have been done), 
treats as converted into personalty land which has been directed 
so to be converted by a will, contract or settlement, or as 
converted into land personalty which has been by such instru- 
ment directed to be applied for purchase of realty. The rule 
is also applied where a vendor of land dies between the making 
of the contract of sale and its completion by conveyance of the 
land. The importance of the rule lies in the different destination 
of realty and personalty under the laws relating to inheritance 
and succession. 

See Bullen and Leake, Precedents of Pleading (3rd ed., 1868, 
6th ed. by Dodd and Chitty, 1905) ; F. Pollock, on Torts (7th ed., 
1904) ; Clerk and Lindsell, on Torts (3rd ed., 1904) ; Lewin, on 
Trusts (nth ed., 1904); Jarman, on Wills (5th ed., 1893); Dart, 
Vendors and Purchasers (nth ed., p. 301). (W. F. C.) 

CONVEX (Lat. convexus, carried round, rounded, from con-, 
with, and vehere, to carry), a term for the exterior side of a 
curved or rounded surface, as opposed to " concave " (Lat. con-, 
and cavus, hollow), the inner surface. 

CONVEYANCE, primarily the act or process of conveying 
anything. The verb " to convey," now used in the senses of 
carrying, transporting, transmitting, communicating or handing 
over, originally had the same meaning as "convoy" (q.v.), 
i.e. to accompany, a meaning which still survived in the i8th 
century. Like " convoy " it is ultimately derived from the Late 
Lat. conviare (not from convehere), but through the old Norman 
French form conveier, which in central France passed into the 
form convoier, mod. Fr. conveyer, whence " convoy." Apart 
from the general sense given above the word conveyance is now 
used in three special senses: (i) a carriage or other means of 
transport, (2) in law, the transference of property by deed or 
writing between living persons, and (3) the written instrument 
by which such transference is effected. (See CONVEYANCING.) 

CONVEYANCING, in English law, the art or science of convey- 
ing or effecting the transfer of property, or modifying interests 
in relation to property, by means of written documents. 

In early legal systems the main element in the transfer of 
property was the change, generally accompanied by some public 
Histo ceremony, in the actual physical possession: the 
function of documents, where used, being merely the 
preservation of evidence. Thus, in Great Britain in the feudal 
period, the common mode of conveying an immediate freehold 
was by feo/ment with livery of seisin a proceeding in which the 

transferee was publicly invested with the feudal possession or 
seisin, usually through the medium of some symbolic act per- 
formed in the presence of witnesses upon the land itself. A deed 
or charter of feoffment was commonly executed at the same 
time by way of record, but formed no essential part of the 
conveyance. In the language of the old rule of the common law, 
the immediate freehold in corporeal hereditaments lay in livery, 
whereas reversions and remainders and all incorporeal heredita- 
ments lay in grant, i.e. passed by the delivery of the deed of 
conveyance or grant without any furthe'r ceremony. The 
process by which this distinction was broken down -and the 
present uniform system of private conveyancing by simple deed 
was established, constitutes a long chapter in English legal 

The land of a feudal owner was subject to the risk of forfeiture 
for treason, and to military and other burdens. The common law 
did not allow him to dispose of it by will. By the law of mort- 
main religious houses were prohibited from acquiring it. The 
desire to escape from these burdens and limitations gave rise to the 
practice of making feoffments to the use of, or upon trust for, 
persons other than those to whom the seisin or legal possession 
was delivered. The common law recognized only the legal tenant ; 
but the cestui que use or beneficial owner gradually secured for his 
wishes and directions concerning the profits of the land the strong 
protection of the chancellors as exercising the equitable jurisdiction 
of the king. The resulting loss to the crown and the great lords of 
the feudal dues and privileges, coupled with the public disadvantages 
arising from ownership of land which, in an increasing degree, was 
merely nominal, brought about the passing in the year 1535 of the 
famous Statute of Uses, the object of which was to destroy alto- 
gether the system of uses and equitable estates. It enacted, in 
substance, that whoever should have a use or trust in any heredita- 
ments should be deemed to have the legal seisin, estate and possession 
for the same interest that he had in the use; in other words, that 
he should become in effect the feudal tenant without actual delivery 
of possession to him by the actual feoffee to uses or trustee. In its 
result the statute was a fiasco. It was solemnly decided that the act 
transferred the legal possession to the use once only, and that in the 
case of a conveyance to A to the use of B to the use of or upon trust 
for C, it gave the legal estate to B, and left C with an interest in the 
position of the use before the statute. Thus was completed the 
foundation of the modern system of trusts fastened upon legal 
estates and protected by the equitable doctrines and practice of the 

But the statute not only failed to abolish uses: it also opened 
the way to the evasion of the public ceremony of livery of seisin, and 
the avoidance of all notoriety in conveyances. Other ways, besides 
an actual feoffment to uses, of creating a use had been in vogue before 
the statute. If A bargained with B, in writing or not, for the sale 
of land, and B paid -the price, but A remained in legal possession, 
the court of chancery enforced the use or equitable interest in favour 
of B. The effect of a bargain- and sale (as such a transaction was 
called) after the statute was to give B the legal interest without any 
livery of seisin. This fresh danger was met in the very year of the 
statute itself by an enactment that a bargain and sale of an estate of 
inheritance or freehold should be made by deed publicly enrolled. 
But the Statute of Enrolments was in terms limited to estates of 
freehold. It was allowed that a bargain and sale for a term, say, of 
one year, must transfer the seisin to the bargainee without enrol- 
ment. And since what remained in the bargainer was merely a 
reversion which " lay in grant," it was an easy matter to release this 
by deed the day after. By this ingenious device was the publicity 
of feoffment or enrolment avoided, and the lease and release, as the 
process was called, remained the usual mode of conveying a freehold 
in posession down to the igth century. 

It was not until 1845 that the modern system of transfer by 
a single deed was finally established. By the Real Property 
Act of that year it was enacted that all corporeal hereditaments 
should, as regards the immediate freehold, be deemed to lie in 
grant as well as in livery. Since this act the ancient modes of 
conveyance, though not abolished by it, have in practice become 
obsolete. Traces of the old learning connected with them 
remain, however, embedded in the modern conveyance. Many 
a purchase-deed recites that the vendor is seised in fee-simple 
of the property. It is the practice, moreover, to convey not only 
" to " but also " to the use of " a purchaser. For before the 
Statute of Uses, a conveyance made without any consideration 
or declaration of uses was deemed to be made to the use of the 
party conveying. In view of the operation of the statute upon 
the legal estate in such circumstances, it is' usual in all convey- 
ances, whether for value or not, to declare a use in favour of the 
party to whom the grant is made. 



In its popular usage the word " conveyance " signifies the 
document employed to carry out a purchase of land. But the 
term " conveyancing " is of much wider import, and comprises 
the preparation and completion of all kinds of legal instruments. 
A well-known branch of the conveyancer's business is the investi- 
gation of title an important function in the case of purchases 
or mortgages of real estate. With personal estate (other than 
leasehold) he has perhaps not so much concern. Chattels are 
usually transferred by delivery, and stocks or shares by means 
of printed instruments which can be bought at a law-stationer's. 
The common settlements and wills, however, deal wholly or 
mainly with personal property; and an interest in settled 
personalty is frequently the subject of a mortgage. Of late 
years, also, there has been an enormous increase in the volume 
of conveyancing business in connexion with limited joint-stock 

In the preparation of legal documents the practitioner is 
much assisted by the use of precedents. These are outlines or 
models of instruments of all kinds, exhibiting in accepted legal 
phraseology their usual form and contents with additions and 
variations adapted to particular circumstances. Collections of 
them have been in use from early times, certainly since printing 
became common. The modern precedent is, upon the whole, 
concise and businesslike. The prolixity which formerly character- 
ized most legal documents has largely disappeared, mainly 
through the operation of statutes which enable many clauses 
previously inserted at great length to be, in some cases, e.g. 
covenants for title, incorporated by the use of a few prescribed 
words, and in others safely omitted altogether. The Solicitors' 
Remuneration Act 1881, has also assisted the process of curtail- 
ment, for there is now little or no connexion between the length 
of a deed and the cost of its preparation. So long as the drafts- 
man adheres to recognized legal phraseology and to the well- 
settled methods of carrying out legal operations, there is no reason 
why modern instruments should not be made as terse and 
businesslike as possible. 

It is not usual for land to be sold without a formal agreement 
in writing being entered into. This precaution is due, partly 

to the Statute of Frauds ( 4), which renders a contract 
tor sale. * ^ or ^ sa ^ e o * ^ anc ^ unenforceable by action " unless 

the agreement upon which such action shall be brought, 
or some memorandum or note thereof, shall be in writing and 
signed by the party to be charged therewith or some other 
person thereunto by him lawfully authorized," and partly to the 
fact that there are few titles which can with prudence be exposed 
to all the requisitions that a purchaser under an " open contract " 
is entitled by law to make. Such a purchaser may, for example, 
require a forty years' title (Vendor and Purchaser Act 1874). 
Under an open contract a vendor is presumed to be selling the 
fee-simple in possession, free from any incumbrance, or liability, 
or restriction as to user or otherwise; and if he cannot deduce a 
title of the statutory length, or procure an incumbrance or 
restriction to be removed, the purchaser may repudiate the 
contract. The preparation of an agreement for sale involves 
accordingly an examination of the vendor's title, and the exercise 
of skill and judgment in deciding how the vendor may be pro- 
tected against trouble and expense without prejudice to the 
sale. Upon a sale by auction the agreement is made up of (i) 
the particulars, which describe the property; (2) the conditions 
of sale, which state the terms upon which it is offered; and 
(3) the memorandum or formal contract at the foot of the condi- 
tions, which incorporates by reference the particulars and 
conditions, names or sufficiently refers to the vendor, and is 
signed by the purchaser after the sale. The object of the agree- 
ment, whether the sale is by private contract or by auction, is 
to define accurately what is sold, to provide for the length of 
title and the evidence in support of or in connexion with the 
title which is to be required except so far as it is intended that 
the general law shall regulate the rights of the parties, and to 
fix the times at which the principal steps in the transaction are 
to be taken. It is also usual to provide for the payment of interest 
at a prescribed rate upon the purchase money if the completion 

shall be delayed beyond the day fixed for any cause other than 
the vendor's wilful default, and also that the vendor shall be at 
liberty to rescind the contract without paying costs or compensa- 
tion if the purchaser insists upon any requisition or objection 
which the vendor is unable or, upon the ground of expense or 
other reasonable ground, is unwilling to comply with or remove. 
Upon a sale by auction it is the rule to require a deposit to be 
paid by way of security to the vendor against default on the 
part of the purchaser. 

The signature of the agreement is followed by the delivery 
to the purchaser or his solicitor of the abstract of title, which 
is an epitome of the various instruments and events 
under and in consequence of which the vendor derives O f title* 
his title. A purchaser is entitled to an abstract at 
the vendor's expense unless otherwise stipulated. It begins 
with the instrument fixed by the contract for the commencement 
of the title, or, if there has been no agreement upon the subject, 
with an instrument of such character and date as is prescribed 
by the law in the absence of stipulation between the parties. 
From its commencement as so determined the abstract, if properly 
prepared, shows the history of the title down to the sale; every 
instrument, marriage, birth, death, or other fact or event con- 
stituting a link in the chain of title, being sufficiently set forth 
in its proper order. The next step is the verification of the 
abstract on the purchaser's behalf by a comparison of it with 
the originals of the deeds, the probates of the wills, and office 
copies of the instruments of record through which the title is 
traced. The vendor is bound to produce the original documents, 
except such as are of record or have been lost or destroyed, but, 
unless otherwise stipulated, the expense of producing those 
which are not in his possession falls upon the purchaser (Con- 
veyancing Act 1881). After being thus verified, the abstract 
is perused by the purchaser's advisers with the object of seeing 
whether a title to the property sold is deduced according to the 
contract, and what evidence, information or objection, in respect 
of matters appearing or arising upon the abstract, ought to be 
called for or taken. For this purpose it is necessary to consider 
the legal effect of the abstracted instruments, whether they 
have been properly completed, whether incumbrances, adverse 
interests, defects, liabilities in respect of duties, or any other 
burdens or restrictions disclosed by the abstract, have been 
already got rid of or satisfied, or remain to be dealt with before 
the completion of the sale . The result of the consideration of these . 
matters is embodied in "requisitions upon title, "which 
are delivered to the vendor's solicitors within a time . 

usuallyfixed for the purpose by the contract. In making 
or insisting upon requisitions regard is had, among other things, 
to any special conditions in the contract dealing with points as to 
which evidence or objection might otherwise have been required 
or taken, and to a variety of provisions contained in the Vendor 
and Purchaser Act 1874, and the Conveyancing Act 1881, which 
apply, except so far as otherwise agreed, and of which the follow- 
ing are the most important: (i) Recitals, statements and 
descriptions of facts, matters and parties contained in instruments 
twenty years old at the date of the contract are, unless proved 
inaccurate, to be taken as sufficient evidence of the truth of such 
facts, matters and descriptions; (2) a purchaser cannot require 
the production of, or make any requisition or objection in respect 
of, any document dated before the commencement of the title; 
(3) the cost of obtaining evidence and information not in the 
vendor's possession must be borne by the purchaser. The 
possibility of the rescission clause now commonly found in con- 
tracts for the sale of real estate being exercised in order to avoid 
compliance with an onerous requisition, is also an important 
factor in the situation. The requisitions are in due course 
replied to, and further requisitions may arise out of the answers. 
A summary method of obtaining a judicial determination of 
questions connected with the contract, but not affecting its 
validity, is provided by the Vendor and Purchaser Act 1874. 
Before completion it is usual for the purchaser to cause searches 
to be made in various official registers for matters required to 
be entered therein, such as judgments, land charges, and pending 



actions, which may affect the vendor's title to sell, or amount 
to an incumbrance upon the property. 

When the title has been approved, or so soon as it appears 
reasonably certain that it will be accepted, the draft conveyance 
is prepared and submitted to the vendor. This is 
commonly done by and at the expense of the purchaser, 
who is entitled to determine the form of the con- 
veyance, provided thai the vendor is not thereby prejudiced, 
or put to additional expense. The common mode of conveying 
a freehold is now, as already mentioned, by ordinary deed, 
called in this case an indenture, from the old practice, where a 
deed was made between two or more parties, of writing copies 
upon the same parchment and then dividing it by an indented 
or toothed line. Indenting is, however, not necessary, and in 
modern practice is disused. A deed derives its efficacy from 
its being sealed and delivered. It is still a matter of doubt 
whether signing is essential. It is not necessary that its execu- 
tion should be attested except in special circumstances, as, e.g. 
where made under a power requiring the instrument exercising 
it to be attested. But in practice conveyances are not only 
sealed, but also signed, and attested by one or two witnesses. 
The details of a conveyance in any particular case depend upon 
the subject-matter and terms of the sale, and the state of the 
title as appearing by the abstract. The framework, however, 
of an ordinary purchase-deed consists of (i) the date and parties, 
(2) the recitals, (3) the testatum or witnessing-part, containing 
the statement of the consideration for the sale, the words 
incorporating covenants for title and the operative words, (4) 
the parcels or description of the property, (5) the habendum, 
showing the estate or interest to be taken by the purchaser, and 
(6) any provisos or covenants that may be required. A few 
words will illustrate the object and effect of these component 

(i) The parties are the persons from whom the property, or 
some estate or interest in or in relation to it, is to pass to the 
purchaser, or whose concurrence is rendered necessary by the 
state of the title in order to give the purchaser the full benefit 
of bis contract and to complete it according to law. It is often 
necessary that other persons besides the actual vendor should 
join in the conveyance, e.g. a mortgagee who is to be paid off 
and convey his estate, a trustee of an outstanding legal estate, 
a person entitled to some charge or restriction who is to release 
it, or trustees who are to receive the purchase-money where a 
limited owner is selling under a power (e.g. a tenant for life 
under the power given by the Settled Land Act 1882). Parties 
are described by their names, addresses and occupations or 
titles, each person with a separate interest, or filling a distinct 
character, being of a separate part. (2) The recitals explain 
the circumstances of the title, the interests of the parties in 
relation to the property, and the agreement or object intended 
to be carried into effect by the conveyance. Where the sale is 
by an absolute owner there is no need for recitals, and they are 
frequently dispensed with; but where there are several parties 
occupying different positions, recitals in chronological order of 
the instruments and facts giving rise to their connexion with 
the property are generally necessary in order to make the deed 
intelligible. (3) It is usual to mention the consideration. Where 
it consists of money the statement of its payment is followed 
by an acknowledgment, in a parenthesis, of its receipt, which, 
in deeds executed since the Conveyancing Act 1881, dispenses 
with any endorsed or further receipt. A vendor, who is the 
absolute beneficial owner, now conveys expressly " as beneficial 
owner," which words, by virtue of the Conveyancing Act 1881, 
imply covenants by him with the purchaser that he has a right 
to convey, for quiet enjoyment, freedom from incumbrances, 
and for further assurance limited, however, to the acts and 
defaults of the covenantor and those through whom he derives 
his title otherwise than by purchase for value. A trustee or an 
incumbrancer joining in the deed conveys " as trustee " or " as 
mortgagee," by which words covenants are implied that the 
covenantor individually has not done or suffered anything to 
incumber the property, or prevent him from conveying as 

expressed. As to the operative words, any expression showing 
an intention to pass the estate is effectual. Since the Conveyan- 
cing Act 1881, "convey" has become as common as "grant," 
which was formerly used. (4) The property may be described 
either in the body of the deed or in a schedule, or compendiously 
in the one and in detail hi the other. In any case it is usual to 
annex a plan. Different kinds of property have their appro- 
priate technical words of description. Hereditaments is the most 
comprehensive term, and is generally used either alone or in 
conjunction with other words more specifically descriptive of 
the property conveyed. (5) The habendum begins with the 
words " to hold," and the estate, on a sale in fee-simple, is 
limited, as already mentioned, not only to, but also to the use of, 
the purchaser. Before the Conveyancing Act 1881, it was 
necessary to add, after the name of the purchaser, the words 
" and his heirs," or " his heir and assigns," though the word 
" assigns " never had any conveyancing force. But since that 
Act it is sufficient to add " in fee-simple " without using the 
word " heirs." Unless, however, one or other of these additions 
is made, the purchaser will even now get only an estate for his 
life. If the property is to be held subject to a lease or incum- 
brance, or is released by the deed from an incumbrance previously 
existing, this is expressed after the words of limitation. (6) 
Where any special covenants or provisions have been stipulated 
for, or are required hi the circumstances of the title, they are, 
as a rule, inserted at the end of the conveyance. In simple 
cases none are needed. Where, however, a vendor retains 
documents of title, which he is entitled to do where he sells a 
part only of the estate to which they relate, it is the practice 
for him by the conveyance to acknowledge the right of the 
purchaser to production and delivery of copies of such of them 
as are not instruments of record like wills or orders of court, and 
to undertake for their safe custody. This acknowledgment and 
undertaking supply the place of the lengthy covenants to the 
like effect which were usual before the Conveyancing Act 1881. 
A trustee or mortgagee joining gives an acknowledgment as to 
documents retained by him, but not an undertaking. The fore- 
going outline of a conveyance will be illustrated by the following 
specimen of a simple purchase-deed of part of an estate belonging 
to an absolute owner in fee: 

THIS INDENTURE made the day of 

between A. B. of, &c., of the one part and C. D. of, &c., of the other 
part WHEREAS the said A. B. is seised (among other hereditaments) 
of the messuage hereinafter described and hereby conveyed for an 
estate in fee simple in possession free from incumbrances and has 
agreed to sell the same to the said C. D. for 100 Now THIS IN- 
DENTURE WITNESSETH that in pursuance of the said agreement 
and in consideration of the sum of 100 paid to the said A. B. by 
the said C. D.(the receipt whereof the said A. B. doth hereby acknow- 
ledge) the said A. B. as beneficial owner doth hereby convey unto 
the said C. D. ALL THAT messuage or tenement situate &c., and 
known as, &c. To HOLD the premises unto and to the use of the said 
C. D. his heirs and assigns [or in fee simple] And the said A. B. 
doth hereby acknowledge the right of the said C. D. to production 
and delivery of copies of the following documents of title [mentioning 
them] and doth undertake for the safe custody thereof IN 


It will be observed that throughout the deed there are no stops, 
the commencement of the several parts being indicated by capital 
letters. The draft conveyance having been approved on behalf of 
the vendor, it is engrossed upon stout paper or parchment, and 
there remains only the completion of the sale, which usually 
takes place at the office of the vendor's solicitor. A purchaser is 
not entitled to require the vendor to attend personally and 
execute the conveyance in his presence or that of his solicitor. 
The practice is for the deed to be previously executed by the 
vendor and delivered to his solicitor, and for the solicitor to 
receive the purchase-money on his client's behalf, since a 
purchaser is, under the Conveyancing Act 1 88 1 , safe in paying the 
purchase-money to a solicitor producing a deed so executed, when 
it contains the usual acknowledgment by the vendor of the 
receipt of the money. Upon the completion, the documents of 
title are handed over except in the case above referred to, and any 
claims between the parties in respect of interest upon the 
purchase-money, apportioned outgoings, or otherwise, are 


settled. The conveyance is, of course, delivered to the purchaser, 
upon whom rests the obligation of affixing the proper stamp 
which he may do without penalty within thirty days after 
execution (Stamp Act 1891). It may be added that, subject to 
any special bargain, which is rarely made, the costs of the 
execution by the vendor and other parties whose concurrence is 
necessary, and of any act required to be done by the vendor to 
carry out his contract, are borne by the vendor. 

Ordinary leases at rack-rents are not generally preceded by a 
formal agreement, such as is common on a sale of land, or by an 
Leases investigation into the lessor's title. As a rule, the 

principal terms are arranged between the parties, and 
embodied with various ancillary provisions in a draft lease, 
which is prepared by the lessor's advisers and submitted to the 
lessee, the ultimate form and contents of the instrument being 
adjusted by negotiation. If an intending lessee desires to 
examine the title he must make an express bargain to that effect, 
for under a contract to grant a lease the intended lessee is not 
entitled, in the absence of such express stipulation, to call for the 
title to the freehold (Vendor and Purchaser Act 1874). By the 
Statute of Frauds all leases, except leases for a term not exceeding 
three years, and at not less than two-thirds of the rack-rent, were 
required to be in writing. And now by the Real Property Act 
1845, leases required by law to be in writing are void at law unless 
made by deed. An instrument, void as a lease under the act, 
may, however, be valid as an agreement to take a lease; and 
since the Judicature Act 1873, under which equitable doctrines 
prevail in the High Court, a person holding under an agreement 
for a lease, of which specific performance would be granted, is 
treated in all branches of that court as if such a lease were 
already executed. Unless otherwise agreed, a lease is always 
prepared by a lessor's solicitor at the expense of the lessee; but 
the cost of the counterpart (i.e. the duplicate executed by the 
lessee) is usually borne by the lessor. 

Upon the sale and conveyance of a leasehold property sub- 
stantially the same procedure is observed as above indicated in 

the case of a freehold. A few additional points, 
meat"of however, ma y be specially mentioned. Under an open 
leaseholds, contract the vendor cannot be called upon to show the 

title to the freehold reversion (Vendor and Purchaser 
Act 1874; Conveyancing Act 1881). Accordingly, the abstract 
of title begins with the lease, however old; but the subsequent 
title need not be carried back for more than forty years before the 
sale. The purchaser, apart from stipulation, must assume, 
unless the contrary appears, that the lease was duly granted, and 
upon production of the receipt for the last payment due for rent 
before completion, that all the covenants and provisions of the 
lease have been duly performed and observed up to the date of 
actual completion. The appropriate word of conveyance is 
" assign," and a conveyance of leaseholds is generally called an 
assignment. The vendor's covenants for title implied by his 
assigning " as beneficial owner " include, in addition to the 
covenants implied by those words in a conveyance of freehold, a 
covenant limited in manner above mentioned, that the lease is 
valid, and that the rent and the provisions of the lease have been 
paid and observed up to the time of conveyance (Conveyancing 
Act 1881). Where the vendor, as is the common case, remains 
liable after the assignment for the rent and the performance of 
the covenants, the purchaser must covenant to pay the rent, and 
perform and observe the covenants and provisions of the lease, 
and keep the vendor indemnified in those respects. 

A mortgage is prepared by the solicitor of the mortgagee, and 
the mortgagor bears the whole expenses of the transaction. It is 
Mortgages. se 'dom that there is any preliminary agreement, 

because (i) a contract to lend money is not specifically 
enforceable; and (2) inasmuch as the primary object of a 
mortgagee is to have his money well secured, he is not, generally, 
willing to submit to restrictions as to title or evidence of title 
which might give rise to difficulty or expense in the event of a 
sale of the mortgaged property. An intending mortgagor is 
accordingly required to show a title easily marketable, and to 
verify it at his own cost. A mortgage follows the same general 

form as a conveyance on sale, the principal points of difference 
being that the conveyance of the property is preceded by a 
covenant for the payment of the mortgage money and interest, 
and followed by a proviso for reconveyance upon such payment, 
and by any special provisions necessary or proper in the circum- 
stances, such as a covenant for insurance and repairs where the 
security comprises buildings. The covenants for title implied by 
a mortgagor conveying " as beneficial owner " are the same as in 
the case of a vendor, but they are absolute and not qualified in 
the manner above pointed out. 

The beneficial operation of the Conveyancing Act 1881 in shorten- 
ing conveyances is well illustrated by a modern mortgage. For, by 
virtue of the act, a mortgagee by deed executed after its commence- 
ment has, subject to any contrary provisions contained in the deed, 
the following powers to the like extent as if they had been conferred 
in terms: (i) a power of sale exercisable after the mortgage money 
has become due (a) if notice requiring payment has been served 
and not complied with for three months, (6) if any interest is in 
arrear for two months, or (c) there has been a breach of some 
obligation under the deed or the act other than the covenant for 
payment of the mortgage money or interest; (2) a power to insure 
subject to certain restrictions; (3) a power, when entitled to sell, 
to appoint a receiver; and (4) a power while in possession to cut 
and sell timber. The act contains ancillary provisions enabling 
a mortgagee upon a sale to convey the property for such estate or 
interest as is the subject of the mortgage, and to give a valid receipt 
for the purchase-money, and the purchaser is amply protected 
against any irregularities of which he had no notice. There are also 
large powers of leasing conferred by the act upon mortgagor and 
mortgagee while respectively in possession, and a power for the 
mortgagor, whilst entitled to redeem, to inspect and take copies of 
title-deeds in the mortgagee's possession. The elaborate provisions 
for all these purposes which were formerly inserted in mortgage 
deeds are now omitted; but sometimes the operation of the act is 
modified in certain respects. The procedure upon a sale by a mort- 
gagee is the same as in the case of any other vendor. He conveys, 
however, " as mortgagee," these words implying only a covenant 
by him against incumbrances arising from his own acts. 

The frame of a strict settlement of real estate, which is usually 
made either on marriage or by way of resettlement on a tenant in 
tail under an existing settlement attaining twenty-one, 
has been much simplified; but such settlements still 
remain the most technical and most complicated of 
legal instruments. By virtue of the Settled Land Acts 1882 to 
1890, tenants for life and many other limited owners have 
extensive powers of sale, of leasing, and of doing numerous other 
acts required in a due course of management. These powers 
cannot be excluded or fettered by settlors. They are, as a rule, 
considered in practice to be sufficient, and the corresponding 
elaborate provisions formerly inserted in settlements are now 
omitted, the operation of the acts being merely supplemented, 
where desirable, by some extension of the statutory powers, in 
relation, e.g., to the investment and application of capital money. 
To complete the statutory machinery it is desirable that persons 
should be nominated by the settlement trustees for the purposes 
of the acts. Since the Conveyancing Act 1881, provisions for the 
protection of jointresses or persons entitled under settlements to 
rent charges or annual sums issuing out of the land are no longer 
required, as all such persons have now powers of distress and 
entry, and of limiting terms to secure their respective interests. 
Terms for raising portions must still, however, be expressly 
created. The Conveyancing Act 1881 also confers large powers 
of management during the minorities of, infants beneficially 
entitled upon persons either appointed for the purpose by the 
instrument or being such trustees such as are mentioned in 42. 
An estate in tail may now be limited by the use of the words " in 
tail " without the words " heirs of the body " formerly necessary. 
And a settlor generally conveys " as settlor," by which only a 
covenant for further assurance is implied under the Conveyancing 
Act 1 88 1. Personal settlements are most often made upon 
marriage. The settled property is vested in trustees, eithe by 
the settlement itself, or in the case of cash, mortgage debts, stocks 
or shares, by previous delivery or transfer, upon trusts declared 
by the instrument. 

The normal trusts after the marriage are (i) for investment; 
(2) for payment of the income of the husband's property to him 
for life, and of the wife's property to her for life for her separate 
use without power of anticipation whilst under coverture; (3) for 


payment to the survivor for his or her life of the income of both 
properties; (4) after the death of the survivor, both as to capital 
and income, for the issue of the marriage as the husband and wife 
shall jointly by deed appoint, and in default of joint appointment 
as the survivor shall by deed or will appoint, and in default of such 
appointment for the children of the marriage who attain twenty- 
one, or being daughters marry, in equal shares, with the addition 
of a clause (called the hotchpot clause) precluding a child who 
or whose issue takes a part of the fund by appointment from sharing 
in the unappointed part without bringing the appointed share into 
account. Then follows a power for the trustees with the consent 
of the parents whilst respectively living to raise a part (usually a 
half) of the share of a child and apply it for his or her advancement 
or benefit. Power to apply income, after the death of the life tenants, 
for the maintenance and education of infants entitled in expectancy, 
is conferred upon trustees by the Conveyancing Act 1881. The 
ultimate trusts in the event of there being no children who attain 
vested interests are (i) of the husband's property for him absolutely ; 
and (2) of the wife's property for such persons as she shall when 
discovert by deed, or whether covert or discovert by will, appoint, 
and in default of appointment, for her absolutely if she survive the 
husband, but if not, then for her next of kin under the Statute of 
Distributions, excluding the husband. For all ordinary purposes 
the trustees have now under various statutes sufficient powers and 
indemnities. They may, however, in some cases need special pro- 
tection against liability. A power of appointing new trustees is 
supplied by the Trustee Act 1893. It is usually made exercisable 
by the husband and wife during their joint lives, and by the survivor 
during his or her life. 

The form and contents of wills are extremely diverse. A will 
of, perhaps, the commonest type (a) appoints executors and 
_, trustees; (b) makes a specific disposition of a freehold 

or leasehold residence; (c) gives a few legacies or 
annuities; and (d) devises and bequeaths to the executors and 
trustees the residue of the real and personal estate upon trust 
to sell and convert, to invest the proceeds (after payment of 
debts and funeral and testamentary expenses) in a specified 
manner, to pay the income of the investments to the testator's 
widow for life or until another marriage, and subject to her 
interest, to hold the capital and income in trust for his children 
who attain twenty-one, or being daughters marry, in equal 
shares, with a power of advancement. Daughters' shares are 
frequently settled by testators upon them and their issue on 
the same lines and with the same statutory incidents as above 
mentioned in the observations upon settlements; and some- 
times a will contains in like manner a strict settlement of real 
estate. It is a point often overlooked by testators desirous of 
benefiting remote descendants that future interests in property 
must, under what is known as the rule against perpetuities, be 
restricted within a life or lives in being and twenty-one years 
afterwards. In disposing of real estate " devise " is the ap- 
propriate word of conveyance, and of personal estate "bequeath." 
But neither word is at all necessary. " I leave all I have to 
A. B. and appoint him my executor " would make an effectual will 
for a testator who wished to give all his property, whether real 
or personal, after payment of his debts, to a single person. 
By virtue of the Land Transfer Act 1897, Part I., real estate of 
an owner dying after 1897 now vests for administrative purposes 
in his executors or administrators, notwithstanding any testa- 
mentary disposition. 

It remains to mention that by the Land Transfer Act 1897 a 
system of compulsory registration of title, limited to the county 
of London, was established. (See LAND REGISTRATION.) 

Conveyancing counsel to the court (i.e. to the chancery division 
of the High Court) are certain counsel, in actual practice as con- 
veyancers, of not less than ten years' standing, who are appointed 
by the lord chancellor, to the number of six, under s. 40 of the 
Master in Chancery Abolition Act 1852. They_ are appointed for the 
purpose of assisting the court in the investigation of the title to any 
estate, and upon their opinion the court or any judge thereof may 
act. Any party who objects to the opinion given by any con- 
veyancing counsel may have the point in dispute disposed of by 
the judge at chambers or in court. Business to be referred to 
conveyancing counsel is distributed among them in rotation, and 
their fees are regulated by the taxing officers. 

United Stales. American legislation favours the general 
policy of registering all documents in the contents of which the 
public have an interest, and its tendency has been steadily 
towards more and more full registration both of documents and 
statistics. From the early days of the colonial era it has been 

customary to record wills and conveyances of real estate in full 
in public books, suitably indexed, to which free access was given. 
During the last decade of the igth century, three states 
Illinois, Massachusetts, and Ohio adopted the main features 
of the Torrens or Prussian system for registering title to land 
rather than conveyances under which title may be claimed. 
These are the ascertainment by public officers of the state of the 
title to some or all of the parcels of real estate which are the 
subject of individual property within the state; the description 
of each parcel (giving its proper boundaries and characteristics) 
on a separate page of a public register, and of the manner in 
which the title is vested; the issue of a certificate to the owner 
that he is the owner; the official notation on this register of 
each change of title thereafter; and a warranty by the govern- 
ment of the title to which it may have certified. To make the 
system complete it is further requisite that every landowner 
should be compelled to make use of it, and that it should be 
impossible to transfer a title effectually without the issue of 
such a government certificate in favour of the purchaser. 

Constitutional provisions have been found to prevent or 
embarrass legislation hi these directions in some of the states, 
but it is believed that they are nowhere such as cannot be obeyed 
without any serious encroachment on the principles of the new 
system (People v. Chase, 165 Illinois Reports, 527; State v. 
Guilbert, 56 Ohio State Reports, 575; People v. Simon, 176 
Illinois Reports, 165; Tyler v. J udges, 173 Massachusetts 
Reports; 55 North-Eastern Reporter, 812; Hamilton v. Brown, 
161 United States Reports, 256). 

Conveyances which have been duly recorded become of com- 
paratively little importance in the United States. The party 
claiming immediately under them, if forced to sue to vindicate 
his title, must produce them or account for their loss; but any 
one deriving title from him can procure a certified copy of the 
original conveyance from the recording officer and rely on that. 
Equitable mortgages by a deposit of title-deeds are unknown. 

The general prevalence of public registry systems has had an 
influence in the development of American jurisprudence in the 
direction of supporting provisions in wills and conveyances, which, 
unless generally known, might tend to mislead and deceive, such as 
spendthrift trusts (Nichols v. Eaton, 9 1 United States Reports, 716). 

Conveyances of real estate are simple in form, and are 
often prepared by those who have had no professional training 
for the purpose. Printed blanks, sold at the law-stationers, 
are commonly employed. The lawyers in each state have 
devised forms for such blanks, sometimes peculiar in some 
points to the particular state, and sometimes copied verbatim 
from those in use elsewhere. Deeds intended to convey an 
absolute estate are generally either of the form known as 
warranty deed or of that known as release deed. The release deed 
is often used as a primary conveyance without warranty to one 
who has no prior interest in the land. Uniformity hi deeds is 
rendered particularly desirable from the general prevalence of 
the system of recording all conveyances at length in a public 
office. Record books are printed for this purpose, containing 
printed pages corresponding to the printed blanks in use in the 
particular state, and the recording officer simply has to fill up 
each page as the deed of similar form was filled up. One set of 
books may thus be kept for recording warranty deeds, another 
for recording release deeds, another for recording mortgage 
deeds, another for leases, &c. 

AUTHORITIES. Davidson, Precedents and Forms in Conveyancing 
(London, 1877 and 1885) ; Key and Elphinstone, Compendium of 
Precedents in Conveyancing (London, 1904) ; Elphinstone, Intro- 
duction to Conveyancing (London, 1900) ; Prideaux, Precedents in 
Conveyancing (1904); Pollock, The Land Laws (London, 1896). 

(S. WA. ; S. E. B.) 

CONVEYORS. " Conveyor " (for derivation see CONVEYANCE) 
is a term generally applied to mechanical devices designed for 
the purpose of moving material in a horizontal or slightly in. 
clined direction; in this article, however, are included a variety 
of appliances for moving materials in horizontal, vertical and 
combined horizontal and vertical directions. The material so 
handled may be conveyed in a practically uninterrupted stream, 



as in the case of worms, bands and pushplate conveyors, or 
elevators carrying grain or coal, &c.; or it may be conveyed 
from one point to another, intermittently, that is to say in a 
succession of separate loads, as happens with single bucket 
elevators, furnace hoists, rope and chain haulage, and also in 
the case of ropeways and aerial cableways. Some of these 
devices are of great antiquity, others are of quite modern origin. 
The principles of their construction are simple and easy of 
understanding, but by variations in the details of their construc- 
tion the engineer has adapted these few appliances to the most 
varied work. At one end of the scale they may be used for 
such light duties as conveying the goods purchased by a customer 
to the packers and bringing them back made up into a parcel 
or for taking his money to the cashier and returning the change. 
At the other they are adopted for handling large quantities of 
heavy material at a minimum expenditure of human labour. 
Coal, for instance, a more or less friable substance, the value of 
which is seriously diminished by fracture, may be mechanically 
handled with a minimum risk of breakage. The difficult problem 
of handling the contents of gas retorts and coke ovens, and of 
simultaneously quenching and conveying the glowing material, 
has been solved. Perhaps an even more astonishing piece of 
work is the manipulation of the iron from the blast furnace; 
for instance, liquid metal is drawn from a furnace into pouring 
pots which in their turn discharge it to and distribute it over a 
pig-iron casting machine, which is practically a conveyor for 
liquid metal, consisting of a strand of moving moulds from which 
the solidified pigs, after cooling in water, are automatically 
removed after reaching the loading terminal over the railway 
trucks. Certain types of conveyors may be made to combine 
efficiently, with their primary work of transport, complex 
sorting, sifting, drying and weighing operations. 

Worm Conveyors. The worm conveyor, also known as the 
Archimedean screw, is doubtless the most ancient form of 
conveyor. It consists of a continuous or broken blade screw 
set on a spindle. This spindle is made to revolve in a suitable 
trough, and as it revolves any material put in is propelled by the 
screw from one end of the trough to the other. Such conveyors 
have been used in flour-mills for centuries. The writer has seen 
in an East Anglian mill which was over 250 years old disused 
screw conveyors, probably as old as the mill, consisting of 
spindles of octagonal shape, made of not too hard wood, around 
which a broken blade screw was formed by the insertion at 
regular intervals of small blades of hard wood (fig. i). Modern 
worm conveyors usually consist of a spindle formed of a length of 

FIG. I. Early Flour Mill Conveyor. 1 

wrought iron piping, to which is fitted either a broken or con- 
tinuous worm. In the former case (fig. 2) the worm is composed 
of a series of blades or paddles arranged like a spiral round the 

FIG. 2. Paddle Worm Conveyor. 

spindle; each blade is fixed, by means of its shank, in a transverse 
hole in the spindle, and the shank is held in position by being 
tapped and fitted with a nut. In this way is formed, out of 
separate blades, a practically complete screw, technically known 

1 The illustrations in this article are taken, by kind permission, 
from the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. 

as a " paddle worm." The lengths or sections of the worm 
run to about 8 ft., the various lengths being coupled by turned 
gudgeons, which also serve as journals for the bearings. In the 
so-called continuous worm conveyors the screw is formed of a 
continuous sheet-iron spiral (fig. 3) . Sometimes a narrow groove 

FIG. 3. Continuous Worm Conveyor. 

is cut in spiral form on the spindle, and in this groove the sheet- 
iron spiral is secured. 

The spiral or anti-friction conveyor (fig. 4) was introduced 
about 1887. In this case a narrow spiral, which passes con- 
centrically round the spindle, with a space between both, is fixed 
to it at set intervals by small blades, each of which is itself fixed 
by its shank and a nut to the spindle. The spiral may be made of 

FIG. 4. Spiral or Anti-Friction Conveyor. 

almost any section, from a round bar about in. in diameter to 
L or T section, but is preferably a flat bar. Worms are fitted into 
wooden or iron troughs leaving a clearance of 5 to j in. The 
spindle must be supported at suitable intervals by bearings, 
preferably of the bush type. A continuous worm, being more 
rigid than a paddle worm, needs fewer supports. The lid of the 
worm trough should be loose, not screwed on, because in case of 
an accumulation of feed through a choke in a delivery spout the 
paddles of a paddle worm would be broken, or a continuous worm 
stripped, unless the material could throw off the lid and relieve 
the worm. The ratios of the pitch of the worm to the diameter 
must be regulated by the nature of the material to be conveyed, 
and will vary from one-third to a pitch equal to, or even exceeding, 
the diameter. The greater the pitch the larger the capacity, but 
also the greater the driving power required, at the same speed. 
For handling materials of greater specific gravity, such as 
cement, &c., it is advisable to use a smaller pitch than for 
substances of lower specific gravity, such as grain. The capacity 
of a continuous worm exceeds that of either a paddle or spiral 
conveyor of the same diameter, pitch and speed. As regards the 
relative efficiency of paddle and spiral conveyors a series of 
careful tests made by the writer indicated that, run at a slow 
speed the paddle worm, but at a high speed the spiral worm, has 
the greater efficiency. There is of course a speed at which the 
efficiency of both types is about equal, and that is at 150 revolu- 
tions per minute for conveyors 4 to 6 in. in diameter. 

The power necessary to drive worm conveyors under normal 
conditions is very considerable; a continuous worm of 18 to 20 in. 
diameter running at 60 revolutions per minute will convey 50 
tons of grain per hour over a distance of a hundred feet at an 
expenditure of 18^ to 19 H.P. A material like cement would 
require rather more power because of the greater friction of the 
cement against the blades and the trough. Delivery from a 
worm conveyor can be effected at any desired point, all that is 
necessary being to cut an outlet, which should preferably be as 
wide as the diameter of the worm, because the worm delivers only 
on its leading side, and is practically empty on the other side, 
so that a smaller outlet might only give exit to a portion of the 
feed, unless it was on the leading side. 

A special form of worm conveyor is the tubular (fig. 5), which 
consists of an iron tube with a continuous spiral fitted to its inner 



periphery, or of iron or wooden tubes of square sections fitted 
with fixed baffle plates inside. In working it revolves bodily on 
suitable rollers. This type is more costly than the ordinary 
worm conveyors, and also requires more power. Its efficiency is, 

FIG. 5. Tubular Worm Conveyor. 

moreover, easily impaired if run at too high a speed, because 
the centrifugal force asserts itself and counteracts the propulsion, 
which in this case is effected by gravity. Some experiments 
made in 1868 by George Fosbery Lyster, engineer of the Liverpool 
docks, gave convincing results (see Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 
August 1869). The tubular worm conveyor is suitable where a 
granular material has to be moved over a comparatively short 
distance, say from one building to another on the same level, and 
where no bridge is available for the installation of any other kind 
of conveyor. Conveyors of this type have, however, come into 
use for conveying hard and cutting substances over consider- 
able lengths. Ordinary worm conveyors are practically debarred 
from use for such substances on account of the short b'fe of the 
intermediate bearings, which are not necessary with externally 
supported tubular worms. 

To sum up, worm conveyors are of the simplest construction 
and of small prime cost. The terminals again are much less 
expensive than those of most other kinds of conveyors. When the 
distance to be traversed by the material is short, the worm 
conveyor has this advantage, that it is cheaper than other kinds 
of conveyors. If it be 
desired not only to con- 
vey but also to mix two 
or more materials, such 
as cement and sand in a 
dry state, or poultry 
food, this appliance is 
thoroughly well adapted 
for the work. On the 
other hand, there is a 
grinding action exer- 
cised on any material 
conveyed, and when 
hard or cutting sub- 
stances are handled the 
wear and tear on the 
conveyor blades, trough 
and bearings is very 
great, and the power absorbed by a 
sensible item. 

Band Conveyors. The inventor of band conveyors for the 
handling of grain and minerals was G. F. Lyster, who, as already 
mentioned, in 1868 carried out exhaustive experiments at the 
Liverpool docks, where he established the band conveyor as a 
grain-handler. For granaries the band conveyor is an ideal 
appliance. Its capacity is great, and it can be run at relatively 
high speeds with a moderate expenditure of power. The band 
conveyor of to-day is an endless belt of canvas or more often 
india-rubber with insertion, and when fitted with the usual 
receiving and delivery appliances can be used to handle grain 
from or into granaries and also to feed bins or sections of a ware- 
house. The endless bands run over terminal pulleys, and are 
also supported on their way by a series of guide rollers, which 
are in greater number on the loaded than on the empty strand. 
The band is usually run quite flat, except that at the point or 
points where the grain is fed on it is slightly hollowed for a few 
feet, by means of two curving rolls which are set obliquely so as 

to make it trough-shaped. The supporting or guide rollers are 
4 in. to 6 in. in diameter, and are sometimes made of wood, but 
more often consist of steel tubes to which spindles with conical 
end gudgeons are secured. The gudgeons generally run in 
suitable bush-bearings, which should be well lubricated. Band 
conveyors should be driven on the delivery and not the receiving 
terminal, as the tight side of the band is the flattest. The guide 
rollers, for ordinary grain conveyors, are fitted to the upper or 
working side of the band at intervals of about 6 ft., and at 
distances of 1 2 ft. on the lower or return strand. In cases where 
both strands of the band are used for carrying grain, the lower 
strand must be supported by as many rollers as the upper. 
Under such conditions, terminal pulleys must be of larger 
diameter than usual, the object being to throw the two strands 
farther apart, so as to give sufficient space between the two 
strands to spout the feed in and out again at the other end. 
The two strands can be run any distance apart by the use of 
two additional pulleys for the terminals. This arrangement 
would be in place where it was desired, as it might be, to run 
one strand of the band along the top floor of the granary to 
distribute, while the other strand travelled along the ground- 
floor or basement to withdraw, the grain. 

Band conveyors are kept tight, when the band is not very long, 
by a tightening gear, similar to that used on elevators, and consisting 
of two screws which push or better pull the two pedestals of one 
terminal pulley farther away from the other terminal. If the band 
is of such length that an adjustment of 4 to 5 ft. on the tightening 
gear is not sufficient, it is advisable to use in place of screws a tighten- 
ing pulley, over which the belt passes, but which is itself held in 
tension by weights. The choice of the exact tightening gear will 
depend on various considerations, the length of the belt, the type 
of throw-off carriage used, and the quality of the belt all being 
factors to be considered. The throw-off carriage (fig. 6), which 
serves to withdraw material from the band at any desired point, 
is a simple but ingenious appliance consisting essentially of guide 
pulleys which by raising one part of the band and lowering the other 
have the effect of causing the grain to quit the surface of the band 
at the point where it is deflected upwards. The grain is thus cast 


FIG. 6. Throw-off Carriage for Band Conveyor. 


worm conveyor is a 

clear of the band, and into the air, being caught as it falls in a hopper 
and spouted in any desired direction. Throw-off carriages differ in 
certain details, but the principle is the same. For feeding a band 
conveyor it is important to give the material a horizontal velocity, 
approaching that of the band. The grain should therefore be fed 
through a spout rather less in breadth than half of the width of the 
band, and set at an incline of 42j to the horizontal. Band con- 
veyors run at a speed of 400 to 600 ft. per minute, according to the 
nature of the material; oats, for instance, would be liable to be 
blown off the band at a speed in excess of 500, which would be 
suitable for wheat. Nuts, maize and the heavier seeds could be 
carried at 600. The power consumption by a grain-laden band 
compares favourably with any other form of conveyor. An i8-in. 
band 100 ft. in length running 500 ft. per minute would carry 50 tons 
per hour at an expenditure of only 4-5 H.P. 

While the band conveyor is an ideal conveyor in warehouses 
and mills, it is also capable of rendering good service in handling 
such heavy materials as coal and minerals. Of course for such 
purposes the band and its fittings must be of much more sub- 
stantial construction. The central portions of the band carrying 
the load, being subjected to great wear and tear, are often made 



of solid india-rubber extending to nearly half the thickness of 
the band in the middle, and tapering off towards the edges, while 
the surface facing the guide rollers is of insertion coated with 
india-rubber. Bands properly prepared and stretched will bear 
a strain of 3 tons to the square inch. Balata bands may be 
used in place of india-rubber, but though less expensive are not 
so lasting. Bands that have to carry coal or minerals are usually 

curved along the entire 
length of the upper or 
loaded strand into a trough 
shape by guide rollers (fig. 
7). Bands of woven wire 
are sometimes used with 
coal -washing plants, but 
have the disadvantage of 
lack of durability. They 
are more liable to stretch 
and are high in price. They 

FIG. 7. 

may be run as high as about 600 ft. pej minute, but to ensure 
proper grip-driving terminals must either be faced with leather 
or made of wood. 

The speed of band conveyors loaded with coal or minerals 
greatly depends on the size of the fragments; the proper speed 
for large pieces would be 150-200 ft. per minute, while smaller 
material could be carried at a maximum velocity of 700-750 ft. 
Band conveyors will carry in an upward direction, up to 24 
degrees, without any loss of capacity. They can be used not 
only to carry light and heavy bodies, such as grain and coal, 
in a continuous stream, but also to convey relatively large 
bodies such as sacks of flour, or cement, &c., intermittently. 
Thus a band 26 in. wide and 350 ft. long is used at a flour-mill 
in York to load sacks of flour into railway trucks; by this 
means 12 wagons can be loaded by two men in i hour. Band 
conveyors are not necessarily fixed in one place. A portable 
model has rendered good service in tunnel-cutting, mining and 
quarrying. This band is mounted in a light steel frame, itself 
fitted with smaU wheels, so as to be readily put in any required 
position, and is entirely self-contained, being provided with 
tightening gear, a small motor, &c. If required, several lengths 
can be joined together, or one band can deliver upon another 
at a lower level. The same advantages that attend the use of 
the band-conveyor for handling grain may be claimed for this 
appliance when carrying coal and heavy bodies, namely the 
demand for relatively small power, smooth and noiseless work, 
and gentle handling of material. On the other hand the feed 
cannot be withdrawn at intermediate points except by means 
of a throw-off carriage. The numerous bearings of the guide 
rollers require careful lubrication, and the rubber bands should 
be protected as much as possible from changes of temperature. 

The metal band or belt conveyor, a modification of the rubber 
or canvas band conveyors, is an endless belt composed of iron 
plates connected to endless chains, usually of malleable cast iron, 
running under the plates. Such appliances, being obviously 
more cumbrous than band conveyors, are only used in handling 
material of a hard and cutting nature. They usually deliver only 
at the end, but if intermediate delivery be desired a scraper may 
be so fixed across the band at a given point, at an angle of 45, as 
to scrape the whole or part of the feed into a shoot, or a scraper 
may be mounted obliquely on a suitable carriage which can be 
moved to any points at which delivery may be required. In 
some bands of this type supporting rollers are attached to the 
links and travel with them, or are fixed to the framing so that 
the band runs over them, an arrangement which has the advan- 
tage of economizing driving power and of promoting smooth 
running. Metal band conveyors are tightened in the same way 
as textile or rubber bands, and may run at a speed of 60 to 1 20 
ft. per minute. The driving gear must always be placed at the 
delivery terminal, so that the loaded strand is in tension. Such 
appliances are often used as sorting tables or picking bands, for 
instance, for coal, cement, minerals, &c. 

In another modification of the metal band conveyor, the 
travelling trough conveyor, the sides of each plate are turned up 

so as to form the conveying surface of the band into a continuous 
trough. With this arrangement intermediate delivery is im- 
possible, as the sides of the trough will not allow the use of a 
scraper. As compared with push-plate conveyors (which consist 
of s.crapers mounted on endless travelling chains that run usually 
in troughs), travelling trough conveyors are gentle handlers of 

A conveyor which is capable of dealing with many different 
kinds of material is known as the vibrating trough conveyor. 
It is so far like the band and travelling trough conveyor that 
the material it conveys from one point to another is conveyed 
without the use of any stirring or pushing agent, such as belong 
to worm, push-plate and cable trough conveyors. For materials 
requiring gentle treatment, this type of conveyor is eminently 
suitable. There are different kinds of vibrating trough conveyors. 
In one type the trough is caused to make a reciprocating motion 
by means of a crank and connecting rod, the trough itself being 
supported on rollers. In another type the trough is actuated 
by a cam, or by cranks with some kind of quick return motion. 
In the appliance known as the Zimmer or swinging conveyor 
the trough is supported in its reciprocating motion by means 
of laminated spring legs set obliquely to the trough. These 
legs are securely bolted at one end to the floor or any other 
solid support, and at the other end to the trough itself; hence 
no lubrication is required, as would be the case with supporting 
rollers. Moreover the combined action of the reciprocating 
motion of the crank and the rocking of the spring legs has the 
effect of causing the material to travel faster in the trough with 
a given stroke of the crank than would be the case with any 
other support. The material to be conveyed is not carried 
along with its support as in the case of a band or travelling 
trough conveyor, but is caused to move in a series of hops, to 
use popular language. 

The action will be sufficiently explained by the appended diagram 
(fig. 8), which, however, is exaggerated to give a clearer idea of the 
actual movements, which are on quite a small scale. The line AB 
represents the bottom of the trough, while C C are two of the spring 
legs; the full lines indicate the spring legs at the extreme backward 
position of the crank, while the dotted lines show the spring legs 
E E, E, E, 


FlG. 8. Swinging or Zimmer Conveyor. 

and bottom of the trough at the extreme forward position of the 
crank D. The material to be conveyed, represented by E, is thrown 
forward by the forward movement of the crank, and describes a short 
parabolic curve; it is thrown at about a right angle to the inclined 
legs C C, but before it has time to complete its parabolic course, the 
trough has been moved by the crank into its original position. As 
soon as the material has dropped down, the trough makes another 
forward movement, whereupon the material is thrown forward 
another stage, and this process, which is continually repeated, as 
indicated by the letters Ei, Ej, Ej, has the effect of carrying or 
conveying the material in the direction desired. It is important to 
note that the actual movement both of trough and material is within 
narrow bounds; the horizontal movement of the trough is only 
about i in., while the vertical or upward movement is about | in. 
The material is conveyed by this vibrating trough with a minimum 
of friction, as it is evident that the material is carried forward without 
any contact with the trough, while the very nature of the motion 
precludes injurious frictionbetween the particles themselves. When 
the trough is full the material will move as it were in a solid mass. 
An important improvement in this type of vibrating trough 
conveyor is the balanced conveyor, in which the trough is made 
in two sections, one being placed at a slightly lower level than the 
other, so that one-half may deliver into the other half. The two 
sections are driven by triple or quadruple cranks set at an angle 
of about 180 to one another. In this case one-half of the conveyor 
will move forward while the other moves backward, thus balancing 
each other (fig. 9)._ At the same time the material keeps moving 
in the same direction because all the spring legs are of the same 
inclination. It is usual to drive balanced conveyors at or near the 
centre of their length, but they may also be driven from one end, 


in which case the balancing of the conveyor would be effected by 
a powerful volute spring which is compressed and released by a crank 
and connecting rod, in place of being connected to one-half of the 
conveyor. Two sections of a Zimmer conveyor can be made to run 
in opposite directions by merely reversing the inclination of the 
spring legs; in such a case the sections of a trough would be con- 
nected by a flexible coupling. Conveyors of this type have been 
used in lengths up to 500 ft., and in widths of over 6 ft. The feed 
can be received or discharged at any desired point in the length; 
for drawing off material at intermediate points it is only necessary 
to open a slide in the bottom of the trough. If a great increase be 
desired in the capacity of this conveyor the connecting rod may be 
attached, not to the trough at all, but to the spring legs at a point 
of about a third or half-way from the base, so that the free ends of 
the legs can swing the trough backward and forward ; by this means 
the stroke is amplified and consequently the capacity is increased, 
while the driving power required is practically the same. 

The power absorbed by the Zimmer conveyor is comparatively 
small; a length of 100 ft. conveying a load of 50 tons per hour takes 
8-75 h.p. With a speed of 300-370 revolutions per minute of the 

chain of buckets. But these buckets, unlike elevator buckets, 
which are bolted on to a band or chain, are free to move on the 
axis on which they are suspended above their centre of gravity. 
When the conveyor is at work the buckets will always be in an 
upright position, whether the motion be vertical or horizontal. 
Each bucket carries its load to the point at which delivery is 
required, where an adjustable tippling device is ready to catch 
and tilt the bucket, thus emptying it. This type of conveyor is 
chiefly used in connexion with coal stores and boiler houses, 
where it has undeniable advantages. For instance, in feeding 
overhead bunkers a well-designed gravity bucket conveyor may 
do the work of (i) a horizontal conveyor in bringing coal from the 
railway siding, (2) a vertical elevator in raising it to the bunkers, 
and (3) a horizontal conveyor in distributing it to the respective 
bunkers. In some cases the returning empty strand of buckets is 
used to clear the ashes from under the boilers. 

conveyor, the material will traverse 40-70 ft. per minute. The gentle 
action of this appliance has caused it to be largely used in dealing 
with friable materials, such as coal. The simplicity of the mechan- 
ism leaves little to get out of order, and the entire absence of travel- 
ling gear, such as supporting rollers, is a valuable feature. The 
capacity of the conveyor may be sensibly increased by running it on 
a downward gradient, while the capacity will be correspondingly 
diminished by working in an upward direction. Among many 
purposes for which this type of conveyor has been found suitable 
is that of a drainer in connexion with coal-washing plants. A per- 
forated plate at the head will allow the water to escape, while the 
coal is carried to the other end. A slight upward slant permits the 
water left with the coal to run back and escape. In colliery work 
this conveyor makes a suitable picking table. The motion of the 
trough, while not so fast as to baffle the pickers, has the advantage 
of uniformly spreading the lumps of coal. This apparatus also lends 
itself to the grading ofcoal. All that is necessary is to fit the trough 
with a sieve which divides it into an upper and lower deck. The 
coarser material passes along the top of the sieve, while the finer 
coal, sifted out by the perforations, travels along the bottom of the 
trough till discharged. In spite. of the gentle propelling action of has a thorough sifting action; a perforated plate 
from 10 to 12 ft. long is usually sufficient to separate any desired 
grade, and at a certain Belgian colliery a conveyor of this type fitted 
with grading sieves feeds seven trucks standing in a row, but each 
on a different siding, and each taking coal of a different size. This 
conveyor has been found useful both as a drying and cooling appli- 
ance. Several substances of a sticky nature, such as moist sugar, 
L ji ? r ? difficu 't to deal with mechanically, can be efficiently 
handled by the swinging conveyor. 

The gravity or tilling bucket conveyor can be used as a combined 
elevator and conveyor. It consists essentially of two endless 
chains or ropes held at fixed distances apart by suitable bars 
which are fitted with small rollers at each end. Every link, or 
second link, carries a bucket, and the whole forms an endless 

Conveyors of this type run at a mean rate of 40 ft. per minute, 
and if it be desired to attain a given capacity the size of the 
buckets must be adapted to the increased load as an increase of 
speed for a higher capacity is impracticable. The power absorbed 
is not great, the heaviest demand on the motive force being 
made by the elevating operation. Such conveyors have the merit 
of handling the material gently, while feeding and discharging can 
take place at any point. There are many journals to be looked 
after, but in the most approved systems their lubrication is 
effected automatically. Whilst such a plant has the advantage 
of requiring only one driving gear, a breakdown at one point of 
the installation means the stoppage of the whole. 

Among typical conveyors on this system is the Hunt conveyor 
(fig. 10), which consists of a double link carrying a series of pivoted 
buckets which are free to revolve on their axes at all points, except 
at that point at which they discharge. This operation is effected 
by a cam action, the buckets on their release righting themselves 
and becoming ready for refilling. The driving gear propels the 
chain by means of pawls which engage with the cross studs of the 
chain and have a central thrusting action. Another well-known 
appliance of this type is the pan bucket conveyor. This consists 
of a continuous trough built in sections and supported on axles and 
guide wheels running on suitable rails. There is one axle to each 
section, and in each section of the trough a bucket is pivoted to the 
sides. There are several other conveyors of this type, amongst 
which the " Tipit " should be mentioned. For the Bousse gravity 
conveyor it is claimed that it will go round any curve backwards or 
forwards in both planes, and is therefore adaptable for installations 
when the typical gravity bucket would be useless. ' The buckets_ of 
this conveyor are coupled together by axlink in the middle, which 
obviously allows more latitude in negotiating curves than the double 
chain of most of the other types. 



Pneumatic Grain Elevators have been employed with good 
effect in loading and unloading grain from ships. This method of 
conveying grain falls under three systems: (i) the blast system; 
(2) the suction system; and (3) the combined blast and suction 

In the first system a barge, known as a machinery barge, is 
fitted with a steam boiler, a set of air compressing engines, and a 
length of flexible piping long enough to reach from any part of 
the barge to the farthest corner of the ship to be loaded. A 
small pipe, known as the nozzle, is inserted at the inlet end of the 
piping, where the grain is taken in, and communicates with the 
air compressor at the other end. Compressed air can be ad- 
mitted to the nozzle or shut off by a valve. The inlet end of the 
flexible pipe is pushed into the grain in the barge, while the other 
end is led over the hatches of the vessel to be loaded. As the 
compressor is set to work and the valve of the compressed air 
supply pipe opened, the air naturally rushes up the pipe and 

this through valves into a second receptacle, whence it is con- 
veyed to any desired point by flexible pipes. This second tank 
is divided into two sections and provided with valves so that the 
two sections will alternately be under the influence of blast or 
suction. Alternatively the grain is discharged by an automatic 
valve from the vacuum tank into the second air-tight chamber 
which communicates with the compressed air chamber. From 
this section the grain is discharged by an outlet pipe by the 
agency of compressed air. A similar system was introduced by 
Messrs Haviland & Farmer, who have, however, since abandoned 
it on account of difficulties connected with the application of the 
blast, which was found to abrade the grain rather severely, 
especially at the bends in the pipes. An even greater objection 
was the delivery of dust with the grain, which made it impossible 
for trimmers to remain in the hold while the elevator was at 
work. Messrs Haviland and Farmer now work on the suction 
system, in which they claim to have introduced several improve- 

FIG. 10. Travelling Bucket Elevator. 

escapes at the other end which is lying over the ship's hatchway. 
If the inlet nozzle be immersed in the grain to the depth of 12 to 
1 8 in. the induced atmospheric air will follow the lead of the 
compressed air, and drawing the grain around into the inlet 
nozzle will carry it up the pipe and deliver it into the hold of the 
vessel loading. 

In the suction system, which is identified with the name of 
F. E. Duckham, the process is somewhat different. An air-tight 
tank or receiver, 8 to 10 ft. in diameter and 10 to 20 ft. high, is 
fitted with a hopper bottom, and is erected, if floating, on a barge, 
at a sufficient height to allow grain falling from the hopper 
bottom, and passing through an air lock, to be delivered by 
gravity through a shoot into the vessel being loaded. A pipe 
connects the vacuum tank with the exhaust pumps. Several 
flexible pipes of sufficient length to reach any corner of the ship to 
be unloaded, may be connected with the vacuum tank. As the 
air pumps are set working a partial vacuum is formed within the 
tank, and as the nozzle end of the pipe is immersed into the grain 
to the depth of a few inches, the air and grain are drawn in at the 
mouth of the nozzle and carried along the pipe to the vacuum 
tank. The natural expansion of the air then lets the grain drop to 
the hopper bottom, whence it issues from an air-lock valve, 
while the air is drawn away by a pipe communicating with the 
pumps and is thence discharged into the open. 

In the third system, or blast and suction combined, the grain 
is sucked into a vacuum tank, as just described, and drops from 

ments, notably in regard to the purification of the air between the 
vacuum chamber and the exhausters, and in devising a new 
automatic air trap. 

The first pneumatic suction elevator in Great Britain was 
erected at the Millwall docks (London) under the Duckham 
patents. At Sulina, on the Lower Danube, a pneumatic elevator 
erected on the Haviland-Farmer system, which has undergone 
one or two reconstructions, has been proved capable of elevating 
160 tons of grain per hour with 375 i.h.p. 

The only objection to pneumatic elevators appears to be that of 
expense. The cost of installation is relatively heavy, and the 
power required for working is large. But in dealing witfi vessels 
carrying heavy cargoes of grain the saving of labour and demur- 
rage is sufficient to justify the large outlay of capital required in 
ports where there is sufficient grain traffic. 

Hot Coke Conveyors. Hot coke is admittedly one of the most 
difficult materials to handle by mechanical means, and though it 
might be too much to say that all difficulties have been sur- 
mounted by the engineer, it has, since the end of the igth century, 
been more or less satisfactorily handled by machinery. Even in a 
dry state coke is a troublesome material to handle by machinery. 
It is of a gritty and rasping nature, and is at the same time very 
friable. Unless it is gently handled, breakage is bound to occur 
and to result in the making of a certain proportion of fine dust 
known as " breeze." Apart from the depreciation in the value of 
the coke, this breeze is a sharp, cutting material, calculated to do 


considerable injury to the working parts of the conveyor, such as 
chains, and to the bearings, if it can get inside. Of course the 
conveying of the coke in an incandescent condition is another 
serious difficulty, as this glowing material must be quenched by 
water, a sufficiently delicate operation in itself. The chief use for 
hot coke conveyors has been found in connexion with gas works, 
but attempts have also been made to provide efficient machinery 
for the service of coke ovens of great capacity. 

The justification of any kind of machinery must rest on its 
relative efficiency and economy. As compared with some other 
materials the mechanical handling of hot coke does not realize 
such a striking economy; a hot coke conveyor is expensive to 
build on account of the great wear and tear it must be very 
solidly constructed and it is costly in upkeep. Still in large gas 
works the use of machinery for treating glowing coke is economic- 

uptake to carry away the fumes and vapours. These trucks 
have been hauled, in lieu of human arms, by endless ropes or even 
small locomotives. 

The earlier hot coke conveyors were of the pushplate type. The 
trough, some 27 in. wide, consisted of cast iron sections, while the 
pushplates, formed of malleable castings, were attached at a pitch 
of 24 in. to a central chain and were pulled along on a wrought iron 
bar, which could be renewed when necessary. These conveyors with 
a speed of 48 ft. per minute, had a capacity of some 20 tons per hour. 
A conveyor constructed on these lines was installed at the Gathorn 
works in 1903. The wear and tear was very great; moreover the 
chain, being central, suffered severely from the hot coke, to the 
action of which it was directly exposed. 

The New Conveyor Company's conveyor consists of a water-tight 
trough through which pass closely-fitting tray plates, attached to a 
single chain. These plates are joggled down at one end to receive 
the flat front part of the succeeding plate, with the aim of excluding 


Cross Section 

Longitudinal Section 













; Bucket 






FIG. ii. Bronder Hot Coke Conveyor. 

ally advisable. Exact calculations are not very easy to make, 
because while the cost of hand labour in this department of a gas 
works is accurately known, the efficiency of different hot coke 
conveyors varies. G. E. Stephenson, of the Gathorn gas works, 
estimated that a saving of 4|d. per ton had been realized on each 
ton of coke conveyed to the yard from the retort house, as 
against the same material wheeled in barrows. This saving 
represented the difference between the cost of twelve men, who 
formerly handled the hot coke with shovels and barrows, and the 
cost of one conveyor with the wages of one man to look after it. 
In an ordinary way one man would rake qjit the coke from the 
retort mouthpiece into a barrow placed underneath, while a 
second man quenched the glowing coke with buckets of water, or 
better still with a hose. Then the barrow would be wheeled out 
into the yard. Obviously this is a slow and relatively expensive 
method, apart from the deleterious fumes arising from the 
quenching of the coke. Some improvement was effected by the 
substitution for the old hand-barrows of cage-like tipping trucks; 
these are run on narrow gauge rails out of the retort house and 
the red-hot coke they contain is quenched by a copious spray, 
the truck being placed the while over a grating through which the 
surplus water is drained away, under an inverted funnel with an 

the breeze from the under part of the carrying plate. The chain is 
made entirely of steel with side rollers attached to every third plate, 
the plates, } in. thick, are dished in the shape of a tray, which is less 
liable to distortion (from heat) than a flat plate. The speed of travel 
is about 45 ft. per minute, while the capacity when handling coke 
from 20 ft. retorts is some 30 tons per hour. 

A conveyor made by Messrs Graham, Morton & Co., consists of 
a travelling tray, the sections of which are joined together by steel 
spindles provided with a roller at each end, the latter running on 
suitable rails. These sections consist of steel castings with a number 
of lateral slots; thus the tray has the appearance of a travelling 
grating. To receive the quenching water that escapes through the 
grating a trough is placed beneath, and a scraper is used to free the 
trough of the dust escaping through the grating. 

An interesting conveyor is that of G. A. Bronder, of New York 
(fig. li), which has some affinity with the gravity bucket conveyor. 
It runs in a water-tight trough which is filled up to a certain height, 
the water being slowly circulated by mechanism which resembles 
a water wheel. The chain of buckets runs in the trough, the sides 
forming the rails for the supporting rollers. The conveyor is covered 
in along its whole length, and forms a sort of flue which is connected 
at each bench with a number of shoots through which the coke 
drops into the conveyor buckets. A pipe of large diameter is con- 
nected with an exhaust fan, which draws away .the fumes created 
by the quenching process, and sends them into a chimney discharg- 
ing into the open. The chain and buckets, being carried on rollers 
which run on the outer edge of the trough, cannot come in contact 



either with the hot coke or with gritty particles. The chain of 
buckets is connected by horseshoe-shaped brackets extending 
upwards beyond the sides of the buckets and connected with the 
links of the driving chains. When the conveyor is at work the covers 
of the mouth-pieces are opened and the coke is fed into the buckets; 
simultaneously the water valves are opened and the glowing coke is 
quenched. Any breeze which may have fallen between the buckets 
is collected by a scraper and delivered into a tank at one end, while 
the propeller wheel draws the water from this tank and drives it 
back to the other end of the trough. The top strand is the working 
strand and delivers its load at the terminal. One important differ- 

FIG. 12. Wild Coke Conveyor. 

ence between an ordinary gravity bucket conveyorand this apparatus 
is that the buckets are here rigidly connected to the supporting 

The West hot coke conveyor consists of a strongly-built trough 
in which a single wide chain partly carries and partly drags the coke. 
In the trough is a false bottom, the plates of which are loosely fixed 
and kept in position by angle irons on which the chain drags. By 
two arm-like extensions the links of the chain are widened right 
across the trough. The pitch of the chain is 12 in., so that all the 
large pieces of coke are more carried than dragged. The speed of 
travel is about 40 ft. per minute. 

The Wild conveyor (fig. 12) consists of a cast iron or steel trough 
24 to 30 in. wide by 9 in. deep, supported by cast iron brackets to 
which the rails that support the strands of the chain are secured. 
Both chains run outside the trough, and are secured on either side 
to the pushplates, so that only the scraper comes in contact with 
the hot coke. Every second link of the 12 in. pitch chain carries 
a push or scraper-plate, as shown in illustration. 

The De Brouwer hot coke conveyor, which is much used in gas 
works both in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, was 
invented by a Belgian engineer. Its construction has undergone 
many modifications which experience has shown to be desirable. 
It consists of a trough of cast or wrought iron, or mild steel, 20 to 
36 in. wide and 3 to 6 in. deep. Double endless chains run in the 
corners of the trough, the two chains being connected together by 
round cross bars set 30 in. apart, so as to form a sort of ladder. The 
hot coke is carried or dragged along by these bars. One end of 
the trough is closed and the other is bent upwards with a view to 
retaining the quenching water. As the hot coke is dragged along 
it is subjected to the action of jets of water. The conveyor bars, 
which act as scrapers, sweep the water and the coke along the 
trough till the point is reached where the latter curves upwards. 
Then the water flows back like a small cascade on the half-quenched 
coke, which is thus thoroughly extinguished. Considerable inclines 
can be negotiated with this conveyor; in some installations on the 
continent of Europe angles of 30 to the horizontal have been 
surmounted. In a modification of the De Brouwer conveyor, in- 
stalled at the Cassel gas works, the bars which form the rungs of 
the conveyor were replaced by cast iron rakes. In another modified 
form, the work of F. A. Marshall, to be found in the Copenhagen 
gas works, sluices are provided for withdrawing an excess of water 
at any point in the trough. 

In Great Britain a hot coke conveyor has been designed on 
similar lines by Messrs R. Dempster & Sons, Ltd. (fig. 13). The 
chains are parallel from end to end, and are composed of identical 
and interchangeable malleable cast links. Instead of the chains 
carrying the rollers, as is often the case, the chains are themselves 
carried and guided by flanged rollers supported from the framework. 
This arrangement has the advantage of decreasing the weight of the 
chain, as neither the rollers nor the lubricators have to be conveyed, 
being stationary. The scrapers are of cast steel and have a rake-like 
shape with a view to minimize the breakage of coke. 

The essential features in a hot coke conveyor are strength and 
simplicity, a minimum of wearing parts, interchangeability of 
wearing surfaces and of worn and broken parts, protection of 
wearing and working parts from contact with the hot coke, and 
facilities for keeping the temperature of the conveyor as even 
as possible, so as to avoid distortion of parts through sudden 
changes. To attain these latter conditions, it appears essential 
to construct conveyors of the pushplate type. In these the hot 
coke is kept continually moving, and thus the good effect is 
secured of heating the conveyor from end to end uniformly and 
gradually. This applies particularly to gas works conveyors. 


-vt*^.v-_*.^ v v* '--*' w'---*-^ * -x*?fo'.*. .A J-. .!>,., 

Cross Section, 
with Water Jacket. 

FIG. 13. Dempster Coke Conveyor. 



For the service of coke ovens the plate or tray conveyor might 
be suitable because more gentle. It must be remembered that 
coke oven conveyors must be of large capacity, and moreover 
in this case there is more scope for cooling the coke in front of 
the oven before it is removed to the conveyor, the work being 
all effected in the open. 

Elevators. This term is here confined to its proper meaning 
(in English engineering treatises) of a device for raising material 
in a vertical or slanting direction by means of buckets attached 
to endless belts or chains. Lifts for passengers are also some- 
times termed elevators (q.v.), and in America the term is 
also currently applied to the granary or warehouse in which 
grain is stored (see GRANARIES). 

In the bucket elevator, an endless belt or chain runs 
over terminal pulleys which are fixed at different levels, the 
distance from centre to centre of these pulleys beings known 
as the length of the elevator. The design and construction 
of the elevator will be varied to suit its purpose. Grain 
elevators are invariably cased in wooden or iron trunks, and 
the head and foot are also of wood or iron, iron trunks 
being particularly used in so-called fire-proof buildings. 
The trunk of the grain elevator (fig. 14) is almost always 
vertical whilst the band to which the buckets are attached 
may consist of leather, cotton, hemp, webbing or other suit- 
able substances. When an elevator is intended for lifting 
heavy materials, such as coal, coke or cement, it is usually 
set at a slant (figs. 15 and 16), and the endless belt is 
replaced by one or two strands of endless chain which 
support the buckets and run over the terminal sprocket 
wheels. The buckets are attached to the links of the 
chains, and to prevent these heavy buckets and chains 
from sagging in their inclined position, rollers or more 
often short skidder bars are fixed to each bucket, sliding 
on well-oiled angle bars on each side of the elevator frame. 

Both grain and mineral elevators are usually fitted with 
tightening gears to keep the belt or chain taut; these are 
generally placed at the lower or well end so as not to 
interfere with the position of the upper terminal, which is 
almost invariably the driven one. The tightening of the 
band at the bottom terminal in the elevator well necessarily 
alters the space between the terminal pulley and the bottom 
of the well. This is of little consequence in grain elevators, 
but for elevators intended to handle coal or any material 
of varying size the ordinary tightening gear is unsuitable. In 
such a case the best plan is to attach the elevator-well to 
the terminal in such a way as to go up or down with the 
sprocket wheel when the chain is loosened or tightened, 
while the foot bracket which supports the well and terminal 
spindle remains a fixture. In order to tighten elevator 
chains without interfering with either of the terminals, 
adjustable jockey pulleys at some suitable point may be 
used, and the desired effect can thus be attained by pressing 
against the chains and thereby taking up the slack without 
any interference with either the feed or delivery end. 

Elevator buckets must be proportioned to the size and nature of 
the material they are intended to carry, and care must be taken to 
maintain a uniform feed. This may readily be effected by adjustable 
outlets and spouts for grain and the like, and by certain feeding 
devices for handling minerals of uneven size. For instance, an oscil- 
lating feed shoot making from 30 to 60 oscillations per minute can be 
installed in such a case, and adjusted to deposit at each backward 
and forward stroke the exact amount of material adapted to the 
capacity of the elevator. The speed of the shoot will naturally vary 
with the size of material to be fed. For small coal 60 oscillations 
would be about the correct speed; for large coal the speed might 
be reduced to 30 or less. Speaking generally, care should always be 
taken to prevent an undue rush of feed, that is, more than the 
elevator can take up, and if tenacious materials are handled, feeding 
devices should be employed provided with stirrers or agitators that 
will effectually keep the material moving and prevent any larger 
lumps from arching over the feed spout, and thus producing chokes. 
Elevators should always be fed from that side on which the buckets 
ascend, that the stream of material may meet the elevator buckets 
on_ their upward journey. This will prevent the material from 
filling up the elevator well and spare the buckets from dredging 
through an accumulation of feed. Elevators erected at an incline 

are best fed at a point several feet above the well into the chain of 
ascending buckets, as under such conditions little will miss the 
buckets and drop into the well. 

The reason why grain elevators are set vertically, whereas ele- 
vators intended to carry heavy bodies such as coal and ore are 
generally inclined at an angle, is that the former can be run at a 
much greater velocity than the latter. Grain, for instance, would be 
uninjured by a velocity at the delivery end which would fracture 
coal and seriously reduce its value, to say nothing of the dust pro- 
duction and the damage which would be done to the receiving 
spouts and shoots. Elevators carrying a light material can be run 
at a circumferential velocity of 250 to 350 ft. per minute, and if 


FIG. 14. Grain Elevator. 

vertically set, will throw the grain, &c., clear of the elevator into 
the shoot for its reception. On the other hand, elevators handling 
heavy material must be set at an angle in order to give a clear de- 
livery at a much lower speed of 50 to 60 ft. per minute; in other 
words, the elevator is so inclined that the shoot for the reception 
of the material can be put underneath the delivering buckets which 
slowly disgorge their load. To obtain good results, without taking 
up too much space, an elevator carrying heavy material should be 
set at 40 to 60 to the horizontal. The same results can be obtained 
if the main portion of the elevator is vertical and only the upper 
portion inclined, or so curved as to bring the delivery over the shoot. 
The speed at which vertical elevators should be run will depend 
on the diameter of the terminal pulley, that is, the pulley over which 
the buckets and bands pass. The centrifugal force of pulleys revolv- 
ing at the same speed is in direct proportion to their diameters, and 
this is twice as much in a 2 ft. as in a I ft. pulley. It may be taken 
that the centrifugal force of a pulley will increase in proportion to 
the square of its velocity; hence the centrifugal force of a pulley 
2 ft. in diameter running at 50 revolutions per minute will be four 
times the centrifugal force of a pulley of the same diameter making 
only 25 revolutions per minute. It must not be forgotten that to 
effect a clean discharge of the buckets of a vertical elevator, the 



centrifugal force must be sufficient to overcome the gravity of the 
material, because the material thrown off the delivery pulley in a 
horizontal direction will be more rapidly deflected into a parabolic 
curve the higher its specific gravity. It follows that for a specifically 
heavy material a greater centrifugal force will be required; that 
is to say, the elevator will 
have to be higher speeded 
than in dealing with a lighter 

Elevator buckets must be 
varied according to the nature 
of the material; for instance, 
shallow buckets will be found 
best for a soft and clinging 
material such as flour, moist 
sugar, sand, small coal, &c., 
while for a hard or semi-hard 
body such as wheat, coal, 

FIG. 15. Mineral Elevator, 
upper terminal. 

deeper buckets are prefer- 
able. On account of their lower 
speed, elevators for specifically 
heavy material require much 
larger buckets and chains than 
grain elevators of the same bulk 
capacity. The most economical 
form of elevator is fitted with a 
continuous chain of buckets. 
Such elevators may be con- 
structed to carry either grain or 
minerals. The advantages are 
greatercapacity than an ordinary 
elevator of the same dimensions 
and a more uniform delivery; 
moreover, smoother running is 
secured, since the buckets being 
close together need not plunge 
intermittently through the con- 
tents of the elevator-well. 

Intermittent Conveyors. The 

elevators we have been considering, whether used for carrying 
and distributing coal or grain, have this in common, that 
they raise material from a lower to a higher level, so to speak, 
in a continuous stream, the continuity being broken only 
by the short spaces between the buckets. In the continuous 
bucket type indeed the stream of material is practically, if 
not absolutely, continuous. In all these cases the elevator 
is fed with the material in a continuous stream, and by 
some mechanical means; whether by band, worm or shoot, 
is immaterial. Elevators of a somewhat different and more 
substantial construction may be and are often used for handling 
filled sacks, barrels, carcases of animals and other bulky objects, 
which cannot be delivered in a uniform stream, but may have 
to be conveyed by the elevator intermittently. The ordinary 
buckets used for grain or coal are replaced by other appliances 
for gripping and holding the object to be raised from a lower to 
a higher level, but in principle these appliances are essentially 

Another kind of elevator, known as a lift or hoist, is used in 
mines and quarries and in serving blast furnaces. This is an 
elevator with one or two buckets. Essentially a heavy load 
lifter, it is intended for material of too large a bulk to be handled 
economically by ordinary elevators, and is employed for lifting 
in either a vertical or, more often, an inclined direction. 

For elevating materials, such as large coal, iron ore, limestone, 
&c., which are too large to be fed into ordinary elevators, and 

must therefore be handled intermittently, the single bucket 
elevator or hoist may be used with advantage. But as the 
essential use of mechanical appliances for handling material is 
to save human labour as far as possible, that hoist will prove 
the most economical the operation of which is as automatic as 
possible. The Americans seem, to have been pioneers in the 
construction of furnace hoists, which form the principal elevators 
of this class, but some excellent examples of the modern furnace 
hoist are now to be found in Great Britain and elsewhere in 
Europe. Generally speaking, a furnace hoist consists of an 
inclined iron bridge girder set at an angle to the upright shaft 
of the furnace. On this incline are laid rails for the ascent and 
descent of the bucket, which in this case is known as a skip and 
is provided with suitable wheels, while the hoisting gear manipu- 
lating the skips by a steel rope is erected on or near the ground 
level. The rails when they approach the upper terminus are 
usually bent in a more or less horizontal position so as auto- 
matically to tilt and thereby unload the skip. To attain the 
same end, the rails supporting the back wheels of the skips may 
be bent at the terminus, or the back wheels may have additional 
wheels of a larger diameter on the other side of their flanges, so 
that during the ascent and descent the skip runs on its four 
normal wheels, while at the upper terminus the outer and larger 
back wheels engage with short lengths of extra rails and thus 
tilt and effect the automatic clearance of the skip. The dead 
weight of the skip may be balanced by a counter weight, or 
double tracks may be laid, so that the empty skip descends on 
one track whilst the loaded skip is being raised on the other. 
In this case the distributing hopper at the top of the furnace has 
an elongated shape so as to take the charges 
alternately from buckets on either track. 
Again, the two tracks may be laid one above 
the other, so that one skip runs on the upper 

rails and the other on 
the lower. The two 
buckets will pass each 
other at about the 
centre of the framing, 
where there will be 
plenty of room for 

The capacity of the 
skip will of course de- 
pend to some extent on the capacity of the furnace, but an 
average charge may be put down at 2 tons of ore and lime, or 
i ton of coke. To raise such a charge to a furnace 80 ft. high 
would require, assuming no counter weight were used, a motor 
of about ico h.p. On account of the great speed at which 

FIG. 16. Mineral Elevator, 
lower terminal. 



the hoist works, the time taken in raising the charged skip, 
discharging it, and returning it empty would be only 30 to 
40 seconds. The hoist cable runs over guide pulleys placed 
at the top of the furnace, and the cable is often manipulated 
by an electrically driven winch in a cabin below. The 
descent of the empty skip in more modern installations 
is utilized to effect an even distribution of the feed from 
the hopper to the furnace by causing the hopper to revolve. 
To this end the latter is provided with an ingenious mechanism 
which only comes into operation as the car descends. After 
every charge shot into the hopper the latter is revolved a few 
degrees, and this has the effect of giving the delivery of the next 
load in another direction, so that the charges of the skip are in 
turn distributed over the whole area of the surface. This is 
deemed a most essential point in furnace-charging, and it is 
not one of the least recommendations of this mechanical system 
of furnace-charging that it can give an even feed without any 
hand labour whatever. A double hoist has been designed which 
has the advantage that if one elevator breaks down the work 
of the furnace is not interrupted. In this system two furnaces 
are connected at the top by a gantry or bridge, against which, 
between the furnaces, two inclined elevators are set, so that 
each can serve either furnace. The skips are on wheels and 
detachable from the elevator, and are loaded from the ore 
pockets at the lower terminal and drawn up on a cradle; as this 
reaches the top where the rails on the gantry correspond with 
the gauge of the skip or car, the latter is carried by its own 
weight down a slight incline to either furnace, discharging its 
contents as it passes over the conical mouth. Another advantage 
claimed for this system is that the rails of the cradle, when in 
its lowest position, correspond with the rails which lie parallel 
to the furnaces and run right under the store bins from which 
the skip is loaded. The economy to be realized from a furnace 
hoist will be in direct proportion to the use made of mechanical 
means of feed conveyance. For instance, the store bins in 
connexion with such elevators might be economically fed by 
suitable conveyors, or the material might be brought in self- 
unloading hoppered trucks into conveniently placed bins, ready 
to be drawn into the skips. 

Ropeways. A ropeway has been denned as that method of 
handling material which consists of drawing buckets on ropes, 
and by means of ropes, such buckets being filled with the material 
to be handled and being automatically or otherwise discharged. 
At what period of history ropeways were first used it is impossible 
to say, but the fact that pulley blocks, and even wire ropes, were 
known to the ancients, renders a pedigree of 2000 years at least 
possible. In more modern days, an old engraving shows a single 
ropeway in working order in 1 644 in the city of Danzig. This, the 
work of Adam Wybe, a Dutch engineer, was a single ropeway in 
its simplest form, consisting of an endless rope passing over 
pulleys suspended on posts; to the rope were attached a number 
of small buckets, which evidently carried earth from a hill out- 
side the city to the rampart inside the moat. The rope was 
probably of hemp. Modern ropeways worked with wire ropes 
date from about 1860, when a ropeway was erected in the Harz 
Mountains. Since then several systems have been evolved, but 
in the main ropeways may be divided into the single and double 
rope class. 

The ropeway is essentially an intermittent conveyor, the 
material being carried in buckets or skips, and practice has proved 
it an economical means of handling heavy material. The prime 
cost of a ropeway is usually moderate, though of course it varies 
with the ground and other local conditions. Working expenses 
should be low, because under the supervision of one competent 
engineer unskilled labour is quite sufficient. A ropeway may 
be carried over ground over which rails could only be laid at 
enormous cost. To a certain extent ropeways are independent of 
weather conditions, because their working need not be interrupted 
even by heavy snowfalls. Their construction is very simple, and 
there is little gear to get out of order. Sound workmanship and 
good material will ensure a relatively long life. As an instance, 
a certain rope in a Spanish ropeway tested new to a breaking 

strain of 29! tons was shown after carrying 160,000 tons (in two 
years' incessant work) still to possess a breaking strain of 27 J tons. 
The power absorbed by a ropeway is relatively moderate, and 
under special conditions may be nil. The only demand it makes 
on the superficial area of the ground traversed is the small 
emplacements of the standards, which in modern ropeways are 
few and far between. Wayleaves, or the permission to erect 
standards and run the line over private land, may of course 
mean an item in the capital outlay. This circumstance may 
have checked ropeway construction in Great Britain, but it must 
also be borne in mind that a large portion of that country is 
comparatively level and well provided with railways. In 
building a ropeway it is essential to take as straight a line as 
possible, because curves generally necessitate angle stations, 
which mean extra capital and working cost. On the other hand, 
ground that would be difficult for the railway engineer, such as 
steep hills, deep valleys and turbulent streams, has no terror for 
the ropeway erector. There is a case of a ropeway of a total 
length of 5400 ft. with a total difference in altitude of 2000 ft.; it 
is claimed this ground could not be covered by a railway with less 
than 15 m. of line graded at i in 40. 

Perhaps the simplest type of a single rope system is an endless 
running rope from which the carriers are suspended, and with 
which they move by frictional contact. Or the carriers may be 
fixed to this rope and move with it. The ropeway itself would 
consist of an endless rope running between two drums, one, known 
as the driving drum, being provided with power receiving and 
transmitting gear, while the drum at the opposite terminal would 
be fitted with tightening gear. The endless rope is carried on suitable 
pulleys which .themselves are supported on standards or trestles 
spaced at intervals varying with the nature of the ground. The 
rope runs at an average speed of 4 m. per hour, a speed at which 
the bucket or skip can automatically unload itself. In the double 
ropeway the carrier runs on a fixed rope, which takes the place of 
the rails of a railway. The carrier is fitted with running heads fur- 
nished with grooved steel wheels. The load is borne by a hanger 
pivoted from the carrier, and is conveyed along the rail rope by an 
endless hauling rope at an average speed of 4 to 6 m. per hour. 
The hauling is operated by driving gear at one end, and controlled 
hy tightening gear at the other end just as in the single rope system. 
Double ropeways have been carried in one section over 18 to 20 m., 
and will transport single loads of 6 cwt. to a ton or more. 

Broadly speaking, the single ropeway is not so suitable for heavy- 
loads and long distances as the double, but in this connexion the 
work of Ropeways Limited should be noted, which favours a single 
rope system. Their engineer, J. Pearce Roe, introduced multiple 
sheaves for supporting the rope at each standard. Thus the rope 
may pass over one, two or four sheaves, which are provided with 
balance beams that have the advantage of adjusting themselves 
to the angle caused by the rope passing over the sheaves, thus 
equalizing the pressure over a number of sheaves. A ropeway 
erected on this system in Japan spans 4000 yds. of very broken 
ground; yet only 17 trestles are used, and as each support is placed 
as high as possible, no one is of great height. An altitude of 1 130 ft. 
is reached in a distance of 1200 yds. The ropeway has a daily 
carrying capacity of 60 tons in one direction and of 30 tons in the 
other. Another installation on this system, which serves an iron 
mine in Spain, spans 6500 yds. of very rough country, so steep that 
in many places the sure-footed mule cannot keep on the track. 
This ropeway can deal with 85 tons per hour. The greatest distance 
covered by this system, on one section, is 7100 yds., or about 4 m., 
and the carrying capacity is 45 tons per hour. 

The motive power required for a ropeway will vary with the 
conditions. In cases of descending loads the power generated is 
sometimes so considerable as to render it available for driving other 
machinery, or it may have to be absorbed by some special brake 
device. In a ropeway in Japan of 1800 yds., which runs mostly at 
an incline of I in I J, the force generated is absorbed by a hydraulic 
brake the revolving fan of which drives the water against fixed 
vanes which repel and heat it. In this way, 50 h.p. is absorbed 
and the speed brought under the control of a hand brake. 

Aerial Cableways. The aerial cableway is a development of 
the ropeway, and is a conveyor capable of hoisting and dumping 
at any desired point. The load is carried along a trackway 
consisting of a single span of suspended cable, which covers a 
comparatively short distance. The trackway may either run in a 
more or less horizontal direction, i.e. the terminals may be on the 
same level, or it may be irfclined at such an angle that the load 
will descend by gravity. The trackway or rail rope rests upon 
saddles of iron or hard wood on the tops of terminal supports, 
usually known as towers. These towers may be constructed 


either of wood or iron, and if the exigencies of the work render it 
desirable, they may be mounted on trolleys and rails, in which 
case the cableway is rendered portable, and can be moved about, 
sometimes a great advantage in excavating work. The motive 
power may be either steam, gas, or electricity. The motor is 
situated in what is termed the head tower, which is sometimes a 
little higher than the other or tail tower. Sometimes, but not 
frequently, the latter is also fitted with a motor. The span 
between the two towers sometimes extends to 2000 ft., but this 
is exceptional. Very heavy loads are dealt with, sometimes as 
much as 8 tons in a single load. The load, which may be carried 
in a skip or a tray, is borne by an apparatus called the carrier, 
which is a modification of a running head, consisting of pulleys 
and blocks and running along the main cable or trackway. The 
carrier is also fitted with pulleys or guides for the dump line. 
The carrier is drawn along the main cable by an endless or 
hauling rope which passes from the carrier over the head tower 
and is wound several times round the drum of the winding engine 
to secure frictional hold, then back over the head tower, to the 
tail tower, returning to the rear end of the carrier. The hoisting 
rope passes from the engine to the fall block for raising the load. 
The dump line comes from the other side of the winding engine 
drum and passes to a smaller block attached to the rear end of the 
skip or tray. The whole weight of the skip is borne by the 
hoisting rope, while the dump line comes in slack, but at .the 
same rate of speed. Whenever it is desired to dump the load, 
the dump line is shifted to a section of the drum having a 
slightly larger diameter, and being thus drawn in at a higher rate 
of speed the load is discharged. The engine is then reversed, and 
the carriage brought back for the next load. 

This is in outline the mode of operating all cableways. This 
appliance has rendered great service as a labour saver in navvy- 
ing, quarrying and mining work; in placer-mining, for instance, 
cableways have been found very useful when fitted with a self- 
filling drag bucket, which will take the place of a great number of 
hands. Cableways can be worked at a great speed, but a good 
mean speed would be 500 to 750 ft. for conveying and 200 to 300 
ft. for hoisting. A cableway used in excavating work in Chicago 
was credited with a capacity of 400 to 600 cub. yds. per day at a 
total cost of 2d. per yard, including labour, coal, oil, waste, &c. 

Coaling Ships at Sea. In the coaling of ships at sea the cable- 
way has rendered great service. The conditions under which 
this operation has to be carried out present many difficulties, 
especially in rough water. One of the chief obstacles is the 
maintenance of the necessary tension, on the cable used in 
conveying the coal from the collier to the ship. The first test in 
coaling ships at sea, made by the British admiralty, took place in 
1890 in the Atlantic at a point 500 m. south of the Azores in 
water 2000 fathoms deep. Ten ships of war were coaled, each 
vessel taking enough coal to enable it to steam back to Torbay, 
1800 m. away. In this case the collier was lashed alongside the 
battleship it was feeding, thick fenders being interposed to 
prevent damage, but nevertheless as the colliers got light they 
pitched considerably, and one or two sustained dents in their 
sides. The ships did not roll, being kept bows-on to the swell, 
which became heavy before the coaling was completed. The 
coal was taken in by derricks at the main deck ports. It is 
clear that had the sea been really rough coaling in this fashion 
would have been impossible. 

The most practicable method of coaling at sea yet devised 
is the marine cableway of Spencer Miller, which has been tried 
with some success in the American navy. It is intended for use 
between vessels 350 to 500 ft. apart. The ship being coaled 
takes the collier in tow, steaming at the rate of 4 to 8 knots; 
it has been found that a speed of five knots in moderately rough 
water will keep the cableway taut and maintain a sufficient 
distance between the crafts. The collier is fitted with an engine 
having double cylinders and double friction drums, which is 
placed just abaft the foremast. A steel rope f in. in diameter 
is led from one drum over a pulley at the mast head and thence 
to a pulley at the head of shear-poles on the vessel being coaled, 
and brought back to the other drum. The engine moves in the 

same direction all the time and keeps on winding in both the 
strands of the conveying rope. Should the two vessels increase 
the distance between them during the operation of conveying 
the coal bags, of which two, weighing 420 Ib each, may be 
fastened to the carrier, the extra rope called for is obtained by 
slipping the upper strand from the drum; this increases the 
speed of the upper cable. On the other hand should the distance 
between the vessels be reduced, this operation is reversed, the 
speed of the upper strand being reduced. To keep the carriage 
steady on its return empty, a rope, known as the sea-anchor 
line, is stretched above the two strands of the conveyor line, 
and under a pulley on the carriage. This cable is attached to 
the vessel, resting on a saddle on the shear head, whence it leads 
through the carriage over pulleys at the head of the foremast 
and mainmast of the collier, running on astern several hundred 
feet into the sea. A drag or sea-anchor, usually made of canvas 
and cone-shaped, is attached to the end of this rope. This 
anchor is used to support the empty carriage on its return to 
the collier. The diameter of the cone's base is graduated to the 
speed of the vessels. Thus in a smooth-water test, with a ship 
steaming at 6 knots, one 7 ft. in diameter was used, while the 
same anchor answered its purpose very well with a ship doing 
5 knots in rough water. 

The results given by this system of coaling at sea are relatively 
satisfactory. Tests made in the United States navy showed 
that 20 to 25 tons of coal per hour could be delivered by a collier 
to a war-vessel during a moderate gale. As the ship was under 
steam all the time and consumed 3 to 4 tons of coal per hour, 
the balance of the coal bunkered amounted to between 16 and 
20 tons per hour, or say 384 tons in 24 hours. It has been sug- 
gested that under service conditions the speed of the towing 
vessel might be increased to 8 or 10 knots an hour; this would 
of course increase the coal consumption unless the collier pro- 
ceeded under her own steam. But in such a case the space 
between the two crafts might be diminished, which would have 
the effect of causing the cable to sag and of stopping the work, 
since the conveyor cable to act properly must be kept taut. 
In Great Britain the Temperley Transporter Company have 
taken up this method of coaling at sea, working in collaboration 
with Spencer Miller, and have introduced several improvements 
in detail. Their system has been tried by the British admiralty. 

The coaling of a large vessel by this appliance has the advantage 
of economizing hand labour. One man is required to work the 
hoist on the collier, while 20 men will be in the hold filling the 
bags and delivering them to the deck, where 1 5 or so will transfer 
the bags to the lift. One or two men suffice for the overhead 
work; their station is in the trestle trees. On board the receiving 
ship a few men will be stationed at the shear head to empty the 
bags into a canvas shoot, and then return them, while there will 
be the usual force of bunker trimmers. A ton of coal per minute 
has been transferred from the collier to the vessel, but for this 
capacity the ships must not be too far apart, else the rope would 
not remain taut under such loads. During the Russo-Japanese 
War. many of the Russian battleships were coaled by means 
of aerial cableways. The coaling of vessels in this manner seems 
a success, but it would be desirable to increase the carrying 
capacity of the cableway or to duplicate the installations. 

Telpherage. A telpher ropeway or cableway may be defined 
as a ropeway or cableway worked and controlled electrically, 
only a rail rope being required besides the live rail or wire from 
which the electric current is taken. Telpherage was devised 
by Professor Fleeming Jenkin in 1881, and developed by him 
in conjunction with Professors W. E. Ayrton and J. Perry. 
The telpher itself consists of a light two-wheeled truck, carrying 
the driving motors, which, to avoid gearing or other complicated 
mechanism, are usually coupled directly to the axles of the 
telpher. Thus the telpher is a self-propelled electric carrier 
running on a mono-rail, which, according to the conditions, may 
be a steel rail or a steel cable. From the telpher are suspended 
carriers which can be adapted to any kind of material. In many 
cases the whole load may be suspended from the telpher, or the 
load, especially if of some length, may be supported at one end 

6 4 


by a telpher, and at the other end by what is known as a trailer, 
or again, two telphers may be installed, one at each end of the 
load. The telpher carries a small trolley sheave or bow which 
serves to collect the current from a trolley wire stretched a little 
above the rail. Frequently the telpher is accompanied by an 
attendant who manipulates it, but by dividing the trolley wire 
into sections any system of telpherage may be constructed to 
work automatically, and by switching off the current from the 
section in which the telpher is required to stop it can be brought 
to a standstill at any required point. The speed of the telpher 
may be readily regulated by the introduction of a resistance 
between any section of the line and the supply of electricity. 
The speed may be high, as much as 1500 ft. per minute over the 
straight portions of the line, but slackened at curves and loading 
stations, or when approaching a terminus. The required power 
may be obtained from the mains of an ordinary electric supply 
with either direct or alternating current, but the former is 
preferable. The mean expenditure of power in a working day 
is said to average (including electrical hoisting) i H.P. 'per ton 
of average load. 

The uses of telpherage are many and various. In factories 
and warehouses, where the buildings are scattered, it has been 
installed with excellent results. Being essentially an overhead 
system, there is a saving of floor space, the ground not being 
obstructed by trucks or trolleys. The same reasons which 
render ropeways an economical means of handling such material 
as coal, ore, stone, slate, &c., between the mine or quarry and 
the rail or barge, may be adduced in favour of telpherage. For 
the unloading of railway trucks in a crowded goods-yard it 
is undoubtedly applicable. Any kind of tipping or hoisting 
operations can be automatically effected by its aid, and any 
sort of grab may be used in dealing with such materials as sand, 
clay or gravel. Telpherage is clearly a labour-saving method 
of handling materials, but of course the exact conditions under 
which any system is to be used need careful study, while the 
economy to be effected by the installation of a telpher line must 
to a great extent depend upon the available supply of electrical 
energy. (G. F. Z.) 

CONVOCATION (Lat. convocalio, a calling together), an 
assembly of persons met together in answer to a summons. The 
term is more usually applied in a restricted sense to assemblies 
of the clergy or of the graduates of certain universities. 

In the American Protestant Episcopal Church a convocation 
is a voluntary deliberative conference of the clergy; it has no 
legislative function, and like the convocation of a university, 
assembles primarily to discuss matters of common interest. 

In England the name " convocation " is specifically given to 
an assembly of the spirituality of the realm of England, which is 
summoned by the metropolitan archbishops of Canterbury and of 
York respectively, within their ecclesiastical provinces, pursu- 
ant to a royal writ, whenever the parliament of the realm is 
summoned, and which is also continued or discharged, as the 
case may be, whenever the parliament is prorogued or dissolved. 
These assemblies consist of two Houses, an upper and lower. 
In the upper house sit the archbishops and bishops, and in the 
lower the deans and archdeacons of every cathedral, the provost 
of Eton College, with one proctor elected by each cathedral 
chapter and two by the beneficed clergy in each diocese in the 
province of Canterbury (in the province of York two proctors are 
elected by each archdeacon), with a prolocutor at their head. 
When and how this convocation originated is not historically 
clear. This much is known from authentic records, that the 
present constitution of the convocation of the prelates and clergy 
of the province of Canterbury was recognized as early as in the 
eleventh year of the reign of Edward I. (1283) as its normal 
constitution; and that in extorting that recognition from the 
crown, which the clergy accomplished 'by refusing to attend 
unless summoned in lawful manner (debito modo) through their 
metropolitan, the clergy of the province of Canterbury taught the 
laity the possibility of maintaining the freedom of the nation 
against the encroachments of the royal power. It had been a 
provision of the Anglo-Saxon period, the origin of which is 

generally referred to the council of Clovesho (747), that the 
possessions of the church should be exempt from taxation by the 
secular power, and that it should be left to the benevolence of the 
clergy to grant such subsidies to the crown from the endowments 
of their churches as they should agree to in their own assemblies. 
It may be inferred, however, from the language of the various 
writs issued by the crown for the collection of the " aids " voted 
by the Commune Concilium of the realm in the reign of Henry III., 
that the clergy were unable to maintain the exemption of church 
property from being taxed to those " aids " during that king's 
reign; and it was not until some years had elapsed of the reign of 
Edward I. that the spirituality succeeded in vindicating their 
constitutional privilege of voting in their own assemblies their 
free gifts or " benevolences," and in insisting on the crown 
observing the lawful form of convoking those assemblies through 
the metropolitan of each province. 

The form of the royal writ, which it is customary to issue in the 
present day to the metropolitan of each province, is identical in 
its purport with the writ issued by the crown in 1283 to the 
metropolitan of the province of Canterbury, after the clergy 
of that province had refused to meet at Northampton in the 
previous year, because they had not been summoned in lawful 
manner; whilst the mandates issued by the metropolitans in 
pursuance of the royal writs, and the citations issued by the 
bishops in pursuance of the mandates of their respective metro- 
politans, are identical in their purport and form with those used in 
summoning the convocation of 1283, which met at the New 
Temple in the city of London, and voted a " benevolence " to 
the crown, as having been convoked in lawful manner. The 
existing constitution of the convocation of the province of 
Canterbury and the same observation will apply to that of the 
province of York in respect of its comprising representatives of 
the chapters and 'of the beneficed clergy, in addition to the 
bishops and other dignitaries of the church, would thus appear 
to be of even more ancient date than the existing constitution of 
the parliament of the realm. 

From this period down to the eleventh year of the reign of 
Edward III. there were continual contests between the spiritu- 
ality of the realm and the crown, the spirituality contest 
contending for their constitutional right to vote their between 
subsidies in their provincial convocations; the crown, spMtu- 
on the other hand, insisting on the immediate attend- 
ance of the clergy in parliament. The resistance of the 
clergy to the innovation of the " praemunientes " clause had so 
far prevailed in the reign of Edward II. that the crown consented 
to summon the clergy to parliament through their metropolitans, 
and a special form of provincial writ was for that purpose framed ; 
but the clergy protested against this writ, and the struggle was 
maintained between the spirituality and the crown until 1337 
(u Edward III.), when the crown reverted to the ancient 
practice of commanding the metropolitans to call together their 
clergy in their provincial assemblies, where their subsidies were 
voted in the manner as accustomed before the " praemunientes " 
clause was introduced. The " praemunientes " clause, however, 
was continued in the parliamentary writs issued to the several 
bishops of both provinces, whilst the bishops were permitted to 
n'eglect at their pleasure the execution of the writs. 

The history of the convocation of the province of Canterbury, 
as at present constituted, is full of stirring incidents, and it 
resolves itself readily into five periods. The first 
period, by which is meant the first period which dates ad erf s ^T 
from an epoch of authentic history, is the period of its period*. 
greatest freedom, but not of its greatest activity. It 
extends from the reign of Edward I. ( 1 283) to that of Henry VIII. 
The second period is the period of its greatest activity and of its 
greatest usefulness, and it extends from the twenty-fifth year of 
the reign of Henry VIII. to the reign of Charles II. The third 
period extends from the fifteenth year of the reign of Charles II. 
(1664) to the reign of George I. This was a period of turbulent 
activity and little usefulness, and the anarchy of the lower house 
of convocation during this period created a strong prejudice 
against the revival of convocation in the mind of the laity. The 

allty and 



fourth period extends from the third year of the reign of George 
I. (1716) to the fifteenth year of the reign of Queen Victoria. 
This was a period of torpid inactivity, during which it was 
customary for convocation to be summoned and to meet pro 
forma, and to be continued and prorogued indefinitely. The 
fifth period may be considered to have commenced in the fifteenth 
year of the reign of Queen Victoria (1852). 

During the first of the five periods above mentioned, it would 
appear from the records preserved at Lambeth and at York that 
the metropolitans frequently convened congregations 
(so called) of their clergy without the authority of a 
royal writ, which were constituted precisely as the 
convocations were constituted, when the metropolitans were 
commanded to call their clergy together pursuant to a writ from 
the crown. As soon, however, as King Henry VIII. had obtained 
from the clergy their acknowledgment of the supremacy of the 
crown in all ecclesiastical causes, he constrained the spirituality 
to declare, by what has been termed the Act of Submission on 
behalf of the clergy, that the convocation " is, always has been, 
and ought to be summoned by authority of a royal writ "; and 
this declaration was embodied in a statute of the realm (25 Henry 
VIII. c. 19), which further enacted that the convocation " should 
thenceforth make no provincial canons, constitutions or ordin- 
ances without the royal assent and licence." The spirituality was 
thus more closely incorporated than heretofore in the body 
politic of the realm, seeing that no deliberations on its part can 
take place unless the crown has previously granted its licence for 
such deliberations. It had been already provided during this 
period by 8 Henry VI. c. i, that the prelates and other clergy, 
with their servants and attendants, when called to the convoca- 
tion pursuant to the king's writ, should enjoy the same liberty 
and defence in coming, tarrying and returning as the magnates 
and the commons of the realm enjoy when summoned to the 
king's parliament. 

The second period, which dates from 1533 to 1664, has been 
distinguished by four important assemblies of the spirituality 
of the realm in pursuance of a royal writ the two 
first of which occurred in the reign of Edward VI., 
the third in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and the 
fourth in the reign of Charles II. The two earliest of these 
convocations were summoned to complete the work of the 
reformation of the Church of England, which had been begun 
by Henry VIII.; the third was called together to reconstruct 
that work, which had been marred on the accession of Mary (the 
consort of Philip II. of Spain), whilst the fourth was summoned 
to re-establish the Church of England, the framework of which 
had been demolished during the great rebellion. On all of these 
occasions the convocations worked hand in hand with the 
parliament of the realm under a licence and with the assent 
of the crown. Meanwhile the convocation of 1603 had framed 
a body of canons for the governance of the clergy. Another 
convocation requires a passing notice, in which certain canons 
were drawn up in 1640, but by reason of an irregularity in the 
proceedings of this convocation (chiefly, on the ground that 
its sessions were continued for some time after the parliament 
of the realm had been dissolved), its canons are not held to have 
any binding obligation on the clergy. The convocations had 
up to this time maintained their liberty of voting the subsidies 
of the clergy in the form of " benevolences " separate and apart 
from the " aids " granted by the laity in parliament, and one 
of the objections taken to the proceedings of the convocation 
of 1640 was that it had continued to sit and to vote its subsidies 
to the .crown after the parliament itself had been dissolved. 
It is not, therefore, surprising on the restoraUon of the monarchy 
in 1 66 1 that the spirituality was not anxious to retain the liberty 
of taxing itself apart from the laity, seeing that its ancient liberty 
was likely to prove of questionable advantage to it. It voted, 
however, a benevolence to the crown on the occasion of its first 
assembling in 1661 after the restoration of King Charles II., 
and it continued so to do until 1664, when an arrangement was 
made between Archbishop Sheldon and Lord Chancellor Hyde, 
under which the spirituality silently waived its long-asserted 
vii. 3 


right of voting its own subsidies to the crown, and submitted itself 
thenceforth to be assessed to the " aids " directly granted to the 
crown by parliament. An act was accordingly passed 
by the parliament in the following year 1665, entitled 
An act to grant a Royal Aid unto the King's Majesty, compact 
to which aid the clergy were assessed by the com- 
missioners named in the statute without any objection being 
raised on their part or behalf, 1 there being a proviso that in so 
contributing the clergy should be relieved of the liability to pay 
two subsidies out of four, which had been voted by them in the 
convocation of a previous year. In consequence of this practical 
renunciation of their separate status, as regards their liability 
to taxation, the clergy have assumed and enjoyed in common 
with the laity the right of voting at the election of members of 
the House of Commons, in virtue of their ecclesiastical freeholds. 

The most important and the last work of the convocation 
during this second period of its activity was the revision of the 
Book of Common Prayer which was completed in the latter 
part of 1661. 

The Revolution in 1688 is the most important epoch in the 
third period of the history of the synodical proceedings of the 
spirituality, when the convocation of Canterbury, 
having met in 1689 in pursuance of a royal writ, period 
obtained a licence under the great seal, to prepare 
certain alterations in the liturgy and in the canons, and to 
deliberate on the reformation of the ecclesiastical courts. A 
feeling, however, of panic seems to have come over the Lower 
House, which took up a position of violent antagonism to the 
Upper House. This circumstance led to the prorogation of 
the convocation and to its subsequent discharge without any 
practical fruit resulting from the king's licence. Ten years 
elapsed during which the convocation was prorogued from time 
to time without any meeting of its members for business being 
allowed. The next convocation which was permitted to meet 
for business, in 1700, was marked by great turbulence and in- 
subordination on the part of the members of the Lower House, 
who refused to recognize the authority of the archbishop to 
prorogue their sessions. This controversy was kept up until 
the discharge of the convocation took place concurrently with 
the dissolution of the parliament in the autumn of that year. 
The proceedings of the Lower House in this convocation were 
disfigured by excesses which were clearly violations of the 
constitutional order of the convocation. The Lower House 
refused to take notice of the archbishop's schedule of prorogation, 
and adjourned itself by its own authority, and upon the demise 
of the crown it disputed the fact of its sessions having expired, 
and as parliament was to continue for a short time, prayed 
that its sessions might be continued as a part of the parliament 
under the " praemunientes " clause. The next convocation was 
summoned in the first year of Queen Anne, when the Lower 
House, under the leadership of Dean Aldrich, its prolocutor, 
challenged the right of the archbishop to prorogue it, claim of 
and presented a petition to the queen, praying her Lover 
majesty to call the question into her own presence. House to 
The question was thereupon examined by the queen's *"'f </< y 
council, when the right of the president to prorogue 
both houses of convocation by a schedule of prorogation was held 
to be proved, and further, that it could not be altered except 
by an act of parliament. During the remaining years of the 
reign of Queen Anne the two Houses of convocation were engaged 
either in internecine strife, or in censuring sermons or books, as 
teaching latitudinarian or heretical doctrines; and, when it had 
been assembled concurrently with parliament on the accession 
of King George I., a great breach was before long created between 
the two houses by the Bangorian controversy. Dr Hoadly, 
bishop of Bangor, having preached a sermon before the king, 
in the Royal Chapel at St James's Palace in 1717, against the 
principles and practice of the nonjurors, which had been printed 

1 It had always been the practice, when the clergy voted their sub- 
sidies in their convocation, for parliament to authorize the collection 
of each subsidy by the same commissioners who collected the 
parliamentary aid. 



by the king's command, the Lower House, which was offended 
by the sermon and had also been offended by a treatise on the 
same subject published by Dr Hoadly in the previous 
tangorian y ear ^ j ost no t j me j n representing the sermon to the 
troversy. Upper House, and in calling for its condemnation. A 
controversy thereupon arose between the two houses 
which was kept up with untiring energy by the Lower House, 
until the convocation was prorogued in 1717 in pursuance of a 
royal writ; from which time until 1861 no licence from the crown 
was granted to convocation to proceed to business. During 
this period, which may be regarded as the fourth distinguishing 
period in the history of the convocations of the Church of England, 
arth it was usual for a few members of the convocation to 
period. meet when first summoned with every new parliament, 
in pursuance of the royal writ, for the Lower House 
to elect a prolocutor, and for both houses to vote an address 
to the crown, after which the convocation was prorogued from 
time to time, pursuant to royal writs, and ultimately discharged 
when the parliament was dissolved. There were, however, 
several occasions between 1717 and 1741 when the convocation 
of the province of Canterbury transacted certain matters, by 
way of consultation, which did not require any licence from the 
crown, and there was a short period in its session of 1741 when 
there was a probability of its being allowed to resume its de- 
liberative functions, as the Lower House had consented to obey 
the president's schedule of prorogation; but the Lower House 
having declined to receive a communication from the Upper 
House, the convocation was forthwith prorogued, from which 
time until the middle of the igth century the convocation was 
not permitted by the crown to enjoy any opportunity even for 
consultation. The spirituality at last aroused itself from its 
long repose in 1852, and on this occasion the Upper House took 
the lead. The active spirit of the movement was Samuel Wilber- 
force, bishop of Oxford, but the master mind was 
period. Henry Phillpotts, bishop of Exeter. On the convoca- 
tion assembling several petitions were presented to 
both houses, praying them to take 'steps to procure from the 
crown the necessary licence for their meeting for the despatch 
of business, and an address to the Upper House was brought 
up from the Lower House, calling the attention of the Upper 
House to the reasonableness of the prayer of the various petitions. 
After some discussion the Upper House, influenced mainly by 
the argument of Henry, bishop of Exeter, consented to receive 
the address of the Lower House, and the convocation was there- 
upon prorogued, shortly after which it was discharged concur- 
rently with the dissolution of parliament. On the assembling 
of the next convocation of the province of Canterbury, no royal 
writ of exoneration having been sent by the crown to the metro- 
politan, the sessions of the convocation were continued for 
several days; and from this time forth convocation may be 
considered to have resumed its action as a consultative body, 
whilst it has also been permitted on more than one occasion 
to exercise its functions as a deliberative body. In 1865, under 
licence from the crown, the Convocations of Canterbury and 
York framed new canons in place of the 36th, 37th, 38th and 
4oth canons of 1603, and amended the 62nd and iO2nd canons 
in 1888. In 1872 convocation was empowered by letters of 
business from the crown to frame resolutions on the subject of 
public worship, which resolutions were afterwards incorporated 
in the Act of Uniformity Amendment Act 1872. 

As a deliberative body, convocation has done much useful 
work, but it suffers considerably from its unrepresentative 
nature. The non-beneficed clergy still remain without the 
franchise, but the establishment of Houses of Laymen (see 
LAYMEN, HOUSES OF) for both provinces has, to a certain extent, 
secured the co-operation of the lay element. Several attempts 
have been made to promote legislation to enable the convocations 
to reform their constitutions and to enable them to unite for 
special purposes; in 1905 a bill was introduced into the House of 
Lords. It did not, however, get beyond a first reading. In 1896 
a departure was made in holding joint sessions of both convoca- 
tions, in conjunction with the two Houses of Laymen, for con- 

sultative purposes. This body is now termed the Representative 
Church Council, and it adopted a Constitution in November 1905. 
All formal business is transacted in the separate convocations. 
It is usual for convocation to meet three times a year. 

The order of convening the convocation of the province of Canter- 
bury is as follows. A writ issues from the crown, addressed to the 
metropolitan archbishop of Canterbury, commanding him " by 
reason of certain difficult and urgent affairs concerning us, the 
security and defence of our Church of England, and the peace and 
tranquillity, public good and defence of our kingdom, and our 
subjects of the same, to call together with all convenient speed, and 
in lawful manner, the several bishops of the province of Canterbury, 
and deans of the cathedral churches, and also the archdeacons, 
chapters and colleges, and the whole clergy of every diocese of the 
said province, to appear before the said metropolitan in the cathedral 
church of St Paul, London, on a certain day, or elsewhere, as shall 
seem most expedient, to treat of, agree to and conclude upon the 
premises and other things, which to them shall then at the same place 
be more clearly explained on our behalf." In case the metropolitical 
see of Canterbury should be vacant, the writ of the crown is ad- 
dressed to the dean and chapter of the metropolitical church of 
Canterbury in similar terms, as being the guardians of the spiritu- 
alities of the see during a vacancy. Thereupon the metropolitan, 
or, as the case may be, the dean and chapter of the metropolitical 
church, issue a mandate to the bishop of London, as dean of the 
province, and if the bishopric of London should be vacant, then to 
the bishop of Winchester as subdean, which embodies the royal writ, 
and directs the bishop to cause all the bishops of the province to be 
cited, and through them the deans of the cathedral and collegiate 
churches, and the archdeacons and other dignitaries of churches, and 
each chapter by one, and the clergy of each diocese by two sufficient 
proctors, to appear before the metropolitan or his commissary, or, 
as the case may be, before the dean and chapter of the metropolitical 
church or their commissary, in the chapter-house of the cathedral 
church of St Paul, London, if that place be named in the mandate, 
or elsewhere, with continuation and prorogation of days next 
following, if that should be necessary, to treat upon arduous and 
weighty affairs, which shall concern the state and welfare, public 
good and defence of this kingdom and the subjects thereof, to be 
then and there seriously laid before them, and to give their good 
counsel and assistance on the said affairs, and to consent to such 
things as shall happen to be wholesomely ordered and appointed 
by their common advisement, for the honour of God and the good 
of the church. 

The_ provincial dean, or the subdean, as the case may be, there- 
upon issues a citation to the several bishops of the province, which 
embodies the mandate of the metropolitan or of the dean and chapter 
of the metropolitical church, as the case may be, and admonishes 
them to appear, and to cite and admonish their clergy, as specified 
in the metropolitical mandate, to appear at the time and place 
mentioned in the mandate. The bishops thereupon either summon 
directly the clergy of their respective dioceses to appear before them 
or their commissaries to elect two proctors, or they send a citation 
to their archdeacons, according to the custom of the diocese, direct- 
ing them to summon the clergy of their respective archdeaconries 
to elect a proctor. The practice of each diocese in this matter is 
the law of the convocation, and the practice varies indefinitely as 
regards the election of proctors to represent the beneficed clergy. 
As regards the deans, the bishops send special writs to them to 
appear in person, and to cause their chapters to appear severally by 
one proctor. Writs also go to every archdeacon, and on the day 
named in the royal writ, which is always the day next following 
that named in the writ to summon the parliament, the convocation 
assembles in the place named in the archbishop's mandate. There- 
upon, after the Litany has been sung or said, and a Latin sermon 
preached by a preacher appointed by the metropolitan, the clergy 
are praeconized or summoned by name to appear before the metro- 
politan or his commissary; after which the clergy of the Lower 
House are directed to withdraw and elect a prolocutor to be presented 
to the metropolitan for his approbation. The convocation thus 
constituted resolves itself at its next meeting into two houses, and 
it is in a fit state to proceed to business. 

The constitution of the convocation of the province of York differs 
slightly from that of the convocation of the province of Canterbury, 
as each archdeaconry is represented by two proctors, precisely as 
in parliament formerly under the Praemunientes clause. 

There are some anomalies in the diocesan returns of the two 
convocations, but in all such matters the consuetude of the diocese 
is the governing rule. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Wilkins, Concilia Magnae Britannia el Hiberniat 
(4 vols. folio, 1737); Gibson, Codex Juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani 
(2 vols. folio, 1713); Johnson, A Collection of all the Ecclesiastical 
Laws, Canons and Constitutions of the English Church (2 vols. 8vo, 
1720); Gibson, Synodus Anelicana (8vo, 1702, re-edited by Dr 
Edward Cardwell, 8vp, 1854); Shower, A ^Letter to a Convocation 
Man concerning the Rights, Powers and Privileges of that Body (410, 
1697); Wake, The Authority of Christian Princes over their Ecclesi- 
astical Synods asserted, occasioned by a late Pamphlet intituled A Letter 



to a Convocation Man (8vo, 1697) ; Atterbury, The Rights, Powers 
and Privileges of an English Convocation stated and vindicated in 
answer to a late book of Dr Wake's (8vo, 1700); Burnet, Reflections 
on a Book intituled The Rights, Powers and Privileges of an English 
Convocation stated and vindicated (410, 1700); Kennet, Ecclesiastical 
Synods and Parliamentary Convocations of the Church of England 
historically stated and justly vindicated from the Misrepresentation 
of Mr Atterbury (8vo, 1701); Atterbury, The Power of the Lower 
House of Convocation to adjourn itself (4X0, 1701) ; Gibson, The Right 
of the Archbishop to continue or prorogue the whole Convocation (410, 
1701); Kennet, The Case of the Praemunientes (410, 1701); Hooper, 
The Narrative of the Lower House vindicated from the Exceptions of a 
Letter, intituled The Right of the Archbishop to continue or prorogue 
the Convocation (410, 1702); Atterbury, The Case of the Schedule 
stated (410, 1702); Gibson, The Schedule Reviewed, or the Right of 
the Archbishop to continue or prorogue the whole Convocation, cleared 
from the Exception of a late Vindication of the Narrative of the Lower 
House, and of a Book intituled The Case of the Schedule stated (410, 
1702); Hody, A History of the English Councils and Convocation, 
and of the Clergy's sitting in Parliament (8vo, 1702); Wake, The 
State of the Church and Clergy of England in their Councils, Synods, 
Convocations, Conventions, and other Public Assemblies, occasioned 
by a book intituled The Rights, Powers and Privileges of an English 
Convocation (fol., 1703); Burnet, History of His Own Time (2 vols. 
folio, 1734), re-edited by Dr Martin J. Routh (6 vols. 8vo, 1833); 
Hallam, Constitutional History of England (3 vols. 8vo, 1832) ; Card- 
well, Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church of England (2 vols., 
1839); Cardwell, A History of Conferences and other Proceedings 
connected with the revision of the Common Prayer (8vo, 1841) ; Card- 
well, Synodalia, a Collection of Articles of Religion, Canon and Pro- 
ceedings of Convocation in the Province of Canterbury (2 vols. 8vo, 
1842); Lathbury, A History of the Convocation of the Church of Eng- 
land (2nd ed., 8vo, 1853) ; Trevor, The Convocation of the two Pro- 
vinces (8vo, 1852); Pearce, The Law relating to Convocations of the 
Clergy (8vo, 1848) ; Synodalia, a Journal of Convocation, commenced 
in 1852 (8vo); The Chronicle of Convocation, being a record of the 
proceedings of the Convocation of Canterbury, commenced in 1863 
(8vo). (T. T.; T. A. I.) 

CONVOLVDLACEAE, a botanical natural order belonging to 
the series Tubiflorae of the sympetalous group of Dicotyledons. 
It contains about 40 genera with more than 1000 species, and is 
found in all parts of the world except the coldest, but is especially 
well developed in tropical Asia and tropical America. The most 
characteristic members of the order are twining plants with 
generally smooth heart-shaped leaves and large showy white or 
purple flowers, as, for instance, the greater bindweed of English 
hedges, Calystegia sepium, and many species of the genus Ipomaea, 
the largest of the order, including the " convolvulus major " of 
gardens, and morning glory. The creeping or trailing type is a 
common one, as in the English bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), 
which has also a tendency to climb, and Calystegia Soldanella, 
the sea-bindweed, the long creeping stem of which forms a sand- 
binder on English seashores; a widespread and efficient tropical 
sand-binder is Ipomaea Pes-Caprae. One of the commonest 
tropical weeds, Evohulus alsinoides, has slender, long-trailing 
stems with small leaves and flowers. In hot dry districts such 
as Arabia and north-east tropical Africa, genera have been 
developed with a low, much-branched, dense, shrubby habit, 
with small hairy leaves and very small flowers. An exceptional 
type in the order is represented by Humbertia, a native of 
Madagascar, which forms a large tree. The dodder (q.v.) is a 
genus (Cuscuta) of leafless parasites with slender thread-like 
twining stems. The flowers stand singly in the leaf-axils or form 
few or many flowered cymose inflorescences; the flowers are 
sometimes crowded into small heads. The bracts are usually 
scale-like, but sometimes foliaceous, as for instance in Calystegia, 
where they are large and envelop the calyx. 

The parts of the flower are in fives in calyx, corolla and stamens, 
followed by two carpels which unite to form a superior ovary. 
The sepals, which are generally free, show much variation in size, 
shape and covering, and afford valuable characters for the distinc- 
tion of genera or sub-genera. The corolla is generally funnel- 
shaped, more rarely bell-shaped or tubular; the outer face is 
often marked out in longitudinal areas, five well-defined areas 
tapering from base to apex, and marked with longitudinal striae 
corresponding to the middle of the petals, and alternating with 
five non-striated weaker triangular areas; in the bud the latter 
are folded inwards, the stronger areas being exposed and showing 
a twist to the right. The slender filaments of the stamens vary 

widely, often in the same flower; the anthers are linear to 
ovate in shape, attached at the back to the filament, and open 
lengthwise. Some importance attaches to the form of the 
pollen grains; the two principal forms are ellipsoidal with 
longitudinal bands forming the Convolvulus-type, and a spherical 
form with a spiny surface known as the Ipomaea-type. The 
ovary is generally two-chambered, with two inverted ovules 
standing side by side at the inner angle of each chamber. The 
style is simple or branched, and the stigma is linear, capitate or 
globose in form; these variations afford means for distinguishing 
the different genera. The fruit is usually a capsule opening by 
valves; the seeds, where four are developed, are each shaped like 
the quadrant of a sphere; the seed-coat is smooth, or sometimes 
warty or hairy; the embryo is large with generally broad, folded, 
notched or bilobed cotyledons surrounded by a horny endosperm. 
Cuscuta has a thread-like, spirally twisted embryo with no trace 
of cotyledons. 

The large showy flowers are visited by insects for the honey 
which is secreted by a ring-like disk below the ovary; large- 

Convolvulus sepium, slightly reduced. 

1. Flower cut vertically. 4. Embryo taken out of seed. 

2. Fruit, slightly reduced. 5. Horizontal plan of arrange- 

3. Seed cut lengthwise showing ment of flower. 


flowered species of Ipomaea with narrow tubes are adapted for the 
visits of honey-seeking birds. 

The largest genus, Ipomaea, has about 400 species distributed 
throughout the warmer parts of the earth. Convolvulus has 
about 150 to 200 species, mainly in temperate climates; the 
genus is principally developed in the Mediterranean area and 
western Asia. Cuscuta contains nearly 100 species in the warmer 
and temperate regions; two are native in Britain. 

The tubers of Ipomaea Batatas are rich in starch and sugar, and, 
as the " sweet potato," form one of the most widely distributed 
foods in the warmer parts of the earth. Several members of the 
order are used medicinally for the strong purging properties of the 
milky juice (latex) which they contain; scammony is the dried 
latex from the underground stem of Convolvulus Scammonia, a 
native of the Levant, while jalap is the product of the tubercles 
of Exogonium Purga, a native of Mexico. Species of Ipomaea 
(morning glory), Convolvulus and Calystegia are cultivated as 
ornamental plants. Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed) is a pest in 
fields and gardens on account of its wide-spreading underground 
stem, and many of the dodders (Cuscuta) cause damage to crops. 

CONVOY (through the Fr. from late Lat. conviare, to go along 
with, from Lat. cum, with, and via, way; " convey " has the 
same ultimate origin [see CONVEYANCE], neither word being 



connected, as has sometimes been supposed, with Lat. con- 
vehere, to carry together) , a verb and noun now almost exclusively 
used in military and naval parlance. As a verb it signifies in the 
first instance to accompany or to escort; and in the i;th century 
we even hear of cavalry " convoying " infantry, but its meaning 
was soon complicated by the growing use of the word " convey " 
in the sense of " to carry," and as the usual task of an escort was 
that of accompanying and protecting vehicles containing supplies, 
the noun " convoy " (Fr. conitoi) was introduced and has thence- 
forward in land warfare meant a train of vehicles containing 
stores for the use of troops and its guard or escort. Sometimes 
even the word is found in the meaning of the train of vehicles 
without implying that there is an escort, so far has the original 
meaning become obscured; but the idea of military protection is 
always present, whether this protection is given by a separate 
escort or provided by the weapons of the drivers themselves. 

In naval warfare the term is used to describe a method 
adopted for defending merchant ships against capture. It was 
usually applied to the vessels to be protected as for example 
" the Baltic convoy," or " Captain Montray's convoy." Until 
the 1 7th century the English term was " to waft " and the 
warship employed to guard the traders on their way was called 
" a wafter." The practice of sailing in convoy for mutual 
protection was common in the middle ages, when all ships were 
more or less armed and the war vessel was not entirely differ- 
entiated from the trader. Thus the ships of the great German 
confederation of cities known as the Hanseatic League were 
required to sail in convoy. So were the six trading squadrons 
which sailed yearly from Venice. The masters of all the vessels 
were required to obey the authority of an officer who had the 
general command. In the i6th century the Spanish trade with 
America was compelled by law to sail in convoys (flotas) , in order 
to avoid the danger of capture by pirates to which single ships 
were exposed. In the I7th and i8th centuries the use of convoy 
was universal. Dutch, French or British ships were collected at 
a rendezvous, and were accompanied by warships till they reached 
the point at which they were compelled to separate in order to 
go to their various destinations. The main danger was near the 
enemy's ports. An example of the way the duty was discharged 
may be found in the Newfoundland convoy. They sailed from 
England under the direction of a naval officer and the protection 
of his ships, commonly a forty- or fifty-gun ship with a smaller 
vessel in attendance. The convoy sailed to the banks of 
Newfoundland. When they had filled up with stock fish, they 
were escorted across the Atlantic by the same officer. He 
accompanied those of them bound to the Mediterranean to the 
port of Leghorn, and, when they had unloaded and reloaded, saw 
them home. All cases were not so simple. The ships engaged in 
the East and West India trade, for instance, sailed together. In 
the Channel they were protected by the main strength of the 
fleet. When beyond the Scilly Islands they were left to the care 
of a smaller force, and continued together till in the neighbour- 
hood of Madeira, when they separated. Convoys were subject to 
attack in two forms, by strong squadrons which overpowered the 
guard, and by privateers, corsairs and isolated cruisers. Thb 
latter peril was much increased in the case of British commerce by 
the reluctance of the merchant captains to obey the naval officers. 
They were very much inclined to separate from the convoy as 
they approached their destination in the hope of forestalling 
rivals. As a natural consequence they were frequently captured 
by hostile privateers. French naval officers had authority and 
large powers of punishment over merchant skippers. The British 
naval officers had not. In 1803-34, on the renewal of the war with 
France, the British government saw the necessity for regulating 
convoy more strictly than had hitherto been the case. It 
therefore passed " an act for the better protection of the trade of 
the United Kingdom during the present hostilities with France." 
By this act (the 43rd Geo. III. Cap. 57) all vessels not exempted 
by special licence were required to sail in convoy and to conform 
to strict regulations, under penalties of 1000 (or, when the goods 
included government stores, of 1500) and the loss of all claim to 
insurance in case of capture. (D. H.) 

The object of convoying is to attach an official public character 
to the convoyed ships, i.e. a sort of assimilation of them to 
the escorting ship or ships of war. Thus European states and 
jurists hold that the declaration of the commander of the convoy, 
that there is no contraband of war on board the convoyed ships, 
pledges the national good faith, and must be assumed to be 
correct in the same way as it is assumed that the convoy itself is 
carrying no contraband of war. Great Britain has never taken 
this view. Down to 1907 she had maintained that it is materially 
impossible for any neutral state to exercise the necessary super- 
vision to secure absolute accuracy of the ship's papers. Number 
29, however, of the instructions given by the government to 
the British plenipotentiaries at the Hague Conference of 1907 
stated that " H.M. government would ... be glad to see the 
right of search limited in every practicable way, e.g. by the adop- 
tion of a system of consular certificates declaring the absence of 
contraband from the cargo. . . ." As the greater includes the 
smaller, we may assume that, if a consular certificate might 
suffice to exempt from the exercise of search, the state guarantee 
of a convoy would certainly suffice. The London Convention 
on the Laws and Customs of Naval War has laid down the rules 
as to convoys in the following terms: 

Neutral vessels under national convoy are exempt from search. 
The commander of a convoy gives, in writing, at the request of the 
commander of a belligerent warship, all information as to the 
character of the vessels and their cargoes, which could be obtained 
by search. Art. 61. 

If the commander of the belligerent warship has reason to suspect 
that the confidence of the commander of the convoy has been abused, 
he communicates his suspicions to him. In such a case it is for the 
commander of the convoy alone to investigate the matter. He must 
record the result of such investigation in a report, of which a copy is 
handed to the officer of the warship. If, in the opinion of the com- 
mander of the convoy, the facts shown in the report justify the cap- 
ture of one or more vessels, the protection of the convoy must be 
withdrawn from such vessels. Art. 62. (T. BA.) 

CONVULSIONS, the pathological condition of body associated 
with abnormal, violent and spasmodic contractions and relaxa- 
tions of the muscles, taking the form of a fit. Convulsions may be 
a symptom resulting from various diseases, but the term is 
commonly restricted to the infantile variety, occurring in 
association with teething, or other causes which upset the child's 
nervous system. The treatment (plunging into a hot bath, or 
administration of chloroform) must be prompt, as convulsions are 
responsible for a large part of infant mortality. 

The name " Convulsionaries " (Fr. Conindsionnaires) was 
given to certain Jansenist fanatics in France in the i8th century, 
owing to the convulsions, regarded by them as proofs of divine 
inspiration, which were the result of their religious ecstasies (see 
JANSENISM). The term " Convulsionists " is sometimes applied 
to them, as also, more loosely, to other religious enthusiasts who 
exhibit the same symptoms. 

CONWAY, HENRY SEYMOUR (1721-1795), English field 
marshal and statesman, was the second son of Francis Seymour, 
of Ragley, Warwickshire, who took the name of Conway on 
succeeding to the estates of the earl of Conway in 1699 and was 
created Baron Conway in 1703 (see SEYMOUR or ST MAUR). 
Henry Seymour Conway's elder brother, Francis, 2nd Baron 
Conway, was created marquess of Hertford in 1793; his mother 
was a sister of Sir Robert Walpole's wife, and he was therefore 
first cousin to Horace Walpole, with whom he was on terms of in- 
timate friendship throughout his life. Having entered the army 
at an early age, Conway was elected to the Irish parliament in 
1741 as member for Antrim, which he continued to represent 
for twenty years; in the same year he became a member of the 
English House of Commons, sitting for Higham Ferrers in 
Northamptonshire, and he remained in parliament, representing 
successively a number of different constituencies, almost without 
interruption for more than forty years. Meantime he saw much 
service in the army abroad, where he served with conspicuous 
bravery and not without distinction. In 1745 he became 
aide-de-camp to the duke of Cumberland 'in Germany, and was 
present at Fontenoy; in the following year he had command 
of a regiment at Culloden. In 1755 he went to Ireland as secretary 



to the lord-lieutenant, a position which he held for one year only; 
and on his return to England he received a court appointment, 
having already been promoted major-general. In 1757 he was 
associated with Sir John Mordaunt in command of an abortive 
expedition against Rochfort, the complete failure of which 
brought Conway into discredit and involved him in a pamphlet 
controversy. In 1759 he became lieutenant-general, and served 
under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick in the campaigns of 1761- 
1763. Returning to England he took part in the debates in 
parliament on the Wilkes case, in which he opposed the views 
of the court, speaking strongly against the legality of general 
warrants. His conduct in this matter highly incensed the king, 
who insisted on Conway being deprived of his military command 
as well as of his appointment in the royal household. His 
dismissal along with other officers was the occasion of another 
paper controversy in which Conway was defended by Horace 
Walpole, and gave rise to much constitutional dispute as to 
the right of the king to remove military officers for their conduct 
in parliament a right that was tacitly abandoned by the Crown 
when the Rockingham ministry of 1765 reinstated the officers 
who had been removed. 

In this ministry Conway took office as secretary of state, with 
the leadership of the House of Commons. In the dispute with 
the American colonies his sympathies were with the latter, and 
in 1766 he carried the repeal of the Stamp Act. When in July 
of that ypar Rockingham gave place to Chatham, Conway 
retained his office; and when Chatham became incapacitated by 
illness he tamely acquiesced in Townshend's reversal of the 
American policy which he himself had so actively furthered in 
the previous administration. In January 1768, offended by the 
growing influence of the Bedford faction which joined the govern- 
ment, Conway resigned the seals of office, though he was per- 
suaded by the king to remain a member of the cabinet and 
" Minister of the House of Commons." When, however, Lord 
North became premier in 1770, Conway resigned from the 
cabinet and was appointed to the command of the royal regiment 
of horse guards; and in 1772 he became governor of Jersey, 
the island being twice invaded by the French during his tenure 
of command. In 1780 and 1781 he took an active part in opposi- 
tion to Lord North's American policy, and it was largely as the 
result of his motion on the 2 2nd of February in the latter year, 
demanding the cessation of the war against the colonies, when 
the ministerial majority was reduced to one, that Lord North 
resigned office. In the Rockingham government that followed 
General Conway became commander-in-chief with a seat in the 
cabinet; and he retained office under Shelburne when Rocking- 
ham died a few months later. On Pitt's elevation to the premier- 
ship, Conway supported Fox in opposition; but after the 
dissolution of parliament in 1784 he retired from political life. 
He was made field marshal in 1 793 ,and died at Henley-on-Thames 
on the 9th of July 1795. Conway married in 1747 Caroline, 
daughter of General Campbell (afterwards duke of Argyll), and 
widow of the earl of Aylesbury. He had one daughter, Anne, 
who married John Darner, son of Lord Milton, and who inherited 
a life interest in Strawberry Hill under the will of Horace Walpole. 

Conway was personally one of the most popular men of his 
day. He was handsome, conciliatory and agreeable, and a 
man of refined taste and untarnished honour. As a soldier he 
was a dashing officer, but a poor general. He was weak, vacillat- 
ing and ineffective as a politician, lacking in judgment and 
decision, and without any great parliamentary talent. In his 
later years he dabbled in literature and the drama, and interested 
himself in arboriculture in his retirement at Henley-on-Thames. 

See Horace Walpole, Letters, edited by P. Cunningham (9 vols., 
London, 1857), many of the letters being addressed to Conway; 
Memoirs of the Last Ten Years of the Reign of George II. (2 vols., 
London, 1822); Memoirs of the Reign of George III., edited by Sir 
D. le Marchant (4 vols., London, 1845); Journal of the Reign of 
George III., 1771-1783 (2 vols., London, 1859). See also the duke 
of Buckingham and Chandos, Memoirs of the Court and Cabinets 
of George III. (4 vols., London, 1853). Much information about 
Conway will also be found in the biographies of his leading con- 
temporaries, Rockingham, Shelburne, Chatham, Pitt and Fox. 


CONWAY, HUGH, the nom-de-plume of FREDERICK JOHN 
FARGUS (1847-1885), English novelist, who was born at 
Bristol on the 26th of December 1847, the son of an auctioneer. 
He was intended for his father's business, but at the age of 
thirteen joined the training-ship "Conway" in the Mersey. 
In deference to his father's wishes, however, he gave up the idea 
of becoming a sailor, and returned to Bristol, where he was 
articled to a firm of accountants till on his father's death in 
1868 he took over the family business. While a clerk he had 
written the words for various songs, adopting the nom-de-plume 
Hugh Conway in memory of his days on the training-ship. Mr 
Arrowsmith, the Bristol printer and publisher, took an interest 
in his work, and Fargus's first short story appeared in Arrow- 
smith's Miscellany. In 1883 Fargus published through Arrow- 
smith his first long story, Called Back, of which over 350,000 
copies were sold within four years. A dramatic version of this 
book was produced in London in 1884, and in this year Fargus 
published another story, Dark Days. Ordered to the Riviera 
for his health, he caught typhoid fever, and died at Monte Carlo 
on the 1 5th of May 1885. Several other books from his pen 
appeared posthumously, notably A Family Affair. 

CONWAY, MONCURE DANIEL (1832-1907), American 
clergyman and author, was born of an old Virginia family in 
Stafford county, Virginia, on the I7th of March 1832. He 
graduated at Dickinson College in 1849, studied law for a year, 
and then became a Methodist minister in his native state. In 
1852, owing largely to the influence of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
his religious and political views underwent a radical change, and 
he entered the Harvard Divinity School, where he graduated 
in 1854. Here he fell under the influence of "transcendentalism," 
and became an outspoken abolitionist. On his return to 
Virginia this fact and his rumoured connexion with the attempt 
to rescue the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston aroused 
the bitter hostility of his old neighbours and friends, and in 
consequence he left the state. In 1854-1856 he was pastor of 
a Unitarian church at Washington, D.C., but his anti-slavery 
views brought about his dismissal. From 1856 to 1861 he was a 
Unitarian minister in Cincinnati, Ohio, where, also, he edited 
a short-lived liberal periodical called The Dial. Subsequently 
he was an editor of the Commonwealth in Boston, Mass., and 
wrote The Rejected Stone (1861) and The Golden Hour (1862), 
both powerful pleas for emancipation. In 1862-1863, during 
the Civil War, he lectured in England in behalf of the North. 
From 1863 to 1884 he was the minister of the South Place chapel, 
Finsbury, London; and during this time wrote frequently for 
the London press. In 1884 he returned to the United States 
to devote himself to literary work. In addition to those above 
mentioned, his publications include Tracts for To-day (1858), 
The Natural History of the Devil (1859), Testimonies Concerning 
Slavery (1864), The Earthward Pilgrimage (1870), Republican 
Superstitions (1872), Idols and Ideals (1871), Demonology and 
Devil Lore (2 vols., 1878), A Necklace of Stories (1879), Thomas 
Carlyle (1881), The Wandering Jew (1881), Emerson at Home and 
Abroad (1882), Pine and Palm (2 vols., 1887), Life and Papers of 
Edmund Randolph (1888), The Life of Thomas Paine with an 
unpublished sketch of Paine by William Cobbett (2 vols., 1892), 
Solomon and Solomonic Literature (1899), his Autobiography 
(2 vols., 1900), and My Pilgrimage to the Wise Men of the East 
(1906). Conway died on the isth of November 1907. 

CONWAY, SIR WILLIAM MARTIN (1856- ), English art 
critic and mountaineer, son of the Rev. William Conway, after- 
wards canon of Westminster, was born at Rochester, and was 
educated at Repton and at Trinity College, Cambridge. He 
became interested in early printing and engraving, and in 1880 
made a tour of the principal libraries of Europe in pursuit of his 
studies, the result appearing in 1884 as a History of the Wood- 
cutters of the Netherlands in the Fifteenth Century. His later works 
on art included Early Flemish Artists (1887); The Literary 
Remains of Albrecht Diirer (1889); The Dawn of Art in the 
Ancient World (1891), dealing with Chaldaean, Assyrian and 
Egyptian art; Early Tuscan Artists (1902). From 1884 to 1887 
he was professor of art at University College, Liverpool; and in 


1901-1904 he was Slade professor of the fine arts at Cambridge. 
He was knighted in 1895. Sir Martin Conway early became a 
member of the Alpine Club, of which he was president from 1902 
to 1904. In 1892 he beat the climbing record by ascending to a 
height of 23,000 ft. in the Himalayas in the course of an exploring 
and mountaineering expedition undertaken .under the auspices 
of the Royal Society, the Royal Geographical Society and the 
British Association. In 1896-1897 he explored the interior of 
Spitsbergen, and in the next year he explored and surveyed the 
Bolivian Andes, climbing Sorata (21,500 ft.) and Illimani 
(21,200 ft.). He also ascended Aconcagua (23,080 ft.) and 
explored Tierra del Fuego. At the Paris exhibition of 1900 he 
received the gold medal for mountain surveys, and the founder's 
medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1905. His expedi- 
tions are described in his Climbing and Exploration in the Kara- 
Koram Himalayas (1894), The Alps from End to End (1895), The 
First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897), The Bolivian Andes (1901), 
&c.; No Man's Land, a History of Spitsbergen from . . . 1596 . . . 
was published in 1906. 

CONWAY {Convoy, or Abercomvy), a municipal borough in the 
Arfon parliamentary division of Carnarvonshire, N. Wales, 14 m. 
by the London & North-Western railway from Bangor, and 225 
m.N.W. from London. Pop. (1901) 4681. The town isenclosed 
by a high wall, roughly triangular, about i m. round, with 
twenty-one dilapidated round towers, pierced by three principal 
gateways with two strong towers. The castle in the south-east 
angle, built in 1284 by Edward I., was inhabited, in 1389, by 
Richard II., who here agreed to abdicate. Held for Charles I. by 
Archbishop Williams, it was taken by General Mytton in 1646. 
Dismantled by the new proprietor, Earl Conway, it remains a 
ruin. It is oblong, with eight massive towers, and has, within, a 
hall 130 ft. in length, known as Llewelyn's. The parliamentary 
borough of Conway .returning, with five other towns,one member, 
extends over to the right bank of the stream Conwy (Conway). 
In 1885 the mayor of Conway was made a constable. Llandudno 
with Great and Little Orme's Heads are at some 4 m. distance. 
Two bridges, a tubular for the railway (40 ft. shorter than that of 
the Menai) and a suspension, designed by Stephenson (1846- 
1848) and Telford (1822-1826) respectively, cross the stream. 
St Mary's church is Gothic; the Elizabethan Plas Mawr is the 
locale of the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. There are still 
some fragments of the 1185 Cistercian Abbey. There are golf 
links here and at Llandudno. The Conwy stream, on which a 
steamboat runs from Deganwy (2m. below Conway town) to 
Trefriw, opposite Llanrwst, in summer, has some coasting trade 
in sulphur and slates. It is about 30 m. long, its valley (a 
haunt of artists) containing the towns last mentioned and 
Bettws y coed. Its pearls are mentioned in Drayton's Polyolbion 
and Spenser's Faerie Queene. Pearl fisheries existed at Conway 
for many centuries, dating back to the Roman occupation. 
Tacitus, Agricola, 12, says of Britain " gignit et Oceanus 
margarita, sed subfusca ac liventia," as are those found to-day. 
Diganhwy (Dyganwy, Deganwy) is mentioned in the Mabinogion 
(Geraint and Enid), if the reading is sound; it is certainly 
mentioned in the Annales Cambriae (years 812-822) and in the 
Black Book of Caerfyrddin (Carmarthen), xxiii. i. Caer-hyn, 4^ 
m. from Conway, is on the highroad from London to Holyhead, 
and is the Conovium of the Romans. The site of the camp can 
still be traced, consisting of a square, strengthened by four 
parallel walls, extending to a distance from the main work. 
The camp is on a height, with the Conwy in front and a wood on 
each flank. At the foot of the hill, near the stream, was a Roman 
bath, with walls, pavement and pillars. Camden's Britannia 
mentions tiles, with marks of the loth or Antoninus's legion, 
as being found here, perhaps mistakenly. Gleini nadroedd 
(possibly amulets) and vitrum have been found here. In Bwlch y 
ddwy faen (" two rock ravine "), on the way to Aber, are the 
remains of a Roman road and antiquities. 

CONYBEARE, WILLIAM DANIEL (1787-1857), dean of 
Llandaff, one of the most distinguished of English geologists, who 
was born in London on the 7th of June 1787, was a grandson of 
John Conybeare, bishopof Bristol (1692-1755)^ notable preacher 

and divine, and son of Dr William Conybeare, rector of Bishops- 
gate. Educated first at Westminster school, he went in 1805 to 
Christ Church, Oxford, where in 1808 he took his degree of B.A., 
with a first in classics and second in mathematics, and proceeded 
to M.A. three years later. Having entered holy orders he 
became in 1814 curate of Wardington, near Banbury, and he 
accepted also a lectureship at Brislington near Bristol. During 
this period he was one of the founders of the Bristol Philosophi- 
cal Institution (1822). He was rector of Sully in Glamorganshire 
from 1823. to 1836, and vicar of Axminster from 1836 to 1844. 
He was appointed Bampton lecturer in 1839, and was instituted 
to the deanery of Llandaff in 1845. Attracted to the study of 
geology by the lectures of Dr John Kidd (q.v.) he pursued the 
subject with ardour. As soon as he had left college he made 
extended journeys in Britain and on the continent, and he 
became one of the early members of the Geological Society. 
Both Buckland and Sedgwick acknowledged their indebtedness 
to him for instruction received when they first began to devote 
attention to geology. To the Transactions of the Geological 
Society as well as to the Annals of Philosophy and Philosophical 
Magazine he contributed many geological memoirs. In 1821 he 
distinguished himself by the description of a skeleton of the 
Plesiosaurus, discovered by Mary Anning, and his account has 
been confirmed in all main points by subsequent researches. 
Among his most important memoirs is that on the south-western 
coal district of England,written in conjunction with Dr Buckland, 
and published in 1824. He wrote also on the valley of the Thames, 
on Elie de Beaumont's theory of mountain-chains, and on the 
great landslip which occurred near Lyme Regis in 1839 when 
he was vicar of Axminster. His principal work, however, is the 
Outlines of the Geology of England and Wales (182 2), being a second 
edition of the small work issued by William Phillips (q.v.) and 
written in co-operation with that author. The original contribu- 
tions of Conybeare formed the principal portion of this edition, 
of which only Part I., dealing with the Carboniferous and newer 
strata, was published. It affords evidence throughout of the 
extensive and accurate knowledge possessed by Conybeare; 
and it exercised a marked influence on the progress of geology 
in this country. He was a fellow of the Royal Society and a 
corresponding member of the Institute of France. In 1844 he 
was awarded the Wollaston medal by the Geological Society of 
London. The loss of his eldest son, W. J. Conybeare, preyed on 
his mind and hastened his end. He died at Itchenstoke, near 
Portsmouth, a few months after his son, on the I2th of August 
1857. (Obituary in Gent. Mag. Sept. 1857, p. 335.) 

His elder brother JOHN JOSIAS CONYBEARE (1779-1824), also 
educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and an accomplished scholar, 
became vicar of Batheaston, and was professor of Anglo-Saxon 
and afterwards of poetry at Oxford. He likewise was an ardent 
student of geology and communicated several important papers 
to the Annals of Philosophy and the Transactions of the Geological 
Society of London. (Obituary in Ann. Phil. vol. viii., Sept. 
1824, p. 162.) 

CONYBEARE, WILLIAM JOHN (1815-1857), English divine, 
son of Dean W. D. Conybeare, was born on the ist of August 
1815, and was educated at Westminster and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he was elected fellow in 1837. From 1842 
to 1848 he was principal of the Liverpool Collegiate Institution, 
which he left for the vicarage of Axminster. He published 
Essays, Ecclesiastical and Social, in 1856, and a novel, Perversion, 
or the Causes and Consequences of Infidelity, but is best known as 
the joint author (with J. S. Howson) of The Life and Epistles 
of St Paul (1851). He died at Weybridge in 1857. 

COODE, SIR JOHN (1816-1892), English engineer, was born 
at Bodmin, Cornwall, on the nth of November 1816, the son 
of a solicitor. After considerable experience as an engineer in 
the west of England he came to London, and from 1844-1847 
had a consulting practice in Westminster. In the latter yedr 
he was appointed resident engineer in charge of the extensive 
national harbour works at Portland then in progress. In 1856 
he was appointed engineer-in-chief of this undertaking, and this 
post he retained till the completion of the works in 1872. His 


services at Portland were rewarded with a knighthood. He was 
now recognized as the leading authority on harbour construction, 
and his advice was sought by many of the colonial governments, 
especially by those of South Africa and Australia, and by the 
Indian government. After the Portland harbour his best-known 
work is the harbour of Colombo, Ceylon. He was made a 
K.C.M.G. in 1886. From 1884 till his death he was a member 
of the Suez Canal Commission, and from 1889-1891 president 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers. He died at Brighton on 
the 2nd of March 1892. 

scholar, was born on the 6th of March 1853 in Montville, Morris 
county, New Jersey. He graduated at Rutgers College in 1872, 
and also studied at Gottingen and Leipzig (1877-1878), and, 
after spending the years 1879-1881 as associate in English 
at Johns Hopkins University, in London, and under Sievers 
at Jena, he became in 1882 professor of English in the University 
of California, and in 1889 professor of English language and 
literature in Yale University. He re-organized the teaching 
of English in the state of California, and edited many texts for 
reading in secondary schools; but he is best known for his work 
in Old English and in poetics. He translated, edited, and 
revised Sievers' Old English Grammar (1885), edited Judith 
(1888), The Christ of Cynewulf (1900), Asser's Life of King Alfred 
(1905), and The Dream of the Rood (1905), and prepared A First 
Book in Old English Grammar (1894). He also edited, with 
annotations, Sidney's Defense of Poesie (1890); Shelley's Defense 
of Poetry (1891); Newman's Poetry (1891); Addison's Criticisms 
on Paradise Lost (1892); The Art of Poetry (1892), being the 
essays of Horace, Vida and Boilcau; and Leigh Hunt's What is 
Poetry (1893); and published Higher Study of English (1906). 

COOK, EDWARD DUTTON (1829-1883), English dramatic 
critic and author, was born in London on the 3oth of January 
1829, the son of a solicitor. He was educated at King's College 
school, London, and, after four years in his father's office, obtained 
a situation in the London office of a railway company, at first 
utilizing only his spare time in literary work, but eventually 
devoting himself entirely to literature. He was dramatic critic 
of the Pall Mall Gazette from 1867 to 1875, and of the World 
from 1875 till his death. He also wrote freely on art topics, 
and was the author of several novels. He died in London on 
the nth of September 1883. 

COOK, ELIZA (1818-1889), English author, was born on the 
24th of December 1818, in Southwark, being the daughter of a 
local tradesman. She was self-taught, and began when a girl 
to write poetry for the Weekly Dispatch and New Monthly. In 
1838 she published Melaia and other Poems, and from 1849 to 
1854 conducted a paper for family reading called Eliza Cook's 
Journal. She also published Jottings from my Journal (1860), 
and New Echoes (1864); and in 1863 she was given a civil list 
pension of 100 a year. As the author of a single poem, " The 
Old Armchair," Eliza Cook's name was for a generation after 
1838 a household word both in England and in America, her 
kindly domestic sentiment making her a great favourite with the 
working-class and middle-class public. She died at Wimbledon 
on the 23rd of September 1889. 

COOK, JAMES (1728-1779), English naval captain and 
explorer, was born on the 28th of October 1728, at Marton 
village, Cleveland, Yorkshire, where his father was first an 
agricultural labourer and then a farm bailiff. At twelve years 
of age he was apprenticed to a haberdasher at Staithes, near 
Whitby, and afterwards to Messrs Walker, shipowners, of 
Whitby, whom he served for years in the Norway, Baltic and 
Newcastle trades. 

In 1755, having risen to be a mate, Cook joined the royal 
navy, and after four years' service was, on the recommendation 
of Sir Hugh Palliser, his commander, appointed master suc- 
cessively of the sloop " Grampus," of the " Garland " and of the 
" Solebay," in the last of which he served in the St Lawrence. 
He was employed also in sounding and surveying the river, and 
he published a chart of the channel from Quebec to the sea. In 
1762 he was present at the recapture of Newfoundland, and was 

employed in surveying portions of this coast (especially Placentia 
Harbour); in 1763, on Palliser becoming governor of Newfound- 
land, Cook was appointed " marine surveyor of the coast of 
Newfoundland and Labrador"; this office he held till 1767; 
and the volumes of sailing directions he now brought out (1766- 
1 768) showed remarkable abilities. At the same time he began 
to make his reputation as a mathematician and astronomer by 
his observation of the solar eclipse of the sth of August 1766, 
at one of the Burgeo Islands, near Cape Ray, and by his account 
of the same in the Philosophical Transactions (vol. Ivii. pp. 

In 1768 Cook was appointed to conduct an expedition, 
suggested by the revival of geographical interest now noticeable, 
and resolved on by the English admiralty at the instance of the 
Royal Society, for observing the impending transit of Venus, and 
prosecuting geographical researches in the South Pacific Ocean. 
For these purposes he received a commission as lieutenant (May 
25th), and set sail in the " Endeavour," of 370 tons, accompanied 
by several men of science, including Sir Joseph Banks (August 
25th). On the I3th of April 1769, he reached Tahiti, where he 
observed the transit on the 3rd of June. From Tahiti he sailed in 
quest of the great continent then supposed to exist in the South 
Pacific, explored the Society Islands, and thence struck to New 
Zealand, whose coasts he circumnavigated and examined with 
great care for six months, charting them for the first time with 
fair accuracy, and especially observing the channel (" Cook 
Strait ") which divided the North and South Islands. His 
attempts to penetrate to the interior, however, were thwarted by 
native hostility. From New Zealand he proceeded to " New 
Holland " or Australia, and surveyed with the same minuteness 
and accuracy the whole east coast. New South Wales he named 
after a supposed resemblance to Glamorganshire; Botany Bay, 
sighted on the 28th of April 1770, was so called by the 
naturalists of the expedition. On account of the hostility of the 
natives his discoveries here also were confined to the coast, of 
which he took possession for Great Britain. From Australia 
Cook sailed to Batavia, satisfying himself upon the way that (as 
Torres had first shown in 1607) New Guinea was in no way an 
outlying part of the greater land mass to the south. 

Arriving in England, by way of the Cape of Good Hope, on the 
1 2th of June, Cook was made a commander, and soon after was 
appointed to command another expedition for examining and 
determining once for all the question of the supposed great 
southern continent. With the " Resolution " of 462 tons, the 
" Adventure " (Captain Furneaux) of 330 tons, and 193 men, 
he sailed from Plymouth on the i3th of July 1772; he touched at 
the Cape of Good Hope, and striking thence south-east (November 
22nd) passed the Antarctic Circle (January i6th, 1773), repassed ' 
the same, and made his way to New Zealand (March 26th) 
without discovering land. From New Zealand he resumed his 
" search for a continent,".working up and down across the South 
Pacific, and penetrating to 67 31' and again to 71 10' S., with 
imminent risk of destruction from floating ice, but with the 
satisfaction of disproving the possibility of the disputed con- 
tinent in the seas south-eastward of New Zealand. He then 
made for Easter Island, whose exact position he determined, for 
the first time, with accuracy; noticing and describing the gigantic 
statues which Roggewein, the first discoverer of the island, had 
made known. In the same manner he accomplished a better 
determination and examination of the Marquesas, as well as of 
the Tonga or Friendly Islands, than had yet been made; and 
after a stay at Tahiti to rest and refit, crossed the central Pacific 
to the " New Hebrides," as he renamed Quiros's " Southern 
Land of the Holy Spirit " (a name preserved in the modern 
island of Espiritu Santo), called by Bougainville the " Great 
Cyclades " (Grandes Cyclades), whose position, extent, divisions 
and character were now verified as never before. Next followed 
the wholly new discoveries of New Caledonia, Norfolk Island, 
and the Isle of Pines. Another visit to New Zealand, and yet 
another examination of the far southern Pacific, which was 
crossed from west to east through the whole of its extent, from 
south Australia to Tierra del Fuego. were now undertaken by 


Cook before he finally closed his work in refutation of the Ant- 
arctic continent, as previously understood, on this side of the 
world. The voyage closed with a rapid survey of the " Land of 
Fire," the rounding of Cape Horn, the rediscovery of the island 
now named Southern Georgia, the discovery of Sandwich Land, 
the crossing of the South Atlantic (here also exploding the great 
Terra Australis delusion), and visits to the Cape of Good Hope, 
St Helena, Ascension, Fernando Noronha and the Azores. 
The voyage (reckoning only from the Cape of Good Hope and 
back to the same) had covered considerably more than 20,000 
leagues, nearly three times the equatorial circumference of the 
earth; it left the main outlines of the southern portions of the 
globe substantially as they are known to-day; and it showed a 
possibility of keeping a number of men for years at sea without a 
heavy toll of lives. Cook only lost one man out of 118 in more 
than 1000 days; he had conquered scurvy. 

The discoverer reached Plymouth on the 25th of July 1775, 
and his achievements were promptly, if meanly, rewarded. He 
was immediately raised to the rank of post-captain, appointed a 
captain in Greenwich hospital, and soon afterwards unanimously 
elected a member of the Royal Society, from which he received 
the Copley gold medal for the best experimental paper which had 
appeared during the year. 

Cook's third and last voyage was primarily to settle the 
question ofcthe north-west passage, practically abandoned since 
before the middle of the i7th century, but now taken up again, as 
a matter of scientific interest, by the British government. The 
explorer, who had volunteered for this service, was instructed to 
sail first into the Pacific through the chain of the newly dis- 
covered islands which he had recently visited, and on reaching 
New Albion to proceed northward as far as latitude 65 and 
endeavour to find a passage to the Atlantic. Several ships were 
at the same time fitted out to attempt a passage on the other side 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Sailing from the Nore on the 
25th of June 1776 (Plymouth, July 12), with the " Resolution " 
and " Discovery," and touching at the Cape of Good Hope, 
which he left on the 3oth of November, Cook next made Tasmania 
and thence passed on to New Zealand and the Tonga and Society 
Islands, discovering on his way several of the larger members of 
the Hervey or Cook Archipelago, especially Mangaia and Aitutaki 
(March 3oth- April 4th, 1777) ; some smaller isles of this group he 
had already sighted on his second voyage, September 23rd, 
1773. From Tahiti, as he moved north towards the main object 
of his expedition, he made a far more important discovery, or 
rather rediscovery, that of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands, 
the greatest and most remarkable of the Polynesian archipelagos 
(early February 1778). These had perhaps first been seen by the 
Spanish navigator Gaetano in 1555; but their existence had been 
kept a close secret by Spain at the time, and had long been 
forgotten. Striking the west American coast in 44 55' N. on the 
7th of March following, he made an almost continuous survey of 
the same up to Bering Straits and beyond, as far as 70 41', 
where he found the passage barred by a wall, or rather continent, 
of ice, rising 12 ft. above water, and stretching as far as the eye 
could reach. The farthest point visible on the American shore 
(in the extreme north-west of Alaska) he called Icy Cape. On 
his way towards Bering Straits he discovered and named King 
George's (" Nootka ") and Prince William's Sound, as well as 
Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost extremity of North 
America, never yet seen by English navigators, but well known 
to Russian explorers, who probably first sighted it in 1648; he 
also penetrated into the bay afterwards known as Cook's Inlet 
or River, which at first seemed to promise a passage to the 
Arctic Seas, to the south-east of the Alaska peninsula. Cook 
next visited the Asiatic shores of Bering Straits (the extreme 
north-east of Siberia); returning to America, he explored 
Norton Sound, north of the Yukon; touched at (Aleutian) 
Unalaska, where he met with some Russian-American settlers; 
and thence made his way back to the Hawaiian group, which he 
had christened after his friend and patron Lord Sandwich, then 
head of the British admiralty (January i7th, 1779). Here he 
visited Maui and Hawaii itself, whose size and importance he now 

first realized, and in one of whose bays (Kealakekua) he met his 
death early in the morning of the 1 4th of February 1779. During 
the night of the i3th, one of the " Discovery's " boats was stolen 
by the natives; and Cook, in order to recover it, made trial of 
his favourite expedient of seizing the king's person until repara- 
tion should be made. Having landed on the following day with 
some marines, a scuffle ensued which compelled the party to 
retreat to their boats. Cook was the last to retire; and as he was 
nearing the shore he received a blow from behind which felled him 
to the ground. He rose immediately, and vigorously resisted the 
crowds that pressed upon him, but was soon overpowered. 

Had Cook returned from his third voyage, there is ground for 
believing King George would have made him a baronet. Dis- 
tinguished honours were paid to his memory, both at home and 
by foreign courts, and a pension was settled upon his widow. 
But in his life a very inadequate share of official reward was 
dealt out to the man who not only may be placed first among 
British maritime discoverers, but also gave his country her title, 
and so her colonies, in Australasia. As a commander, an observer 
and a practical physician, his merits were equally great. Re- 
ference has been made to his survey work and to his victory over 
scurvy; it must not be forgotten that along with a commanding 
personal presence, and with sagacity, decision and perseverance 
quite extraordinary, went other qualities not less useful to his 
work. He won the affection of those who served under him by 
sympathy, kindness and unselfish care of others as noteworthy 
as his gifts of intellect. 

See the Account of a Voyage round the World in 1769-1771, by Lieut. . 
James Cook, in vols. ii. and iii. of Hawkesworth's Voyages (1773); 
the Voyage towards the South Pole and round the World ... tn ... 
1772-1775, written by James Cook . . . (1777); a Voyage to the 
Pacific Ocean . . . in 17761780, vols. i. and ii. written by Cook 
(1784); also the Narrative of the Voyages round the World performed 
by Captain James Cook, by A. Kippis, D.D., F.R.S. (1788), long the 
standard life of the navigator, but now superseded by Arthur 
Kitson's Captain James Cook, the Circumnavigator (1907). (C. R. B.) 

COOK, THOMAS (1808-1892), English travelling agent, was 
born at Melbourne in Derbyshire on the 22nd of November 1808. 
Beginning work at the age of ten, he was successively a gardener's 
help and a wood-turner at Melbourne, and a printer at Lough- 
borough. At the age of twenty he became a Bible-reader and 
village missionary for the county of Rutland; but in 1832, on 
his marriage, combined his wood-turning business with that 
occupation. In 1836 he became a total abstainer, and sub- 
sequently became actively associated with the temperance 
movement, and printed at his own expense various publications 
in its interest, notably the Children's Temperance Magazine 
(1840), the first of its kind to appear in England. In June 1841 
a large meeting was to be held at Loughborough in connexion 
with this movement, and Cook was struck with the idea of getting 
the Midland CountiesRailwayCompany to run a special train from 
Leicester to the meeting. The company consented, and on the 5th 
of July there were carried 570 passengers from Leicester to Lough- 
borough and back at a shilling a head. This is believed to be the 
first publicly-advertised excursion train ever run in England 
private " specials," reserved for members of institutes and similar 
bodies, were already in use. The event caused great excitement, 
and Cook received so many applications to organize similar 
parties that he henceforward deserted wood-turning, while 
continuing his printing and publishing. The summers of the 
next three years were occupied with excursions like the first; 
but in 1845 Cook advertised a pleasure-trip on a more extensive 
scale, from Leicester to Liverpool and back, with opportunities 
for visiting the Isle of Man, Dublin and Welsh coast. A Hand- 
book of the Trip to Liverpool was supplied for the use of travellers. 
In the previous year Cook had entered into a permanent arrange- 
ment with the Midland Railway Company to place trains at 
his disposal, for which he should provide the passengers. A 
trip to Scotland followed, and the excursionists were received 
in Glasgow with music and salute of guns. 

The next great impetus to popular travel was given by the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, which Cook helped 165,000 visitors 
to attend. On the occasion of the Paris exhibition of 1855 there 



was a Cook's excursion from Leicester to Calais and back for 
i:ios. The following year saw the first grand circular tour 
in Europe. This part of Cook's activity largely increased after 

1863, when the Scottish railway managers broke off their 
engagements with him, and left him free for more distant 
enterprise. Switzerland was opened up in 1863, and Italy in 

1864. Up to this time " Cook's tourists " had been personally 
conducted, but now he began to be an agent for the sale of 
English and foreign tickets, the holders of which travelled in- 
dependently. Switzerland was the first foreign country accessible 
under these conditions, and in 1865 nearly the whole of Europe 
was included in the scheme. Its extension to the United States 
followed in 1866. For the benefit of visitors to the Paris ex- 
hibition, Cook made a fresh departure and leased a hotel there. 
In the same year began his system of " hotel-coupons," providing 
accommodation at a fixed charge. The year 1869 was marked 
by an extension of Cook's tours to Palestine, followed by further 
developments of travel in the East, his son, John Mason Cook, 
(1834-1899), being appointed in 1870 agent of the khedivial 
government for passenger traffic on the Nile. The Franco- 
German War of 1870-1871 was expected to damage the tourist 
system, but, as a matter of fact, encouraged it, through the de- 
mand for combination, international tickets enabling travellers 
to reach the south of Europe without crossing the belligerent 
countries. At the termination of the war a party of American 
freemasons visited Paris under J. M. Cook's guidance, and became 
the precursors of the present vast American tourist traffic. At 
the beginning of 1872 J. M. Cook entered into formal partnership 
with his father, and the firm first took the name of Thomas 
Cook&Son. In i882,ontheoutbreakof Arabi Pasha's rebellion, 
Thomas Cook & Son were commissioned to convey Sir Garnet 
Wolseley and his suite to Egypt, and to transport the wounded 
and sick up the Nile by water, for which they received the thanks 
of the war office. The firm was again employed in 1 884 to convey 
General Gordon to the Sudan, and the whole of the men (18,000) 
and stores necessary for the expedition afterwards sent to relieve 
him. In 1889 Thomas Cook & Son acquired the exclusive right 
of carrying the mails, specie, soldiers and officials of the Egyptian 
government along the Nile. In 1891 the firm celebrated its 
jubilee, and on the igth of July of the following year Thomas 
Cook died. He had been afflicted with blindness in his declining 
years. His son, J. M. Cook, died in 1899, leaving three sons, all 
actively engaged in the business. 

COOK or HERVEY ISLANDS, an archipelago in the Pacific 
Ocean, lying mainly between 155 and 160 E., and about 20 S.; 
a dependency of the British colony of New Zealand. It com- 
prises nine partly volcanic, partly coralline, islands, the more 
important of which are Rarotonga, hilly, fertile and well watered, 
with several cones 300 to 400 ft. high, above which towers the 
majestic Rarotonga volcano (2920 ft.), the culminating point 
of the archipelago; Mangaia (Mangia); Aitutaki, with luxuriant 
cocoa-nut palm groves; Atui (Vatui); Mitiero; Mauki; 
Fenuaiti; and the two Hervey Islets, which give an alternative 
name to the group. The total land area is in sq. m. Owing 
to its healthy, equable climate, the archipelago is well suited 
for European settlement; but the dangerous fringing coral 
reefs render it difficult of access, and it suffers also from the 
absence of good harbours. The natives, who are of Polynesian 
stock and speech, have legends of their emigration from Samoa. 
They say their ancestors found black people on the islands, and 
the strongly Melanesian type which is found, especially on 
Mangaia, supports the statement. The Cook Islanders were 
formerly man-hunters and cannibals, but they now are nearly 
all Protestants, wear European dress and live in stone houses. 
The total population is about 6200. Since 1890 the islands have 
enjoyed a general legislature and an executive council of which 
the Arikis (" kings " and " queens ") are members. But all 
enactments are subject to the approval of the British resident 
at Rarotonga, and a British protectorate, proclaimed in 1888, 
was followed by the annexation of the whole archipelago by the 
governor of New Zealand, by proclamation of June loth, 1901. 
The archipelago was discovered by Captain Cook in 1777, and 

in 1823 became the scene of the remarkable missionary labours 
of John Williams, of the London Missionary Society. The 
chief products of the group are cocoanuts, fruits, coffee and 
copra. Lime-juice and hats are made. 

COOKE, GEORGE FREDERICK (1756-1811), English actor, 
was- born in London, and made his first appearance on the stage 
in Brentford at the age of twenty as Dumont in Jane Shore. 
His first London appearance was at the Haymarket in 1778, but 
it was not until 1794 in Dublin, as Othello, that he attained 
high rank in his profession. In 1801 he appeared in London as 
Richard III., lago, Shylock and Sir Giles Overreach; and became 
the rival of Kemble, with whom, however, and with Mrs Siddons, 
he acted from 1803. His intemperate habits unfortunately grew 
more and more notorious, and on at least one occasion the curtain 
had to be rung down owing to the audience hissing his drunken 
condition. He visited the United States in 1810, and died in 
New York on the 26th of September 1811. A monument to his 
memory was erected in St Paul's churchyard there by Edmund 

COOKE, JAY (1821-1905), American financier, was born at 
Sandusky, Ohio, on the loth of August 1821, the son of Eleu- 
theros Cooke (1787-1864), a pioneer Ohio lawyer, and Whig 
member of Congress from that state in 1831-1*33. Being 
destined for a commercial career, Jay Cooke received a pre- 
liminary training in a trading house in St Louis, and in the 
booking office of a transportation company in Philadelphia, and 
at the age of eighteen entered the Philadelphia house of E.W. 
Clark & Company, one of the largest private banking firms in 
the country. He showed such aptitude for business that three 
years later he was admitted to membership in the firm, and 
before he was thirty he was also a partner in the New York and 
St Louis branches of the Clarks. In 1858 he retired from the 
firm, and for the next three years he devoted himself to reorganiz- 
ing some of the abandoned Pennsylvania railways and canals and 
placing them again in operation. On the ist of January 1861 he 
opened in Philadelphia the private banking house of Jay Cooke 
& Company, and soon achieved signal success in floating at par 
a war loan of $3,000,000 for the state of Pennsylvania, whose 
credit had become notoriously bad. In the early months of the 
Civil War Cooke co-operated with the secretary of the treasury, 
Salmon P. Chase, in securing loans from the leading bankers in 
the Northern cities, and his own firm was so successful in dis- 
tributing treasury notes that Chase engaged him as special agent 
for the sale of the $500,000,000 of So-called " five-twenty " 
bonds authorized by the act of the 25th of February 1862. To 
dispose of these bonds the treasury department had already tried 
every regular means at its command and had failed. Cooke 
secured the influence of the American press, appointed 2500 
sub-agents, and before the machinery he set in motion could be 
stopped he had sold $11,000,000 more of bonds than had been 
authorized, an excess which Congress immediately sanctioned. 
At the same time he used all his influence in favour of the estab- 
lishment of national banks, and organized a national bank at 
Washington and another at Philadelphia almost as soon as such 
institutions were authorized by Congress. In the early months of 
1865, when the needs of the government were pressing, and the 
sale of the new " seven-thirty " notes by the national banks had 
been very disappointing, Cooke's services were again secured. 
He sent agents into the remotest villages and hamlets, and even 
into the isolated mining camps of the West, and caused the rural 
newspapers to praise the loan. As a result, between February and 
July 1865 he had disposed of three series of the notes, reaching a 
total of $830,000,000. Through these efforts the Union soldiers 
were well supplied and well paid while dealing the final blows of 
the war; and, later, with money in their pockets, they were 
disbanded without difficulty. 

After the war Cooke became interested in the development of 
the North-west, and in 1870 his firm undertook to finance the 
construction of the Northern Pacific railway. In advancing the 
money for the work, the firm over-estimated the possibilities of 
its capital, and at the approach of the financial crisis of 1873 it 
was forced to suspend. By 1880 Cooke had discharged all his 



obligations, and through an investment in a silver mine in Utah 
had again become wealthy. He died at Ogontz, Pennsylvania, 
on the i8th of February 1905. Cooke was noted for his piety, 
and gave regularly a tenth of his income for religious and charit- 
able purposes. His handsome estate at Ogontz, which he had 
been compelled to give up during his bankruptcy, he later 
repurchased and converted into a school for girls. 

See E. P. Oberholtzer, Jay Cooke, Financier of the Civil War 
(Phikdelphia, 1907). 

COOKE, ROSE TERRY (1827-1892), American writer, nee 
Terry, was born at West Hartford, Connecticut, on the i7th of 
February 1827. She published in 1860 a volume of Poems, but 
after her marriage in 1873 to Rollin H. Cooke she was best known 
for her fresh and humorous stories, though in 1888 she published 
more verse in her Complete Poems. The chief volumes of fiction 
dealing mainly with New England country life, produced by 
Rose Terry Cooke, were Happy Dodd (1878), Somebody's 
Neighbors (1881), Root-bound (1885), The Sphinx's Children 
(1886), Steadfast (1889) and Huckleberries (1891). She died at 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts, on the i8th of July 1892. 

COOKERY (Lat. coquus, a cook), the art of preparing and 
dressing food of all sorts for human consumption, of converting 
the raw materials, by the application of heat or otherwise, into 
a digestible and pleasing condition, and generally ministering to 
the satisfaction of the appetite and the delight of the palate. 
We may take it that some form of cookery has existed from the 
earliest times, and its progress has been from the simple to the 
elaborate, dominated partly by the foods accessible to man, partly 
by the stage of civilization he has attained, and partly by the 
appliances at his command for the purpose either of treating the 
food, or of consuming it when served. 

The developed art of cookery is necessarily a late addition if 
it may be considered to be included at all to the list of " fine 
arts." Originally it is a purely industrial and useful art. Man, 
says a French writer, was born a roaster, and " pour tire cuisinier, 
il a besoin de le devenir." The ancients were great eaters, but 
strangers to the subtler refinements of the palate. The gods 
were supposed to love the smell of fried meat, while their nectar 
and ambrosia represented an ideal, which, though preserved as a 
phrase, would hardly satisfy a modern epicure. The ancients 
were poorly provided with pots and pans, except of a simple 
order, or with the appurtenances of a kitchen, and they were 
sadly to seek hi the requisites v of a modern table. So long as 
men ate with their hands no dainty confection was suitable; the 
viands were set forth in a straightforward style fit for their 
requirements. " Plain cooking," which, after all, can never 
become obsolete, was the only sort. Oddities, no doubt, were 
the luxuries; and we can see to-day in the ethnological accounts 
of contemporary savages and backward civilizations, a fair 
representation of the cookeries of the ancients. The luxuries 
of the Chinese are, in their way, a survival of long ages of a 
cookery which to western civilization is grotesque. Even if it is 
an historic impertinence, it is impossible for the countries of 
western civilization to regard the fine flower of their own evolu- 
tion as other than the highest pitch of progress. Autres temps, 
aulres masurs. To the Chinaman French cooking may possibly 
be as grotesque as to an Englishman the Chinaman's hundred- 
year-old buried egg, black and tasteless. The history of com- 
parative cookery is bound up with the physical possibilities of 
each country and its products; and if we attempt to mark out 
stages in the evolution of cookery as a fine art, it is necessarily as 
understood by the so-called civilized peoples of the West in their 
culmination at the present day. 

It is obvious that opportunity has dominated its history, for 
the art of cookery is to some extent the product of an increased 
refinement of taste, consequent on culture and increase of wealth. 
To this extent it is a decadent art, ministering to the luxury 
of man, and to his progressive inclination to be pampered and 
have his appetite tickled. It is thus only remotely connected 
with the mere necessities of nutrition (?..), or the science of 
dietetics (<?..). Mere hunger, though the best sauce, will not 
produce cookery, which is the art of sauces. For centuries its 

elaboration consisted mainly of a progressive variety of foods, 
the richest and rarest being sought out; and their nature 
depended on what was most difficult to obtain. The Greeks 
learnt by contact with Asia to increase the sumptuous character 
of their banquets, but we know little enough of their ideas of 
gastronomy. Athens was the centre of luxury. According to 
our chief authority Athenaeus, Archestratus of Gela, the friend 
of the son of Pericles, the guide of Epicurus, and author of the 
Heduphagetica, was a great traveller, and took pains to get 
information as to how the delicacies of the table were prepared 
in different parts. His lost work was versified by Ennius. Other 
connoisseurs seem to have been Numenius of Heraclea, Hegemon 
of Thasos, Philogenes of Leucas, Simonaclides of Chios, and 
Tyndarides of Sicyon. The Romans, emerging from their 
pristine simplicity, borrowed from the Greeks their achievements 
in'gastronomic pleasure. We read of this or that Roman gourmet, 
such as Lucullus, his extravagances and his luxury. The name 
of the connoisseur Apicius, after whom a work of the time of 
Heliogabalus is called, comes down to us in association with a 
manual of cookery. And from Macrobius and Petronius we can 
gather very interesting glimpses of the Roman idea of a menu. 
In the later empire, tradition still centred round the Roman 
cookery favoured by the geographical position of Italy; while 
the customs and natural products of the remoter parts of Europe 
gradually begin to assert themselves as the middle ages progress. 

It is, however, not till the Renaissance, and then too with 
Italy as the starting-point, that the history of modern cookery 
really begins. Meanwhile cookery may be studied rather in 
the architecture of kitchens, and the development of their 
appurtenances and personnel, than in any increase in the 
subtleties of the art; the ideal was inevitably gross; the end 
was feeding inextricably associated in all ages with cooking, 
but as distinct from its fine fleur as gluttony from gastronomy. 

Montaigne's references to the revival of cookery hi France 
by Catherine de' Medici indicate that the new attention paid 
to the art was really novel. She brought Italian cooks to Paris 
and introduced there a cultured simplicity which was unknown 
in France before. It is to the Italians apparently that later 
developments are originally due. It is clearly established, for 
instance (says Abraham Hay ward in his Art of Dining), that the 
Italians introduced ices into France. Fricandeaus were invented 
by the chef of Leo X. And Coryate in his Crudities, writing in 
the time of James I., says that he was called " furcifer " (evidently 
in contemptuous jest) by his friends, from his using those 
" Italian neatnesses called forks." The use of the fork and 
spoon marked an epoch in the progress of dining, and con- 
sequently of cookery. 

Under Louis XIV. further advances were made. His mailre 
d' hotel, Bechamel, is famous for his sauce; and Vatel, the great 
Conde's cook, was a celebrated artist, of whose suicide in despair 
at the tardy arrival of the fish which he had ordered, Madame 
de Sevigne relates a moving story. The prince de Soubise, 
immortalized by his onion sauce, also had a famous chef. 

In England the names of certain cookery-books may be noted, 
such as Sir J. Elliott's (1539), Abraham Veale's (1575), and the 
Widdowe's Treasure (1625). The Accomplisht Cook, by Robert 
May, appeared in 1665, and from its preface we learn that the 
author (who speaks disparagingly of French cookery, but more 
gratefully of Italian and Spanish) was the son of a cook, and had 
studied abroad and under his father (c. 1610) at Lady Dormer's, 
and he speaks of that time as " the days wherein were produced 
the triumphs and trophies of cookery." From his description 
they consisted of most fantastic and elaborately built up dishes, 
intended to amuse and startle, no less than to satisfy the appetite 
and palate. 

Louis XV. was a great gourmet; and his reign saw many 
developments in the culinary art. The mayonnaise (originally 
mahonnaise) is ascribed to the due de Richelieu. Such dishes 
as " potage A la Xavier," " cailles A la Mirepoix" " chartreuses 
A la Mauconseil," " poulels A la Villeroy," " potage A la Condi," 
" gigot a la Afailly," owe their titles to celebrities of the day, 
and the Pompadour gave her name to various others. The 



Jesuits Brunoy and Bougeant, who wrote a preface to a con- 
temporary treatise on cookery (1739), described the modern 
art as " more simple, more appropriate, and more cunning, 
than that of old days," giving the ingredients the same union 
as painters give to colours, and harmonizing all the tastes. 
The very phrase " cordon bleu " (strictly applied only to a woman 
cook) arose from an enthusiastic recognition of female merit 
by the king himself. Madame du Barry, piqued at his opinion 
that only a man could cook to perfection, had a dinner prepared 
for him by a cuisiniere with such success that the delighted 
monarch demanded that the artist should be named, in order 
that so precious a cuisinier might be engaged for the royal 
household. "Allans done, la France! " retorted the ex-grisette, 
" have I caught you at last ? It is no cuisinier at all, but a 
cuisiniere, and I demand a recompense for her worthy both of 
her and of your majesty. Your royal bounty has made my 
negro, Zamore, governor of Luciennes, and I cannot accept 
less than a cordon bleu " (the Royal Order of the Saint Esprit) 
" for my cuisiniere." 

The French Revolution was temporarily a blow to Parisian 
cookery, as to everything else of the ancien regime. " Not a 
single turbot in the market," was the lament of Grimod de la 
Reyniere, the great gourmet, and author of the Manuel des 
amphitryons (1808). But while it fell heavily on the class of 
noble amphitryons it had one remarkable effect pn the art 
which was epoch-making. It is from that time that we notice 
the rise of the Parisian restaurants. To 1770 is ascribed the first 
of these, the Champ d'oiseau in the rue des Poulies. In 1789 
there were a hundred. In 1804 (when the Almanack des gour- 
mands, the first sustained effort at investing gastronomy with 
the dignity of an art, was started) there were between 500 
and 600. And in 1814, to such an extent had the restaurants 
attracted the culinary talent of Paris, that the allied monarchs, 
on arriving there, had to contract with the two brothers Very 
for the supply of their table. Among the great gastronomic 
names of Napoleon's day was that of his chancellor Cambaceres, 
of whose dinners many stories are told. Robert (the eponym 
of the sauce Robert), Rechaud and Merillion were at this period 
esteemed the Raphael, Michelangelo and Rubens of cookery; 
while A. Beauvilliers (author of Art des cuisines) and Careme 
(author of the Mattre d'hdtel franfais, and chef at different 
times to the Tsar Alexander I., Talleyrand, George IV. and 
Baron Rothschild) were no less celebrated. 1 Perhaps the greatest 
name of all in the history of the literature of cookery is that of 
Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), the French judge and 
author of the Physiologic du gout (1825), the classic of gastronomy. 

In England Louis Eustache Ude, Charles Elme Francatelli, 
and Alexis Soyer carried on the tradition, all being not only cooks 
but authors of treatises on the art. The Original (1835) of 
Thomas Walker, the Lambeth police magistrate, is another work 
which has inspired later pens. Like the Physiologie du gout, it is 
no mere cookery-book, but a compound of observation and 
philosophy. Among simple hand-books, Mrs Glasse's, Dr 
Kitchener's and Mrs Rundell's were standard English works in 
the 1 8th and early igth centuries; and in France the Cuisiniere 
de la campagne (1818) went through edition after edition. An 
interesting old English work is Dr Pegge's Forme ofCury (1780), 
which includes some historical reflections on the subject. " We 
have some good families in England," he says, " of the name of 
Cook or Coke. . . . Depend upon it, they all originally sprang 
from real professional cooks, and they need not be ashamed of 
their extraction any more than Porters, Butlers, &c." He points 
out that cooks in early days were of some importance; William 
the Conqueror bestowed land on his coquorum praepositus and 
coquus regius; and Domesday Book records the bestowal of a 
manor on Robert Argyllon, by the service of a dish called " de 
la Groute " on the king's coronation day. 

At the present time, whatever the local varieties of cooking, 
and the difference of national custom, French cooking is ad- 
mittedly the ideal of the culinary art, directly we leave the plain 

1 See Lady S. O. Morgan's France, 1829-1830, ii. 414, for an 
account of a dinner by Careme. 

roast and boiled. And the spread of cosmopolitan hotels and 
restaurants over England, America and the European continent, 
has largely accustomed the whole civilized world to the Parisian 
type. The improvements in the appliances and appurtenances of 
the kitchen have made the whole world kin in the arts of dining, 
but the French chef remains the typical master of his craft. 
Schools of cookery have been added to the educational machine. 
The literature of the subject has passed beyond enumeration. 

It is unnecessary here to pursue so vast a practical subject into 
detail; but the following notes on broiling, roasting, baking, 
boiling, stewing and frying may be useful. 

Broiling. The earliest method of cooking was probably burying 
seeds and flesh in hot ashes, a kind of broiling on all the surfaces at 
the same time, which when properly done is the most delicate kind 
of cooking. Broiling is now done over a clear fire extending at least 
2 in. beyond the edges of the gridiron, which should slightly incline 
towards the cook. It is usual to rub the bars with a piece of suet 
for meat, and chalk for fish, to prevent the thing broiled from being 
marked with the bars of the gridiron. In this kind of cookery the 
object is to coagulate as quickly as possible all the albumen on the 
surface, and seal up the pores of the meat so as to keep in all the 
juices and flavour. It is, therefore, necessary thoroughly to warm 
the gridiron beiore putting on the meat, or the heat of the fire is 
conducted away while the juices and flavour of the meat run into 
the fire. Broiling is a simple kind of cookery, and one well suited 
to invalids and persons of delicate appetites. There is no other way 
in which small quantities of meat can be so well and so quickly 
cooked. Broiling cannot be well done in front of an open fire, because 
one side of the meat is exposed to a current of cold air. A pair of 
tongs should be used instead of a fork for turning all broiled meat 
and fish. 

Roasting. Two conditions are necessary for good roasting a 
clear bright fire and frequent basting. Next to boiling or stewing 
it is the most economical method of cooking. The meat at first 
should be placed close to a brisk fire for five minutes to coagulate 
the albumen. It should then be drawn back a short distance and 
roasted slowly. If a meat screen be used, it should be placed before 
the fire to be moderately heated before the meat is put to roast. 
The centre of gravity of the fire should be a little above the centre 
of gravity of the joint. No kitchen can be complete without an 
open range, for it is almost impossible to have a properly roasted 
joint in closed kitcheners. The heat radiated from a good open fire 
quickly coagulates the albumen on the surface, and thus to a large 
extent prevents that which is fluid in the interior from solidifying. 
The connective tissue which unites the fibres is gradually converted 
into gelatin, and rendered easily soluble. The fibrin and albumen 
appear to undergo a higher oxidation and are more readily dissolved. 
The fat cells are gradually broken, and the liquid fat unites to a small 
extent with the chloride of sodium and the tribasic phosphate of 
sodium contained in the serum of the blood. It is easily seen that 
roasting by coagulating the external albumen keeps together the 
most valuable parts of the meat, till they have gradually and slowly 
undergone the desired change. This surface coagulation is not 
sufficient to prevent the free access of the oxygen of the surrounding 
air. The empyreumatic oils generated on the surface are neither 
wholesome nor agreeable, and these are perhaps better removed by- 
roasting than any other method except broiling. The chief object 
is to retain as much as possible all the sapid juicy properties of the 
meat, so that at the first cut the gravy flows out of a rich reddish 
colour, and this can only be accomplished by a quick coagulation 
of the surface albumen. The time for roasting varies slightly with 
the kind of meat and the size of the joint. As a rule beef and mutton 
require a quarter of an hour to the pound; veal and pork about 
17 minutes to the pound. To tell whether the joint is done, press 
the fleshy part with a spoon ; if the meat yield easily it is done. 

Baking meat is in many respects objectionable, and should never 
be done if any other method is available. The gradual disuse of 
open grates for roasting has led to a practice of first baking and then 
browning before the fire. This method completely reverses the true 
order of cooking by beginning with the lowest temperature and 
finishing with the highest. Baked meat has never the delicate 
flavour of roast meat, nor is it so digestible. The vapours given off 
by the charring of the surface cannot freely escape, and the meat 
is cooked in an atmosphere charged with empyreumatic oil. A 
brick or earthenware oven is preferable to iron, because the porous 
nature of the bricks absorbs a good deal of the vapour. When 
potatoes are baked with meat, they should always be first parboiled, 
because they take a longer time to bake, and the moisture nsing from 
the potatoes retards the_ process of baking, and makes the meat 
sodden. A baked meat pie, though not always very digestible, is far 
less objectionable than plain baked meat. In the case of a meat pie 
the surfaces of the meat are protected by a bad conductor of heat 
from that charring of the surface which generates empyreumatic 
vapours, and the fat and gravy, gradually rising in temperature, 
assist the cooking, and such cooking more nearly resembles stewing 
than baking. The process may go on for a long time after the re- 
moval of the meat from the oven, if surrounded with flannel, or some 

7 6 


bad conductor of heat. The Cornish pasty is the best example of this 
kind of cooking. Meat, fish, game, parboiled vegetables, apples or 
anything thai fancy suggests, are surrounded with a thick flour and 
water crust and slowly baked. When removed from the oven, and 
packed in layers of flannel, the pasty will keep hot for hours. When 
baked dishes contain eggs, it should be remembered that the albumen 
becomes harder and more insoluble, according to the time occupied 
in cooking. About the same time is required for baking as roasting. 

Boiling is one of the easiest methods of cooking, but a suc- 
cessful result depends on a number of conditions which, though 
they appear trifling, are nevertheless necessary. The fire must be 
watched so as properly to regulate the heat. The saucepan should 
be scrupulously clean and have a closely-fitting lid, and be large 
enough to hold sufficient water to well cover and surround the meat, 
and all scum should be removed as it comes to the surface; the 
addition of small quantities of cold water will assist the rising of the 
scum. For all cooking purposes clean rain water is to be preferred. 
Among cooks a great difference of opinion exists as to whether meat 
should be put into cold water and gradually brought to the boiling 
point, or should be put into boiling water. This, like many other 
unsettled questions in cookery, is best decided by careful scientific 
experiment and observation. If a piece of meat be put into water 
at a temperature of 60, and gradually raised to 212, the meat is 
undergoing a gradual loss of its soluble and nutritious properties, 
which are dissolved in the water. From the surface to the interior 
the albumen is partially dissolved out of the meat, the fibres become 
hard and stringy, and the thinner the piece of meat the greater the 
loss of all those sapid constituents which make boiled meat savoury, 
juicy and palatable. To put meat into cold water is clearly the best 
method for making soups and broth; it is the French method of 
preparing the pot au feu; but the meat at the end of the operation 
has lost much of that juicy sapid property which makes boiled meat 
so acceptable. The practice of soaking fresh meat in cold water 
before cooking is for the same reasons highly objectionable; if 
necessary, wipe it with a clean cloth. But in the case of salted, 
smoked and dried meats soaking for several hours is indispensable, 
and the water should be occasionally changed. The other method 
of boiling meat has the authority of Baron Liebig, who recommends 
putting the meat into water when in a state of ebullition, and after 
five minutes the saucepan is to be drawn aside, and the contents 
kept at a temperature of 162" (50 below boiling). The effect of 
boiling water is to coagulate the albumen on the surface of the meat, 
which prevents.but not entirely, the juices from passingintothe water, 
and meat thus boiled has more flavour and has lost much less in 
weight. To obtain well-flavoured boiled meat the idea of soups or 
broth must be a secondary consideration. It is, however, impossible 
to cook a piece of meat in water without extracting some of its juices 
and nutriment, and the liquor should in both cases be made into a 

Stewing. When meat is slowly cooked in a close vessel it is said 
to be stewed; this method is generally adopted in the preparation 
of made dishes. Different kinds of meat may be used, or only one 
kind according to taste. The better the meat the better the stew; 
but by carefully stewing the coarsest and roughest parts will become 
soft, tender and digestible, which would not be possible by any other 
kind of cooking. Odd pieces of meat and trimmings and bones can 
often be purchased cheaply, and may be turned into good food by 
stewing. Bones, although containing little meat, contain from 
39 to 49 % of gelatin. Tne large bones should be broken into small 
pieces, and allowed to simmer till every piece is white and dry. 
Gelatin is largely used both in the form of jellies and soups. Lean 
meat, free from blood, is best for stewing, and, when cut into con- 
venient pieces, it should be slightly browned in a little butter or 
dripping. Constant attention is necessary during this process, to 
prevent burning. The meat should be covered with soft water or, 
better, a little stock, and set aside to simmer for four or five hours, 
according to the nature of the material. When vegetables are used, 
these should also be slightly browned and added at intervals, so as 
not materially to lower the temperature. Stews may be thickened 
by the addition of pearl barley, sago, rice, pota.toes, oatmeal, flour, 
&c., and flavoured with herbs and condiments according to taste. 
Although stewing is usually done in a stewpan or saucepan with a 
close-fitting cover, a good stone jar, with a well-fitting lid, is prefer- 
able in the homes of working people. This is better than a metal 
saucepan, and can be more easily kept clean; it retains the heat 
longer, and can be placed in the oven or covered with hot ashes. 
The common red jar is not suitable; it does not stand the heat so 
well as a grey jar; and the red glaze inside often gives way in the 
presence of salt. The lid of a vessel used for stewing should be re- 
moved as little as possible. An occasional shake will prevent the 
meat from sticking. At the end of the operation all the fat should be 
carefully removed. 

Frying. Lard, oil, butter, or dripping may be used for frying. 
There are two methods of frying the dry method, as in frying a 
pancake, and the wet method, as when the thing fried is immersed 
in a bath of hot fat. In the former case a frying pan is used, in the 
other a frying kettle or stewpan. It is usual for most things to have 
a wire frying basket ; the things to be fried are placed in the basket 
and immersed at the proper temperature in the hot fat. The fat 
should gradually rise in temperature over a slow fire till it attains 

nearly 400 Fahr. Great care is required to fry properly. If the tem- 
perature is too low the things immersed in the fat are not fried, 
but soddened; if, on the other hand, the temperature is too high, 
they are charred. The temperature of the fat varies slightly with 
the nature of things to be fried. Fish, cutlets, croquets, rissoles and 
fritters are well fried at a temperature of 380 Fahr. Potatoes, chops 
and white bait are better fried at a temperature of 400 Fahr. Care 
must be taken not to lower the temperature too much by introducing 
too many things. The most successful frying is when the fat rises 
two or three degrees during the frying. Fried things should be of a 
golden brown colour, crisp and free from fat. When fat or oil has 
been used for fish it must be kept for fish. It is customary first to 
use fat for croquets, rissoles, fritters and other delicate things, and 
then to take it for fish. Everything fried in fat should be placed 
on bibulous paper to absorb any fat on the surfaces. 

COOKSTOWN, a market town of Co. Tyrone, Ireland, in the 
east parliamentary division, 54 m. W. by N. of Belfast, on 
branches of the Great Northern and the Northern Counties 
(Midland) railways. Pop. of urban district (1901) 3531. It 
consists principally of a single street of great length, and lies in 
a pleasant, well-wooded district, near the Ballinderry river. 
It has important manufactures of linen, and some agricultural 
trade. It was founded in 1609, the landlord, Allan Cook, giving 
name to it. The mansion of Killymoon Castle, in the vicinity, 
is a notable example of the work of a celebrated architect, John 
Nash (c. 1800). 

COOKTOWN, a seaport of Banks county, Queensland, 
Australia, at the mouth of the Endeavour river, about 1050 m. 
direct N.N.W. of Brisbane. It is visited by the ocean steamers 
of several lines, and is the centre of a very extensive bSche-de-mer 
and pearl fishery. Tin and gold are worked in the district, in 
which also good coffee and rice are grown. Cooktown is the port 
of the Palmer gold-fields, and a railway runs to Laura on the 
gold-fields, 67 m. W. by S. of Cooktown. It is the chief 
port of Queensland for the New Guinea trade; and is also 
the seat of a Roman Catholic vicariate apostolic whose bishop 
has jurisdiction over the whole of Queensland north of lat. 
1 8 50'. In 1770 Captain Cook here beached his ship the 
" Endeavour," to repair the damage caused by her striking a 
reef in the neighbourhood of the estuary, which he could only 
clear by throwing his guns overboard. Cooktown became a 
municipality in 1876. The population of the town and district 
in 1901 was 1936. 

COOKWORTHY, WILLIAM (1705-1780), English potter, 
famous for his discovery of the existence of china-clay and china- 
stone in Cornwall, and as the first manufacturer of a porcelain 
similar in nature to the Chinese, from English materials, was 
born at Kingsbridge, Devon, of Quaker parents who were in 
humble circumstances. At the age of fourteen he was appren- 
ticed to a London apothecary named Bevans, and he afterwards 
returned to the neighbourhood of his birthplace, and carried 
on business at Plymouth with the co-operation of his master, 
under the title of Bevans & Cookworthy. The manufacture of 
porcelain was at the time attracting great attention in England, 
and while the factories at Bow, Chelsea, Worcester and Derby 
were introducing the artificial glassy porcelain, Cookworthy, 
following the accounts of Pere d'Entrecolles, spent many years 
in searching for English materials similar to those used by the 
Chinese. From 1745 onwards he seems to have travelled over 
the greater portion of Cornwall and Devon in search of these 
minerals, and he finally located them in the parish of St Stephen's 
near to St Austell. With a certain amount of financial assistance 
from Mr Thomas Pitt of Boconnoc (afterwards Lord Camelford) 
he established the Plymouth China Factory at least as early as 
1768. The factory was removed to Bristol about 1770, and the 
business was afterwards sold to Richard Champion and others 
and became the well-known Bristol Porcelain Manufactory. 
Apart from its historic interest there is little to be said for the 
Plymouth porcelain. Technically it was often imperfect, and 
its artistic treatment was never of a high order. But Cookworthy 
deserves to be remembered for his discovery of those abundant 
supplies of English clay and rocks which form the foundation 
of English porcelain and fine earthenware (see CERAMICS). 

COOLGARDIE, a municipal town in Western Australia, 
310 m. by rail E. by N. of Perth, and 528 m. by rail N.E. of 



Albany. Pop. (1901) 4249. Its gold-fields were discovered in 
1891 and are among the richest in the colony. Lignite, copper, 
graphite and silver are also found. Toorak and Montana are 
small residential suburbs. A remarkable engineering work by 
which a full supply of water was brought to the town from 
Fremantle (a distance exceeding 330 m. direct) was completed 
in 1903. 

COOLIE, or COOLY (from Koli or Kuli, an aboriginal race of 
western India; or perhaps from Tamil kiili, hire, i.e. one hired), 
a term generally applied to Asiatic labourers belonging to 
the unskilled class as opposed to the artisan, and employed in a 
special sense to designate those natives of India and China who 
leave their country under contracts of service to work as labourers 
abroad. After the abolition of slavery much difficulty was 
found in obtaining cheap labour for tropical plantations. The 
emancipated black was unwilling to engage in field labour, 
while the white man was physically incapable of so doing. 
Recourse was had to the overpeopled empires of China and 
India, as the most likely sources from which to obtain that 
supply of workers upon which the very existence of some colonies, 
notably in the West Indies, depended. 

The first public recognition of the coolie traffic was in 1844, 
when the British colony of Guiana made provision for the 
encouragement of Chinese immigration. About the 
same time both Peru and Cuba began to look to China 
as likely to furnish an efficient substitute for the 
negro bondsman. Agents armed with consular commissions 
from Peru appeared in Chinese ports, where they collected and 
sent away shiploads of coolies. Each one was bound to serve 
the Peruvian planter to whom he might be assigned for seven 
or eight years, at fixed wages, generally about 173. a month, 
food, clothes and lodging being provided. From 1847 to 1854 
coolie emigration went on briskly without attracting much 
notice, but it gradually came to light that circumstances of great 
cruelty attended the trade. The transport ships were badly 
equipped and overcrowded, and many coolies died before the 
end of the voyage. On arrival in Cuba or Peru the survivors were 
sold by auction in the open market to the highest bidders, who 
held them virtually as slaves for seven years instead of for life. 
Particularly terrible was the lot of those who, contrary to their 
agreements, had been sent to labour in the foul guano pits of 
the Chincha islands, where they were forced to toil in gangs, 
each under the charge of an overseer armed with a cowhide lash. 
In 1860 it was calculated that of the four thousand coolies who 
had been fraudulently consigned to the guano pits of Peru not 
one had survived. The greater number of them had committed 
suicide. In 1854 the British governor of Hong-Kong issued a 
proclamation forbidding British subjects or vessels to engage 
in the transport of coolies to the Chinchas. Technically this was 
ultra vires on his part, but his policy was confirmed by the Chinese 
Passengers' Act 1855, which put an end to the more abominable 
phase of the traffic. After that no British ship was allowed to 
sail on more than a week's voyage with more than twenty coolies 
on board, unless her master had complied with certain very 
stringent regulations. 

The consequence of this was that the business of shipping 
coolies for Peru was transferred to the Portuguese settlement 
of Macao. There the Peruvian and Cuban " labour-agents " 
established dep6ts, which they unblushingly called "barracoons," 
the very term used in the West African slave trade. In these 
places coolies were " received," or in plain words, imprisoned 
and kept under close guard until a sufficient number were 
collected for export. Some of these were decoyed by fraudulent 
promises of profitable employment. Others were kidnapped 
by piratical junks hired to scour the neighbouring coasts. Many 
were bought from leaders of turbulent native factions, only too 
glad to sell the prisoners they captured whilst waging their 
internecine wars. The procurador or registrar-general of Macao 
went through the form of certifying the contracts; but his 
inspection was practically useless. After the war of 1856-1857 
this masked slave trade pushed its agencies into Whampoa 
and Canton. In April 1859, however, the whole mercantile 

community of the latter port rose up in indignation against it, 
and transmitted such strong representations to the British 
embassy in China, that steps were taken to mitigate the evil. 
New regulations were from time to time passed by the Portuguese 
authorities for the purpose of minimizing the horrors of the 
Macao trade. They seem, however, to have been systematically 
evaded, and to have been practically inoperative. At Canton and 
Hong- Kong the coolie trade was put under various regulations, 
which in the latter port worked well only when the profits of 
" head-money " were ruined. In March 1866 the representatives 
of the governments of France, England and China drew up a 
convention for the regulation of the Canton trade, which had 
an unfortunate effect. It left head-money, the source of most 
of the abuses, comparatively untouched. It enacted that 
every coolie must at the end of a five years' engagement have 
his return passage-money paid to him. The West Indian colonies 
at once objected to this. They wanted permanent not temporary 
settlers. They could not afford to burden the coolie's expensive 
contract with return passage-money, so they declined to accept 
emigrants on these terms. Thus a legalized coolie trade between 
the West Indies and China was extinguished. Thereafter the 
coolie supply for British colonies was drawn exclusively from 
India, until 1904, when an exception was made in the case of 
the Transvaal. Under a convention drawn up in that year 
between the United Kingdom and China over fifty thousand 
indentured Chinese labourers were engaged on three years' 
contracts to work in the Witwatersrand gold mines (see 
TRANSVAAL). To the Malay states and other parts of eastern 
Asia there is an extensive yearly migration of Chinese coolies. 
This migration, however, is not under contract. From Amoy 
alone some seventy-five thousand coolies yearly migrate to 
Singapore and the Straits Settlements, whence they are drafted 
for labour purposes in every direction. 

It is scarcely possible to say when the Indian coolie trade began. 
Before the end of the i8th century Tamil labourers from southern 
India were wont to emigrate to the Straits Settlements, 
and they also flocked to Tenasserim from the other 
side of the Bay of Bengal after the conquest had 
produced a demand for labour. The first regularly recorded 
attempt at organizing coolie emigration from India took place 
in 1834, when forty coolies were exported to Mauritius; but it 
was not until 1836 that the Indian government decided to put 
the trade under official regulations. In 1837 an emigration law 
was passed for all the territories of the East India Company, 
providing that a permit must be obtained from government 
for every shipment of coolies, that all contracts should terminate 
in five years, that a return passage should be guaranteed, that 
the terms of his contract should be carefully explained to each 
coolie, and that the emigrant ship should only carry one coolie 
for every ton and a half of burden. Then as now the Indian 
government watched the deportation of labour from their 
dominions with jealous and anxious care, and when in 1838 it 
was found that upwards of twenty-five thousand natives had, 
up to that year, gone from all parts of India to Mauritius, the 
government became somewhat alarmed at the dimensions 
which the traffic was assuming. Brougham and the anti-slavery 
party denounced the trade as a revival of slavery, and the 
Bengal government suspended it in order to investigate its 
alleged abuses. The nature of these may be guessed when it is 
said that the inquiry condemned the fraudulent methods of 
recruiting then in vogue, and the brutal treatment which coolies 
often received from ship captains and masters. In 1842 steps 
were taken formally to reopen the coolie trade with Mauritius, 
and in 1844 emigration to the West Indies was sanctioned by 
the Indian government. In 1847 Ceylon was separated from 
India, and her labour supply was cut off; but this accident was 
soon remedied, the Ceylon government adopting protective 
regulations for the coolies. 

Emigration of coolies under contract to labour outside India 
is now regulated by the Emigration Act of 1883 and the rules 
issued under its provisions, the only exceptions being in re- 
spect of emigrants to Ceylon and the Straits Settlements and 


adjoining states, or those engaged by the British government 
for employment in east and central Africa. By section 8 of this 
act natives of India are permitted to emigrate under 
odera labour contracts only to such countries as have 
|)jf^ g f" satisfied the government of India that sufficient pro- 
vision is made for the protection of the emigrants. A 
country which is duly empowered under the act to receive 
emigrants may appoint an agent, residing in India, who is 
responsible for the due observance of the provisions of the law. 
These agents are under the general supervision of the protector 
of emigrants. As emigrants have to be recruited at great 
distances from the port of embarkation, recruiters are appointed 
by the agents and licensed by the protector. The conduct of 
these subordinates is minutely regulated. Every precaution 
is taken to let the emigrant know the exact terms on which 
he is hired, and to ensure good treatment in the interval between 
registration and embarkation. Coolies are shipped for the 
most part from Calcutta and Madras, but of recent years large 
numbers bound for Mombasa and the Seychelles left from 
Bombay and Karachi. Both the coolies themselves and the 
dep&t are medically inspected. Only those physically fit are 
allowed to embark. The vessels for their conveyance are 
licensed and inspected by the local government. The terms 
on which emigrants are recruited are settled beforehand by 
convention with the colonies concerned, and are embodied in 
ordinances passed by the local legislatures. They vary in detail, 
but their main provisions relate to the rights and obligations 
of the emigrants, including the grant of a return passage on the 
expiry of a specified period, usually ten years. The British 
colonies to which coolies were exported in the decade 1891-1901 
were British Guiana, Trinidad, St Lucia, Jamaica, Mauritius, 
the Seychelles Islands, Fiji, East Africa and Natal; the only 
non-British country was Dutch Guiana. Emigration to the 
French colonies, including Reunion has been forbidden by the 
government of India since 1886, but there still remain in those 
colonies some of the former emigrants, and the questions of their 
treatment and repatriation have frequently formed the subject 
of representations to the French authorities. 

The number of Indian coolies resident in the various British 
colonies in 1900 was 625,000, of which the largest numbers were 
265,000 in Mauritius and 125,000 in British Guiana. 
British There were still 13,800 in Reunion. The regulations 
colonies, governing coolie labour in British Guiana may be taken 
as typical for the British colonies generally. They are 
contained in the Labour Ordinance of 1873, which was amended 
by the ordinances of 1875, 1876, 1886 and 1887. Under these 
ordinances an immigration agent-general is appointed, to whom 
medical officers and recruiting agents are responsible, and the 
emigrants are allotted by him to the separate estates. They 
regulate the hours of work, the rate of wages, and the general 
treatment of the coolies, the nature of house and hospital 
accommodation, the terms of re-enlistment and the conditions of 
marriage amongst the coolies themselves. The coolies returning 
from the British colonies to India in 1901 possessed average 
savings of 19. 

During the construction of the Uganda railway large numbers 
of coolies were recruited in the Punjab and exported from 
British Karachi to Mombasa. During the decade 1891-1901 
Bast and the number of these emigrants was 33,000; but on the 
South completion of the line the emigration practically 
Africa. stopped, while in 1901-1902 there were over 6000 
emigrants who returned to India. Some, however, settled 
in East Africa. Coolies are also exported for government em- 
ployment in Nyasaland. In Natal the Indian population had 
by 1904 reached over 100,000. and slightly outnumbered the 
whites. Many of the coolies had become permanent residents in 
the colony (see NATAL). 

According to the census of 1901 there were 775,844 foreigners 
in Assam, of whom no fewer than 645,000 or 83 % were brought 
into 'the province as garden coolies. The recruiting of these 
coolies is regulated by Act VI. of 1901, which provides that a 
labour agreement may be entered into for four years, and includes 

a penal clause, under which a coolie deserting or refusing to work 
may be punished with imprisonment. The coolies can also give 
an agreement under Act XIII. of 1859, by which they A**am, 
are only liable to civil action for breach of contract. Ceylon 
The latter are called non-act coolies. This system of 
immigration has made tea-planting the most important 
industry in Assam, and has greatly increased the prosperity of 
the province. Migration to Ceylon and Burma takes place 
chiefly from the Madras ports, and is of a seasonal and temporary 
character. The tea estates and pearl fisheries of Ceylon, and the 
town work and harvesting in Burma attract large numbers of 
Tamil labourers. The respective numbers embarking in 1901 
were 117,000 for Ceylon, 84,000 for Burma and 27,000 for the 
Straits Settlements. In Ceylon there is no system of recruitment 
like that for the Assam tea-gardens. The coolies come in gangs. 
each under its own headman, with whom the planter deals 
exclusively, leaving him to make his own arrangements with the 
individual coolies. The coolies are mostly carried in small 
sailing vessels from the ports of Madura and Tanjore, and the 
number who permanently settle in Ceylon is not very great. 

See E. Jenkins, The Coolie; his Rights and Wrongs (1871); 
J. L. A. Hope, In Quest of Coolies (1872); and C. B. Grose, The 
Labour Ordinances (Georgetown, 1890). (C. L.) 

COOMA, a town of Beresford county, New South Wales, 
Australia, 264 m. by rail S.S.W. of Sydney. Pop. (1901) 1938. 
The town is the centre of a pastoral district and has a large trade 
in furs, while at Bushy Hill, a mile from the town, is a small 
gold-field. Cooma, which is pleasantly situated at an elevation 
of 2657 ft., is the tourist centre for visitors to the Yarrangobilly 
Caves and Mount Kosciusko and its observatory. The caves are 
distant 65 m. from the town, situated in the side of a hill, over- 
looking the Yarrangobilly river; they are seven in number and of 
remarkable beauty and extent. 

COOPER, ABRAHAM (1787-1868), English animal and battle 
painter, the son of a tobacconist, was born in London. At the 
age of thirteen he became an employd at Astley's amphitheatre, 
and was afterwards groom in the service of Sir Henry Meux. 
When he was twenty-two, wishing to possess a portrait of a 
favourite horse under his care, he bought a manual of painting, 
learned something of the use of oil-colours, and painted the 
picture on a canvas hung against the stable wall. His master 
bought it and encouraged him to continue in his efforts. He 
accordingly began to copy prints of horses, and was introduced 
to Benjamin Marshall, the animal painter, who took him 
into his studio, and seems to have introduced him to the 
Sporting Magazine, an illustrated periodical to which he was him- 
self a contributor. In 1814 he exhibited his " Tarn O'Shanter," 
and in 1816 he won a prize of 100 for his " Battle of Ligny." 
In 1817 he exhibited his " Battle of Marston Moor " and was 
made associate of the Academy, and in 1820 he was elected 
Academician. Cooper, although ill educated, was a clever and 
conscientious artist; his colouring was somewhat flat and dead, 
but he was a master of equine portraiture and anatomy, and had 
some antiquarian knowledge. He had a special fondness for 
Cavalier and Roundhead pictures. 

COOPER, ALEXANDER (d. 1660), English miniature painter. 
His works are of great rarity, and the chief are a series represent- 
ing the king and queen of Bohemia and their children, in the 
possession of the German emperor; some very remarkable 
portraits belonging to the queen of Holland, and others in the 
possession of the king of Sweden and in various Swedish galleries. 
He was the brother of Samuel Cooper, but whether senior or 
junior to him is not known, although, according to certain 
Swedish authorities, he is stated, upon very slight evidence, to 
have been bom in 1605, four years before his more famous 
brother. He came to Sweden in 1646, and the Swedish docu- 
ments declare that he was a Jew, and that his full name was 
Abraham Alexander Cooper. He had previously been residing in 
Holland, but on reaching Sweden entered the service of Queen 
Christina, and continued to be her miniature painter until 1654, 
when she resigned the crown. Two years later, Cooper was in 
Denmark, carrying out some commissions for Christian IV., but 



in 1657 was back again in Stockholm, where he died in the early 
part of 1660. The date of his birth is not known, but he is 
believed to have been born in London. 

For full information regarding his career, and for various docu- 
ments bearing his signature, see The History of Portrait Miniatures, 
by G. C. Williamson, chap. vi. page 78, and an article in the Nine- 
teenth Century for October 1905. (G. C. W.) 

COOPER, SIR AST1EY PASTON (1768-1841), English surgeon, 
was born at the village of Brooke in Norfolk on the 23rd of 
August 1 768. His father, Dr Samuel Cooper, was a clergyman of 
the Church of England; his mother was the author of several 
novels. At the age of sixteen he was sent to London and placed 
under Henry Cline (i 750-1827), surgeon to St Thomas's hospital. 
From the first he devoted himself to the study of anatomy, and 
had the privilege of attending the lectures of John Hunter. In 
1789 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at St Thomas's 
hospital, where in 1791 he became joint lecturer with Cline in 
andtomy and surgery, and in 1800 he was appointed surgeon to 
Guy's hospital, on the death of his uncle, William Cooper. In 
1802 he received the Copley medal for two papers read before the 
Royal Society of London on the destruction of the membrana 
tympani; and in 1805 he was elected a fellow of that society. 
In the same year he took an active part in the formation of the 
Medico-Chirurgical Society, and published in the first volume of 
its Transactions an account of an attempt to tie the common 
carotid artery for aneurism. In 1804 he brought out the first, 
and in 1807 the second, part of his great work on hernia, which 
added so largely to his reputation that in 1813 his annual pro- 
fessional income rose to 21,000 sterling. In the same year he 
was appointed professor of comparative anatomy to the Royal 
College of Surgeons and was very popular as a lecturer. In 181 7 
he performed his famous operation of tying the abdominal aorta 
for aneurism; and in 1820 he removed a wen from the head of 
George IV., and about six months afterwards received a 
baronetcy, which, as he had no son, was to descend to his 
nephew and adopted son, Astley Cooper. He served as president 
of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1827 and again in 1836, and 
he was elected a vice-president of the Royal Society in 1830. He 
died on the I2th of February 1841 in London, and was interred, 
by his own desire, beneath the chapel of Guy's hospital. A 
statue by E. H. Baily was erected in St Paul's. 

His chief works are Anatomy and Surgical Treatment of Hernia 
(1804-1807); Dislocations and Fractures (1822); Lectures on Surgery 
(1824-1827); Illustrations of Diseases of the Breast (1829); Anatomy 
of the Thymus Gland (1832); Anatomy of the Breast (1840). 

See Life of Sir A. Cooper, by B. B. Cooper (1843). 

COOPER, CHARLES HENRY (1808-1866), English antiquary, 
was born at Great Marlow, on the 2oth of March 1808, being 
descended from a family formerly settled at Bray, Berkshire. 
He received his education at a private school in Reading. In 
1826 he fixed his residence at Cambridge, and in 1836 was elected 
coroner of the borough. Four years later he was admitted a 
solicitor, and in course of time he acquired an extensive practice, 
but his taste and inclination ultimately led him to devote almost 
the whole of his time to literary research, and especially the 
elucidation of the history of the university of Cambridge. In 
1849 he resigned the office of borough coroner on being elected 
to the town-clerkship, which he retained till his death on the 
2ist of March 1866. His earliest production, A New Guide to 
the University and Town of Cambridge, was published anonymously 
in 1831. The Annals of Cambridge followed (1842-1853) con- 
taining a chronological history of the university and town from 
the earliest period to 1853. His most important work, the 
Athenae Cantabrigienses (1858, 1861), a companion work to the 
famous Athenae Oxonienses of Anthony a Wood, contains 
biographical memoirs of the authors and other men of eminence 
who were educated at the university of Cambridge from 1500 
to 1609. Cooper's other works are The Memorials of Cambridge, 
(1858-1866) and a Memoir of Margaret, Countess of Richmond 
and Derby (1874). He was a constant contributor to Notes and 
Queries, the Gentleman's Magazine and other antiquarian publica- 
tions, and left an immense collection of MS. materials for a 
biographical history of Great Britain and Ireland. 

COOPER, JAMES FENIMORE (1789-1851), American novelist, 
was born at Burlington, New Jersey, on the isth of September 
1789. Reared in the wild country round Otsego Lake, N.Y., on 
the yet unsettled estates of his father, a judge and member of 
Congress, he was sent to school at Albany and at New Haven, 
and entered Yale College in his fourteenth year, remaining for 
some time the youngest student on the rolls. Three years after- 
wards he joined the United States navy; but after making a 
voyage or two in a merchant vessel, to perfect himself in seaman- 
ship, and obtaining his lieutenancy, he married and resigned 
his commission (181 1). He settled in Westchester county, N.Y., 
the "Neutral Ground" of his earliest American romance, and 
produced anonymously (1820) his first book, Precaution, a novel 
of the fashionable school. This was followed (1821) by The Spy, 
which was very successful at the date of issue; The Pioneers 
(1823), the first of the " Leatherstocking " series; and The 
Pilot (1824), a bold and dashing sea-story. The next was Lionel 
Lincoln (1825), a feeble and unattractive work; and this was 
succeeded in 1826 by the famous Last of the Mohicans, a book 
that is often quoted as its author's masterpiece. Quitting 
America for Europe he published at Paris The Prairie (1826), 
the best of his books in nearly all respects, and The Red Rover, 
(1828), by no means his worst. 

At this period the unequal and uncertain talent of Cooper 
would seem to have been at its best. These excellent novels 
were, however, succeeded by one very inferior, The Wept of 
Wish-ton-Wish (1829); by The Notions of a Travelling Bachelor 
(1828), an uninteresting book; and by The Waterwitch (1830), 
one of the poorest of his many sea-stories. In 1830 he entered 
the lists as a party writer, defending in a series of letters to the 
National, a Parisian journal, the United States against a string 
of charges brought against them by the Revue Britannique; 
and for the rest of his life he continued skirmishing in 
print, sometimes for the national interest, sometimes for that 
of the individual, and not infrequently for both at once. This 
opportunity of making a political confession of faith appears 
not only to have fortified him in his own convictions, but to have 
inspired him with the idea of imposing them on the public 
through the medium of his art. His next three novels, The 
Bravo (1831), The Heidenmauer (1832) and The Headsman: or 
the Abbaye of Vigneron (1833), were designed to exalt the people 
at the expense of the aristocracy. Of these the first is by no 
means a bad story, but the others are among the dullest ever 
written; all were widely read on both sides of the Atlantic. 

In 1833 Cooper returned to America, and immediately pub- 
lished A Letter to my Countrymen, in which he gave his own 
version of the controversy he had been engaged in, and passed 
some sharp censure on his compatriots for their share in it. 
This attack he followed up with The Manikins (1835) and The 
American Democrat (1835); with several sets of notes on his 
travels and experiences in Europe, among which may be remarked 
his England (1837), in three volumes, a burst of vanity and ill- 
temper; and with Homeward Bound, and Home as Found (1838), 
noticeable as containing a highly idealized portrait of himself. 
All these books tended to increase the ill-feeling between author 
and public; the Whig press was virulent and scandalous in its 
comments, and Cooper plunged into a series of actions for libel. 
Victorious in all of them, he returned to his old occupation 
with something of his old vigour and success. A History of the 
Navy of the United States (1839), supplemented (1846) by a set of 
Lives of Distinguished American Naval Officers, was succeeded 
by The Pathfinder (1840), a good "Leatherstocking" novel; 
by Mercedes of Castile (1840); The Deerslayer (1841); by The 
Two Admirals and by Wing and Wing (1842); by Wyandolle, 
The History of a Pocket Handkerchief, and Ned Myers (1843); 
and by Afloat and Ashore, or the Adventures of Miles Wallingford 
(1844). From pure fiction, however, he turned again to the 
combination of art and controversy in which he had achieved 
distinction, and in the two Littlepage Manuscripts (1845-1846) 
he fought with a great deal of vigour. His next novel was The 
Crater, or Vulcan's Peak (1847), in which he attempted to intro- 
duce supernatural machinery with indifferent success; and this 



was succeeded by Oak Openings and Jack Tier (1848), the latter 
a curious rifacimento of The Red Rover; by The Sea Lions (1849); 
and finally by The Ways of the Hour (1850), another novel with 
a purpose, and his last book. He died of dropsy on the I4th of 
September 1851 at Cooperstown, New York. His daughter, 
Susan Fenimore Cooper (1813-1894), was known as an author 
and philanthropist. 

Cooper was certainly one of the most popular authors that 
have ever written. His stories have been translated into nearly 
all the languages of Europe and into some of those of Asia. 
Balzac admired him greatly, but with discrimination; Victor 
Hugo pronounced him greater than the great master of modern 
romance, and this verdict was echoed by a multitude of inferior 
readers, who were satisfied with no title for their favourite less 
than that of "the American Scott." As a satirist and observer 
he is simply the "Cooper who 's written six volumes to prove 
he's as good as a Lord" of Lowell's clever portrait; his enormous 
vanity and his irritability find vent in a sort of dull violence, 
which is exceedingly tiresome. It is only as a novelist that he 
deserves consideration. His qualities are not those of the great 
masters of fiction; but he had an inexhaustible imagination, 
some faculty for simple combination of incident, a homely tragic 
force which is very genuine and effective, and up to a certain 
point a fine narrative power. His literary training was in- 
adequate; his vocabulary is limited and his style awkward 
and pretentious; and he had a fondness for moralizing tritely 
and obviously, which mars his best passages. In point of con- 
ception, each of his three-and- thirty novels is either absolutely 
good or is possessed of a certain amount of merit; but hitches 
occur in all, so that every one of them is remarkable rather in its 
episodes than as a whole. Nothing can be more vividly told than 
the escape of the Yankee man-of-war through the shoals and 
from the English cruisers in The Pilot, but there are few things 
flatter in the range of fiction than the other incidents of the novel. 
It is therefore with some show of reason that The Last of the 
Mohicans, which as a chain of brilliantly narrated episodes is 
certainly the least faulty in this matter of sustained excellence 
of execution, should be held to be the best of his works. 

The personages of his drama are rather to be accounted as 
so much painted cloth and cardboard, than as anything approach- 
ing the nature of men and women. As a creator of aught but 
romantic incident, indeed, Cooper's claims to renown must rest 
on the fine figure of the Leatherstocking, and, in a less degree, 
on that of his friend and companion, the Big Serpent. The 
latter has many and obvious merits, not the least of which is 
the pathos shed about him in his last incarnation as the Indian 
John of The Pioneers. Natty Bumpo, however, is a creation 
of no common unity and consistency. There are lapses and 
flaws, and Natty is made to say things which only Cooper, in 
his most verbosely didactic vein, could have uttered. But on 
the whole the impression left is good and true. In the dignity 
and simplicity of the old backwoodsman there is something 
almost Hebraic. With his na'ive vanity and strong reverent 
piety, his valiant wariness, his discriminating cruelty, his fine 
natural sense of right and wrong, his rough limpid honesty, his 
kindly humour, his picturesque dialect, and his rare skill in 
woodcraft, he has all the breadth and roundness of a type and 
all the eccentricities and peculiarities of a portrait. 

See James Fenimore Cooper (Boston, 1883), by Thomas R. Louns- 
bury in the " American Men of Letters " series; Griswold, Prose 
Writers of America (Philadelphia, 1847); J. R. Lowell, Fable for 
Critics; M. A. de Wolfe Howe, American Bookmen (New York, 
1898); and the introduction by Mowbray Morris to Macmillan's 
uniform edition of Cooper's novels (London, 1900). (W. E. H.) 

COOPER, PETER (1791-1883), American manufacturer, 
inventor and philanthropist, was born in New York city on the 
I2th of February 1791. His grandfathers and his father served 
in the War of American Independence. He received practically 
no schooling, but worked with his father at hat-making in New 
York city, at brewing in Peekskill, at brick-making in Catskill, 
and again at brewing in Newburgh. At seventeen he was 
apprenticed to a coach-builder in New York city. On coming of 
age he got employment at Hempstead, Long Island, making 

machines for shearing cloth; three years afterwards he set up 
in this business for himself, having bought the sole right to 
manufacture such machinery in the state of New York. Business 
prospered during the War of 1812, but fell off after the peace. 
He turned his shop into a furniture factory; soon sold this and 
for a short time was engaged in the grocery business on the site 
of the present Bible House, opposite Cooper Union; and then 
invested in a glue and isinglass factory, situated for twenty-one 
years in Manhattan (where the Park Avenue Hotel was built 
later) and then in Brooklyn. About 1828 he built the Canton Iron 
Works in Baltimore, Maryland, the foundation of his great 
fortune. The Baltimore & Ohio railway was to cross his property, 
and, after various inventions aiming to do away with the loco- 
motive crank and thus save two-fifths of the steam, in 1830 he 
designed and constructed (largely after plans made two years 
before) the first steam locomotive built in America; though 
only a small model it proved the practicability of using steam 
power for working that line. The "Tom Thumb," as Cooper 
called the locomotive, was about the size of a modern hand-car; 
as the natural draft was far from sufficient, Cooper devised a 
blowing apparatus. Selling his Baltimore works, he built, in 
1836, in partnership with his brother Thomas, a rolling mill in 
New York; in 1845 he removed it to Trenton, New Jersey, where 
iron structural beams were first made in 1854 and the Bessemer 
process first tried in America in 1856; and at Philippsburg, 
New Jersey, he built the largest blast furnace in the country at 
.that time. He built other foundries at Ringwood, New Jersey, 
and at Durham, Pennsylvania; bought iron mines in northern 
New Jersey, and carried the ore thence by railways to his mills. 
Actively interested with Cyrus Field in the laying of the first 
Atlantic cable, he was president of the New York, Newfound- 
land & London Telegraph Company, and his frequent cash 
advances made the success of the company possible; he was 
president of the North American Telegraph Company also, 
which controlled more than one-half of the telegraph lines of the 
United States. For his work in advancing the iron trade he 
received the Bessemer gold medal from the Iron and Steel 
Institute of Great Britain in 1879. He took a prominent part in 
educational affairs, strongly opposed the Roman Catholic claims 
for public funds for parochial schools, and conducted the 
campaign of the Free School Society to its successful issue in 
1842, when a state law was passed forbidding the support from 
public funds of any "religious sectarian doctrine." He is 
probably best known, however, as the founder of the Cooper 
Union (q.v.). Cooper was an early advocate of the emancipation 
and the enlistment in the Union army of Southern negroes, and 
he upheld the administration of Lincoln. Though he had been a 
hard-money Democrat, he joined the Greenback party after the 
Civil War, and in 1876 was its candidate for the presidency, but 
received only 81,740 out of the 8,412,833 votes cast. He died in 
New York city on the 4th of April 1883. He published The 
Political and Financial Opinions of Peter Cooper, with an Auto- 
biography of his Early Life (1877), and Ideas for a Science of 
Good Government, in Addresses, Letters and Articles on a Strictly 
National Currency, Tariff and Civil Service (1883). 

There is a brief biography by R. W. Raymond, Peter Cooper 
(Boston, 1900). 

COOPER, SAMUEL (1609-1672), English miniature painter. 
This artist was undoubtedly the greatest painter of miniatures 
who ever lived. He is believed to have been born in London, 
and was a nephew of John Hoskins, the miniature painter, by 
whom he was educated. He lived in Henrietta St., Covent Garden, 
and frequented the Covent Garden Coffee-House. Pepys, who 
makes many references to him, tells us he was an excellent 
musician, playing well upon the lute, and also a good linguist, 
speaking French with ease. According to other contemporary 
writers, he was a short, stout man, of a ruddy countenance. He 
married one Christiana, whose portrait is at Welbeck Abbey, and 
he had one daughter. In 1668 he was instructed by Pepys to 
paint a portrait of Mrs Pepys, for which he charged 30. He is 
known to have painted also the portrait of John Aubrey, 
which was presented in 1601 to the Ashmolean Museum, as we 



learn from his correspondence with John Ray, the naturalist. 
Evelyn refers to him in 1662, when, on the occasion of the visit 
that the diarist paid to the king, Cooper was drawing the royal 
face and head for the new coinage. 

Magnificent examples of his work are to be found at Windsor 
Castle, Belvoir Castle, Montague House, Welbeck Abbey, Ham 
House, the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam and in the collection of 
Mr J. Pierpont Morgan. His largest miniature is in the posses- 
sion of the duke of Richmond and Gordon at Goodwood. A piece 
of the artist's handwriting is to be seen at the back of one of 
his miniatures in the Welbeck Abbey collection, and one of his 
drawings in black chalk is in the University Gallery at Oxford. 
His own portrait of himself is in the collection of Mr J. Pierpont 

The date of his death has been handed down by a record in the 
diary of Mary Beale, the miniature painter; and in some letters 
from Mr Charles Manners, addressed to Lord Roos, dated 1672, 
now amongst the duke of Rutland's papers at Belvoir, the writer 
refers to Cooper's serious illness on the 4th of May, and to his 
doubt as to whether the artist would ever recover. Mary Scale's 
reference to his decease is in the following words: " Sunday, 
May 5, 1672 Mr Samuel Cooper, the most famous limner 
of the world for a face, dyed." 

For a fuller account see the History of Portrait Miniatures, by 
G. C. Williamson, vol. i. p. 64. (G. C. W.) 

COOPER (or COUPER), THOMAS (c. 1517-1594), English bishop 
and writer, was born in Oxford, where he was educated at 
Magdalen College. He became master of Magdalen College 
school, and afterwards practised as a physician in Oxford. 
His literary career began in 1548, when he compiled, or rather 
edited, a Latin dictionary Bibliotheca Eliotae, and in 1549 he 
published a continuation of Thomas Lanquet's Chronicle of the 
World. This work, known as Cooper's Chronicle, covers the 
period from A.D. 17 to the time of writing, and was reprinted in 
1 560 and 1 565. In 1 565 appeared the first edition of his greatest 
work, Thesaurus Linguae Romanae et Brilannicae, and this was 
followed by three other editions. Queen Elizabeth was greatly 
pleased with the Thesaurus, generally known as Cooper's Dictionary ; 
and its author, who had been ordained about 1559, was made 
dean of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1567. Two years later he 
became dean of Gloucester, in 1571 bishop of Lincoln and in 1584 
bishop of Winchester. Cooper was a stout controversialist; he 
defended the practice and precept of the Church of England 
against the Roman Catholics on the one hand and against the 
Martin Marprelate writings and the Puritans on the other. He 
took some part, the exact extent of which is disputed, in the 
persecution of religious recusants in his diocese, and died at 
Winchester on the 29th of April 1594. 

Cooper's Admonition against Martin Marprelate was reprinted in 
1847, and his Answer in Defence of the Truth against the Apology of 
Private Mass in 1850. 

COOPER, THOMAS (1759-1840), American educationalist 
and political philosopher, was born in London, England, on the 
22nd of October 1759, and educated at Oxford. Threatened 
with prosecution at home because of his active sympathy with 
the French Revolution, he emigrated to America about 1793, 
and began the practice of law in Northumberland county, 
Pennsylvania. He was president-judge of the Fourth District 
of Pennsylvania in 1806-1811. Like his friend Joseph Priestley, 
who was then living in Northumberland, he sympathized with 
the Anti-Federalists, and took part in the agitation against the 
Sedition Act, and for a newspaper attack in 1799 on President 
John Adams, Cooper was convicted, fined and imprisoned for 
libel. Like Priestley, Cooper was very highly esteemed by 
Thomas Jefferson, who secured for him the appointment as 
first professor of natural science and law in the University of 
Virginia a position which Cooper was forced to resign under 
the fierce attack made on him by the Virginia clergy. After 
filling the chair of chemistry in Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 
(1811-1814), and in the University of Pennsylvania (1818-1819), 
he became professor of chemistry in South Carolina College, at 
Columbia, in 1819, and afterwards gave instruction in political 

economy also. In i82ohebecameactingpresident of this institution, 
and was president from 1821 until 1833, when he resigned owing 
to the opposition within the state to his liberal religious views. 
In December 1834, owing to continued opposition, he resigned 
his professorship. He had been formally tried for infidelity in 
1832. He was a born agitator: John Adams described him as 
" a learned, ingenious, scientific and talented madcap." Before 
his college classes, in public lectures, and in numerous pamphlets, 
he constantly preached the doctrine of free trade, and tried to 
show that the protective system was especially burdensome to 
the South. His remedy was state action. Each state, he con- 
tended, was a sovereign power and was in duty bound to protest 
against the tyrannical acts of the Federal government. He 
exercised considerable influence in preparing the people of 
South Carolina for nullification and secession; in fact he pre- 
ceded Calhoun in advocating a practical application of the state 
sovereignty principle. The last years of his life were spent in 
preparing an edition of the Statutes at Large of the state, which 
was completed by David James McCord (1797-1855) and pub- 
lished in ten volumes (1836-1841). Dr Cooper died in Columbia 
on the nth of May 1840. As a philosopher he was a follower of 
Hartley, Erasmus Darwin, Priestley and Broussais; he was a 
physiological materialist, and a severe critic of Scotch meta- 
physics. Among his publications are Political Essays (1800); 
An English Version of the Institutes of Justinian (1812); Lectures 
on the Elements of Political Economy (1826); A Treatise on the 
Law of Libel and the Liberty of the Press (1830); and a translation 
of Broussais' On Irritation and Insanity (1831), with which 
were printed his own essays, "The Scripture Doctrine of Material- 
ism," " View of the Metaphysical and Physiological Arguments 
in favour of Materialism," and " Outline of the Doctrine of the 
Association of Ideas." 

See I. Woodbridge Riley, American Philosophy: the Early Schools 
(New York, 1907). 

COOPER, THOMAS (1805-1892), English Chartist and writer, 
the son of a working dyer, was born at Leicester on the 2oth of 
March 1805. After his father's death his mother began business 
as a dyer and fancy box-maker at Gainsborough. Young 
Cooper was apprenticed to a shoemaker. He had a passion for 
knowledge; studied Greek, Latin and Hebrew in his spare time; 
and in 1827 gave up cobbling to become a schoolmaster, and, 
later, a Methodist preacher. His affairs did not prosper, and 
after going to Lincoln, where he obtained work on a local news- 
paper, he came to London in 1839. Here he became assistant 
to a second-hand bookseller, but in 1840 he joined the staff of 
the Leicestershire Mercury. His support of the Chartist move- 
ment obliged him to resign his position, but he undertook to 
edit The Midland Counties Illuminator, a Chartist journal, in 
1841. He became a leader of the extreme Chartist party, and 
for his action in urging on the strike of 1842 he was imprisoned 
in Stafford gaol for two years. Here he produced The Purgatory 
of Suicides, a political epic in ten books, embodying the radical 
ideas of the time. In his efforts to publish this work after his 
liberation he came under the notice of Benjamin Disraeli and 
Douglas Jerrold. Through Jerrold's help it appeared in 1845, 
and Cooper then turned his attention to lecturing upon historical 
and educational subjects. In 1856 he suddenly renounced the 
free-thinking doctrines which he had held for many years, and 
became a lecturer on Christian evidences. He died at Lincoln 
on the 1 5th of July 1892. Among his other works may be 
mentioned the Bridge of History over the Gulf of Time (1871) 
and the Life of Thomas Cooper, written by Himself (1872). 

COOPER, THOMAS SIDNEY (1803-1902), English painter, 
was born at Canterbury on the 26th of September 1803. In 
very early childhood he showed in many ways the strength of his 
artistic inclinations, but as the circumstances of his family did 
not admit of his receiving any systematic training, he began be- 
fore he was twelve years old to work in the shop of a coach painter. 
A little later he obtained employment as a scene painter; and 
he alternated between these two occupations for about eight 
years. But the desire to become an artist continued to influence 
him, and all his spare moments were given up to drawing and 


painting from nature. At the age of twenty he went to London, 
drew for a while in the British Museum, and was admitted as a 
student of the Royal Academy. He then returned to Canterbury, 
where he was able to earn a living as a drawing-master and by 
the sale of sketches and drawings. In 1 8 2 7 he settled in Brussels ; 
but four years later he returned to London to live, and by 
showing his first picture at the Royal Academy (183.3) began an 
unprecedentedly prolonged career as an exhibitor. Cooper's 
name is mainly associated with pictures of cattle or sheep, and 
the most notable of the many hundred he produced are: " A 
Summer's Noon" (1836), "A Drover's Halt on the Fells" 
(1838), " A Group in the Meadows " (1845), " The Half-past 
One o'Clock Charge at Waterloo " (1847), " The Shepherd's 
Sabbath " (1866), " The Monarch of the Meadows " (1873), 
" Separated but not Divorced " (1874), " Isaac's Substitute " 
(1880), " Pushing off for Tilbury Fort " (1884), " On a Farm 
in East Kent " (1889), " Return to the Farm, Milking Time " 
(1897). He was elected A.R.A. in 1845 and R.A. in 1867. He 
presented to his native place, in 1882, the Sidney Cooper Art 
Gallery, built on the site of the house in which he was born. 
He wrote his reminiscences, under the title of My Life, in 1890; 
and died on the 7th of February 1902. 

COOPERAGE, or COPERAGE (Flemish and Dutch kooper, a 
trader, dealer), a system of traffic in spirituous liquors, tobacco 
and other articles amongst the fishermen in the North Sea. The 
practice began in the middle of the igth century, when Flemish 
and Dutch hoopers frequented the fishing fleets for the purpose of 
barter. Trading first in tobacco, they extended their operations, 
and soon became practically floating grog-shops. 

The demoralizing nature of the traffic was brought to the 
public notice in 1881, and a convention was held at the Hague in 
1882 to consider means of remedying the abuses. In 1887 Great 
Britain, Germany, Belgium, Denmark, France and the Nether- 
lands signed an agreement to prevent the sale or purchase of 
spirituous liquors among fishermen at sea. In Great Britain an 
act (the North Sea Fisheries Act 1888) was passed to carry into 
effect the terms of the convention. The act (now repealed and 
replaced by the North Sea Fisheries Act 1893, with which it is 
identical but for some slight verbal modifications) imposes a fine 
not exceeding 50 or a term of imprisonment not exceeding three 
months for supplying, exchanging or otherwise selling spirits. 
It imposes a like penalty for purchasing spirits by exchange or 
otherwise, and requires every British vessel dealing in provisions 
or other articles to have a licence and to carry a special mark. 
In 1882 Mr E. J. Mather started a mission to deep sea fishermen, 
which sends out mission ships and supplies the fishermen with 
good clothing, literature, tobacco, &c., at a fair price. This 
mission, now the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen, 
is registered by the Board of Trade. 

See E. J. Mather, Nor'ard of the Dogger (1888), and publications 
of the Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. 

COOPERAGE (from " cooper," a maker of casks, derived from 
such forms as Mid. Dutch cuper, Ger. Kiifer, Lat. cuparius; the 
same root is seen in various Teut. words for a basket, such as 
Dutch kuip and Eng. " kipe " and " coop, " but cooper is appar- 
ently not formed directly from " coop," which never means a 
" cask " but always a basket-cage for poultry, &c.), the art of 
making casks, barrels and other rounded vessels, the sides of 
which are composed of separate staves, held together by hoops 
surrounding them. The art is one of great antiquity; Pliny ascribes 
its invention to the inhabitants of the Alpine valleys. The trade 
is one in which there are numerous subdivisions, the chief of 
which are tight or wet and dry or slack cask manufacture. 
To these may be added white cooperage, a department which 
embraces the construction of wooden tubs, pails, churns and other 
even-staved vessels. Of all departments, the manufacture of 
tight casks or barrels for holding liquids is that which demands 
the greatest care and skill, since, hi addition to being perfectly 
tight when filled with liquid, the vessels must bear the strain of 
transportation to great distances, and in many cases have to 
resist considerable internal pressure when they contain ferment- 
ing liquors. The staves are best made of well-seasoned oak. 

Since a cask is a double conoid, usually having its greatest 
diameter (technically the bulge or belly) at the centre, each 
stave must be properly curved to form a segment of the whole, 
and must be so cut as to have a suitable bilge or increase of 
width from the ends to the middle; it must also have its edges 
bevelled to such an angle that it will form tight joints with its 
neighbours. The staves being prepared, the next operation is to 
set up or raise the barrel. For this purpose as many staves as are 
necessary are arranged upright in a circular frame, and round 
their lower halves are fitted truss hoops which serve to keep 
them together for the permanent hooping. The upper ends are 
then drawn together by means of a rope which is passed round 
them and tightened by a windlass, and other truss hoops are 
dropped over them, the wood being steamed or heated to enable 
it to bend freely to shape. The two ends of the cask are next 
finished to receive the heads by forming the chime, or bevel on 
the extremity of the staves, and the croze or groove into which 
the heads fit. Finally the heads and permanent hoops are put in 
place. The heads, when made of two or more pieces, are jointed 
by wooden dowel pins, and after being cut to size are chamfered 
or bevelled round the edge to fit into the croze grooves. The 
hoops are generally of iron. The manufacture of slack casks 
proceeds on the same general lines, but is simpler in various 
respects, both because less accurate workmanship is required, and 
because softer woods, largely fir, may be employed. Machinery of 
the most elaborate and specialized character has been devised to 
perform most of the operations in making both slack and tight 
casks, and though it involves considerable capital outlay it 
effects so great an economy of time that it has largely superseded 
hand labour. (For an account of such machinery see L. H. Ran- 
some, " Cask-making Machinery," Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. vol. 115; 
also an article in Engineering, 1908, 85, p. 845.) Barrels without 
separate staves are made by bending a sheet of wood, sawn from 
a log in a continuous strip, into the required circular shape, the 
bulge at the centre being obtained by cutting out V gores from 
the ends. Barrels are also sometimes made of steel, either of the 
ordinary bulging form or consisting of straight-sided drums 
provided near the middle with rings on which they may be rolled. 
Immense numbers of casks of different shapes and sizes are 
employed in various industries. Tight barrels are a necessity to 
the wine and cider maker, brewer and distiller, and are largely 
used for the transport of oils and liquid chemicals, while slack 
barrels are utilized by the million for packing cement, alkali, 
china, fruit, fish and numerous other products. 

CO-OPERATION, a term used particularly both for a theory 
of life, and for a system of business, with the general sense 
of " working together " (con, with, and opus, work). In its 
narrowest usage it means a combination of individuals to econo- 
mize by buying in common, or increase their profits by selling in 
common. In its widest usage it means the creed that life may 
best be ordered not by the competition of individuals, where each 
seeks the interest of himself and his family, but by mutual help; 
by each individual consciously striving for the good of the social 
body of which he forms part, and the social body in return 
caring for each individual: " each for all, and all for each " is its 
accepted motto. Thus it proposes to replace among rational and 
moral beings the struggle for existence by voluntary combination 
for life. More or less imperfectly embodying this theory, we have 
co-operation in the concrete, or " the co-operative movement," 
meaning those forms of voluntary association where individuals 
unite for mutual aid in the production of wealth, which they will 
devote to common purposes, or share among them upon principles 
of equity, reason and the common good, agreed upon beforehand. 
Not that a co-operative society can begin by saying absolutely 
what those principles in their purity would dictate. It begins 
with current prices, current rates of wages and interest, current 
hours of labour, and modifies them as soon as it can wherever 
they seem least conformable to equity, reason and the common 

In the industrial world there is everywhere much working 
together for the production of wealth, but this is not included in 
co-operation if the shares of those concerned are determined by 


competition, i.e. by a struggle and the relative ability of each to 
secure a large share. Nor do co-operators regard the association 
as truly voluntary, though it may depend on contract, if that 
contract be one of service only, without an opportunity for all 
concerned to share in the ultimate control. Co-operation in 
fact is essentially a democratic association. On the other hand, 
there is some working together for the production of wealth 
which without being competitive, or based on service, is not 
strictly voluntary: thus in primitive societies there is much 
customary help, combined with customary division of the produce ; 
and in advanced societies we have state and municipal socialism. 
These are indeed sometimes included in co-operation, but at 
least they are not voluntary co-operation, since the individual 
has no choice but to take part in them; they depend on the 
power of the ruler to coerce the ruled, or of the majority to 
coerce the minority. In co-operation, meaning voluntary co- 
operation, there may also, it is true, be frequent overruling of 
the minority by the majority, but only so far as the minority 
have; when joining the association, voluntarily agreed to permit, 
and subject always to an effective ultimate right of secession. 

Thus co-operation occupies the middle ground between 
competition and state or municipal socialism. In its technical 
sense, however, it does not cover the whole of this ground: it 
does not cover associations which are primarily for social, 
provident, or religious purposes, but only those closely connected 
with the production of wealth. We speak of co-operative 
societies for agriculture, for manufacturing, for retail, or whole- 
sale distribution, for building or house-owning, for raising capital 
and so forth; while the great Friendly Societies (q.v.), though a 
part of co-operation as a theory of life, are not part of the co- 
operative movement. The line is somewhat hard to draw, and 
consequently is drawn somewhat arbitrarily. Thus while a 
society for building, or for the collective ownership of houses, is 
counted a co-operative society, a Building Society (as we 
ordinarily understand the term), though it be purely mutual in 
its basis, is not so counted in Great Britain, but is in the United 

For the early history of the co-operative movement we have to 
look chiefly to Great Britain, and British co-operation acknow- 
ledges as its founder Robert Owen (q.v.). In every age 
and every country the origins of co-operation may no 
doubt be traced, where men have helped one another in 
the creation of wealth and agreed as brothers as to its division. 
In England long before the days of Owen there was much co- 
operation of miners and fishermen which, though scarcely 
obligatory on the individuals taking part in it, was largely 
regulated by custom. Coming to more purely voluntary associa- 
tions, co-operative workshops are recorded, retail co-operation was 
practised in Scotland from the middle of the i8th century, while 
in England shops not unlike co-operative stores, but without the 
democratic element, were in one or two instances set up by 
benevolent individuals. It does not seem, however, that there 
was any theory of co-operation until Owen in England, and 
almost simultaneously Fourier (q.v.) in France, formulated their 
gospels, not identical, yet having much in common. Of these 
two Owen and his teaching are by far the more important. 

The end of the i8th and the beginning of the igth centuries 
were the culminating days of the industrial revolution, when the 
old organization of domestic industry had given way before the 
factory system, and the population of the factory districts was 
suffering a martyrdom, with ruin of body and degradation of 
character, from unbridled competition, long hours, women's 
and children's labour, pauper apprenticeship, great fluctuations 
of trade and employment, dearness and adulteration of pro- 
visions, the truck system and insanitary homes. Owen, having 
himself become a great employer of labour, after starting as a 
draper's assistant, saw that this was in every sense waste, and 
that as it paid the manufacturer to have the best machinery and 
not to overdrive it, but to tend it well and keep it in the best 
repair, so it would pay him, and abundantly pay the nation, 
to have the human machines well cared for, not overworked, 
and kept in the best condition. The popular individualistic 

philosophy of that day taught that the good of society would be 
achieved by each individual seeking in his business relations 
the interest of himself and his family; but Owen maintained 
that the well-being of the social body could only be served if 
each individual made that his conscious aim. For this reason he 
and his disciples were called Socialists. He taught further that a 
man's character depended mainly upon the circumstances which 
influenced his life; he emphasized environment, and all but 
denied heredity. At New Lanark, from 1799, he carried out 
these ideas among the workers in the cotton mills of which he 
was managing partner. 1 " For twenty-nine years," he wrote. 
" we did without the necessity for magistrates or lawyers; 
without a single legal punishment; without any known poors' 
rate; without intemperance or religious animosities. We re- 
duced the hours of labour, well educated all the children from 
infancy, greatly improved the condition of the adults, diminished 
their daily labour, paid interest on capital, and cleared upwards 
of 300,000 of profit." So wonderful were the results upon the 
population, that New Lanark became a show-place of world-widt 
renown, and was visited by many of the' greatest and most 
exalted people of the period. 

While thus using his own power Owen not only advocated 
legislation to limit the hours of factory labour, but appealed to 
the public authorities to establish industrial communities, where 
the poor might be set to work, and be managed paternally on 
the principles of New Lanark. So great was his repute, and so 
influential the royal and other personages who gave him their 
support, that this appeal might probably have been successful 
had not Owen, in reply to complaints as to his religious views 
which were deistic and that his system was not founded on 
religion, made a public attack upon all accepted religions. 

Failing to get the required support from the Government and 
magistrates, he still sought it from wealthy believers in his 
teaching, and a number of "communities" (see COMMUNISM) 
were founded in England and Scotland, and in the United States. 
These were intended to be self-supporting, the land and other 
means of producing wealth being owned in common, and work 
and education being regulated on Owen's principles. Owen well 
knew that most of them lacked the large amount of capital 
necessary, but his hand was forced by enthusiastic followers, and 
even the most hopeful of the experiments, that of Queenwood in 
Hampshire (1839-1844), was made prematurely and failed. 

His connexion with New Lanark also came to an end, not from 
any want of success, but through differences with some of his 
partners who objected to such matters as dancing, military drill 
for the children, and the wearing of kilts, but above all feared lest 
Owen's " infidelity " should undermine the people's faith. 

Thus it might have seemed that Owen's life and fortune had 
been spent in vain, and resulted only in unsuccessful experiments; 
but this was far from being so. His teaching, and in particular 
his doctrines of circumstance, and of the conscious seeking after 
the social good, his belief in self-supporting communities, and his 
vision of a new moral and industrial world, had powerfully 
affected the working classes, indeed, all classes. Workmen in 
many parts of the country had formed groups with the ultimate 
object of founding self-supporting communities. If the govern- 
ment and the rich would not provide capital enough to start 
communities, the workers would start them themselves. Thus 
was the democratic basis given to co-operation. As a means they 
had been founding co-operative societies, which are sometimes 
called " union shops " to distinguish them from the later growth 
of societies of the Rochdale type. The members began by 
buying provisions wholesale and retailing them to themselves at 
current prices; the difference became capital, and as soon as 
possible one member was set to work to make boots and another 
clothes, and so forth, until ultimately the society should have 
capital enough to take land and form a community. Education 
also was prominent among their objects. These co-operative 
societies reached some 400 or 500 between 1828 and 1834, but the 
movement then collapsed. As the original enthusiasm died out, 
or members left the neighbourhood, or capital accumulated in 
1 Holyoake, History of Co-operation (1906 edition), i. 34. 

8 4 


the hands of the original shareholders, they almost all either failed 
or became private property. In those early days, moreover, the 
law gave no protection to the property of co-operative societies. 
This remained so until 1852, when the Christian Socialists (see 
SOCIALISM) among their many great services to the working 
classes secured such protection. In 1862 they secured also limited 
liability for the members. 

Before 1844 a co-operative society had already been formed and 
failed at Rochdale in Lancashire, yet some ardent spirits planned 
Rochdale to ^ orm anot; ' ler - Twenty-eight poor men, flannel 
pioneers, weavers and such like, got together a capital of 28 
by twopenny and threepenny subscriptions, and in 
December 1844 opened in Toad Lane, Rochdale, a little shop from 
which, speaking broadly, the whole of British co-operation, and 
very much of that of other lands, has grown. Their objects were 
those of other co-operative societies of the time, including the 
ultimate aim of a self-supporting community. In this last they 
never succeeded, nor indeed did they attempt it; but they did 
succeed in vastly improving the position of millions of the working 
classes by enabling them to obtain their provisions cheap and 
pure, to avoid the millstone of debt, to save money, to pass from 
retail to wholesale trade, and from distribution to manufacturing, 
building and house-owning, ship-owning and banking; above 
all to educate themselves, and to live with an ideal. 

The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers began their trading in the 
smallest way, the members taking turns to serve in the shop; 
yet where so many other Union shops had failed Rochdale 
succeeded, and it has steadily grown to an institution with some 
14,000 members, doing a trade of 300,000, owning shops and 
workshops, a library and reading-rooms, making large profits, and 
devoting a substantial part of them to education and to charitable 
purposes. What was the reason of this difference? Chiefly it 
would seem a different method of dealing with the profits. 
Earlier " Stores " had divided these according to the capital 
contributed by each member, or else equally among the members: 
the Rochdale Pioneers determined that, after paying 5 % interest 
on the share capital, all profit should be allotted to the purchasing 
members in proportion to their purchases, and be capitalized in 
the name of the member entitled, until his shares amounted to 
5. Thus each member found it his interest to purchase at the 
store and to introduce new purchasers. The ownership of the 
store remained always with the purchasers, and each came under 
the magic influence of a little capital saved. 

Not only did Rochdale store grow amazingly, but its example 
spread far and near. New stores were founded on the " Rochdale 
Growth pl an " an d old stores adopted it; soon they were 
of co- numbered by hundreds. In spite of many failures 
operative there were in 1906 more than fourteen hundred such 

""*' stores in the United Kingdom, with nearly two and a 
quarter million members, over 33,000,000 capital, and sales 
exceeding 63,000,000 in the year. The number of societies does 
not increase of late years, the tendency being rather for estab- 
lished societies to open branches, but all the other figures increase 
rapidly from year to year. 

These workmen's Co-operative Stores,or Distributive Societies, 
flourish chiefly in the north and midlands of England and in 
Scotland, but are found more or less all over the country. 
They, and practically all other British co-operative societies, 
are registered under the Industrial and Provident Societies Act, 
which constitutes them corporate bodies, with limited liability, 
and fixes 200 as the maximum that any member may hold in the 
share capital. Their government is democratic, based on one 
vote each, for man or woman; and their members or share- 
holders, and their committee-men or directors, are almost 
exclusively the more provident of the working classes, or belong 
to the class just above. Store societies are of various sizes, from 
the small village shop to the greatest of them all, the Leeds 
Society, with nearly 50,000 members, sales exceeding a million 
and a half sterling, and an elaborate organization of branches 
and manufacturing departments. Their method, the " Rochdale 
system," is as follows, subject to occasional variations. Member- 
ship is open to all who pay a shilling entrance fee and sign for a 

i share, which can be paid up out of profit. For the most part 
members may at any time withdraw their shares in cash at par. 
A record of each member's purchases is kept by means of metal 
tokens or otherwise, and at the end of each quarter, after paying a 
limited interest (never more than 5 %, and in very many societies 
less) on shares, and, in some societies, paying a proportion of 
profit to the employees, the surplus is divided to the members in 
proportion to their purchases : non-members also usually receiving 
half dividends on theirs. Thus the members in effect obtain their 
necessaries at cost price. The dividend on members' purchases 
averages about 23. 6d. in the . In many successful societies even 
more is paid, but the average is falling. Where dividend is high, 
prices are often fixed above those current in the neighbourhood, 
so that the members, in addition to saving the retailer's profit, 
use their Society as a sort of savings bank, where they put away 
a halfpenny or so for every shilling they spend. In addition to 
retailing, a store often manufactures bread, clothes, boots and 
millinery, sometimes farms land, or grinds corn; usually for its 
own members only, but occasionally for sale to other societies 
also. Their productions in this way exceed 5,000,000 a year. 
They also invest large and increasing sums in building cottages, to 
let or sell to their members; and they lend still more largely to 
their members, to enable them to buy cottages. 

Outwardly these stores may look like mere shops, but they are 
really much more. First, they are managed with a view not to a 
proprietor's profit, but to cheap and good commodities. Secondly 
they have done an immense work for thrift and the material 
prosperity of the working classes, and as teachers of business 
and self-government. But further, they have a distinct social 
and economic aim, namely, to correct the present inequalities of 
wealth, and substitute for the competitive system an industry 
controlled by all in the common interest, and distributing on 
principles of equity and reason, mutually agreed on, the wealth 
produced. With this view they acknowledge the duties of fair 
pay and good conditions for their own employees, and of not 
buying goods made under bad conditions. The best societies 
further set aside a small proportion of their profits for educational 
purposes, including concerts, social gatherings, classes, lectures, 
reading-rooms and libraries, and often make grants to causes with 
which they sympathize. Their members are prominent in local 
government affairs; co-operative candidates are occasionally run 
for town councils, and often talked of for parliament. Though 
the societies are non-political, and have refused to join the labour 
representation movement, they are usually centres of " pro- 
gressive " ideas. There are of course many defects, and of their 
two million members a large, and many fear an increasing, 
proportion, attracted by the prosperity of the societies, think 
chiefly of what they themselves gain; but the government of the 
movement has, hitherto at least, been largely in the hands of men 
of ideas, who believe that stores are but a step to co-operative 
production, and on to the " co-operative commonwealth." 

It is indeed only when we come to federations of co-operative 
societies, and above all to production, with its large number of 
employees, that the educational side of the movement and its 
power to promote industrial reform are most seen. The Co- 
operative Union, Limited, for instance, is a propagandist 
federation of all the chief co-operative societies in Great Britain, 
and some in Ireland. Its income of 10,000 a year is contributed 
by the Co-operative Societies. It looks after their legal and 
parliamentary interests, carries on much educational work by 
means of literature, lectures, classes, scholarships, summer 
meetings at the universities, and so on; organizes numerous 
local conferences for discussion, and once a year a great national 
co-operative congress, and exhibition of productions, in some 
chief centre of population. The Co-operative Wholesale Society, 
Limited, is a trading federation of the great majority of the 
English stores. Founded in 1863 on a small scale, it now counts 
its employees by thousands, its capital by millions, and its yearly 
sales by tens of millions. Besides its merchant trade, it manu- 
factures to the value of 4,500,000, owning factories, warehouses 
and land in many districts. It imports largely, and runs its own 
steamships. It is also the bank of the co-operative societies, 


and the chief outlet for the always redundant capital of the well- 
established stores. The Scottish stores also have their Wholesale 
Society, not less important relatively. For many purposes these 
two are in partnership. In each of them the net profits are 
returned to the stores as a dividend on purchases, and thence to 
the whole body of members; but in the Scottish Wholesale a part 
is also paid to its employees as a dividend upon their wages. 
There are also a few local federations of stores, mostly for corn- 
milling and baking. 

Strongly contrasting with this production by associations of 
consumers, or " consumers' production," is the co-partnership, or 
labour co-partnership, branch of co-operation. Its 
simplest form is an association of producers formed to 
carry on their own industry. Originally such societies 
were intended to consist solely of the workers employed; the 
ideal was the " self-governing workshop," introduced from France 
by the Christian Socialists of 1850; but membership is now open 
to the distributive societies, which are the chief customers, and 
usually, to all sympathizers. Shares are transferable, not 
withdrawable. Profits first pay the agreed " wages of capital," 
usually 5%, and of what remains the main part goes to the 
employees as a dividend on their wages, and to the customers as a 
dividend on their purchases. In well-established societies the 
dividend on wages averages about is. on the . This is not 
usually paid in cash, but credited to the employees as share 
capital, whereby all may become members. Besides other 
producers' associations, more or less co-operative, there are over 
a hundred co-partnership societies at work in England, against a 
dozen or fifteen in 1883. They are engaged in boot-making, 
printing, building, weaving, clothing, wood-working, metal- 
working, and so on. Some of them are very small, while others 
have businesses of 50,000 a year or more, the average being 
about 10,000. The majority show fair, sometimes large 
profits. Each is governed by a committee, which is elected by 
the members and appoints the manager. A minority of them 
sell in the open, i.e. the non-co-operative, market, and a few sell 
largely for export. 

We constantly hear that co-operative production is a failure. 
There have no doubt been failures, especially of big experiments 
attempted among men totally unprepared. But many 
of the failures counted were not truly co-operative. 
At the present day consumers' production is successful 
beyond all question, while the net growth of producers' associa- 
tions in the last twenty years has been marked both in number 
and importance. These two forms of production best illustrate 
the two rival theories which divide British co-operation, and 
between whose partisans the conflict has at times been sharp. 
The consumers' theory maintains that all profit on price is 
abstracted from the consumer, and must be returned to him; 
while to him should also belong all capital and control, subject to 
such regulations as the state and the trade unions enforce. 
This theory is fully exemplified in the English Wholesale Society, 
and ii some of the smaller federations for production, which 
employ workmen, whether co-operators or not, for wages only, 
and admit no individual, but only co-operative societies, to 
membership. It is also exemplified by the great majority of the 
stores, though in their case the employee may become a member 
in his capacity as a consumer. The co-partnership theory, on 
the other hand, maintains that the workers actually employed in 
any industry, whether distributive or productive, should be 
partners with those who find the capital, and those who buy the 
produce, and should share with them the profit, responsibilities 
and control. The consumers' party contend that societies of 
producers make a profit out of the consumers, and thus are never 
truly co-operative, while as they multiply they must compete 
against each other. The co-partnership party answer that labour 
at least helps to make the profit, and that competition, as yet 
almost insignificant between their societies, can be avoided by 
federating them (a process long ago begun) for buying and selling 
in common, and for other common purposes, while leaving each 
the control and responsibility of its own internal affairs. They 
further advocate the eventual federation of the productive wing 



of co-operation with the distributive, for settling prices and all 
matters in which their interests might conflict. In this way they 
say the co-operative system may extend indefinitely without 
sacrificing either individual responsibility and freedom, or a 
general unity and control, so far as these are necessary to secure 
the common interest. On the other hand they hold that the 
opposing system tends more and more to centralization and 
bureaucracy, and divorces the individual workman from all 
personal interest in his work, and from any control over its 
conditions. They contend, moreover, and it is indeed admitted 
that, in spite of the great advantages which consumers' produc- 
tion has in its command of a market and of abundant capital, 
only a small part of industry can ever be carried on by associa- 
tions of the persons who actually consume the produce. Outside 
this small part, therefore, voluntary co-operation is impossible 
except as some form of co-partnership. 

On the working-out of these two principles depends the future 
of co-operation. The example of Scotland probably throws 
light on the problem. There co-operative production, amounting 
to some millions sterling, is nearly all carried on by federations of 
consumers' societies, including the Scottish Wholesale, which 
apply more or less successfully the co-partnership principle i.e. 
their employees are admitted to share in profits, and may 
become members, whereby they are further admitted to share in 
capital and control. The type of organization hence resulting is 
very much the same as where a society of producers admits 
consumers' societies to membership, and sets aside a proportion of 
the profits to be returned to them as dividend upon their 
purchases. To this combined type, we have seen, English 
productive societies, started by producers, have come; and it 
would appear that those started by consumers must ultimately 
tend to it. However, in spite of honoured leaders of the early 
days, the consumers' party is at present greatly in the ascendant 
in English co-operation, and even in the Scottish federations it is 
almost strong enough to abolish co-partnership, and allow no one 
to share in capital, profit or control except in his capacity as a 

An association of co-operative societies and individuals, called 
the Labour Co-partnership Association, exists to maintain the 
principle of co-partnership in co-operation, and also to promote 
its gradual adoption in ordinary businesses. Some progress in 
this latter direction is being made, there being a tendency to 
improve upon simple profit-sharing by capitalizing the workman's 
" bonus," whereby he becomes a shareholder, and the business 
is gradually modified in a co-operative direction. There are 
remarkable instances of such modification abroad, notably that 
of the great iron foundry and Familistere at Guise in France. 
The most noteworthy, among several, in England is that of the 
South Metropolitan Gas Company, where after eighteen years of 
the system 5000 odd employees had in 1907 more than 320,000 
invested in the company; they also elect three of themselves 
directors of the company, this being one-third of the board. 
Unfortunately this example is, or at least was, marred by a feud 
with the trade unions, whereas there is friendship between trade 
unionism and co-partnership, as indeed between trade unionism 
and co-operation generally. 

One of the most recent and promising developments of English 
co-operation is the tenants' co-partnership movement for the 
common ownership of groups of houses, which the Tenants' 
society owning them lets out to its members. These co-pmrt- 
societies are but few as yet, but they have sprung up " er * hl P 
rapidly and promise great usefulness and extension. 
Somewhat similar societies have long been a recognized branch of 
co-operation on the continent of Europe. 

Such, then, are the history and present extent of co-operation 
in Great Britain. Turning abroad we find in almost all civilized 
countries, besides other forms of co-operation, im- The move- 
portant and growing movements roughly similar to meat 
those above described, but on the whole less identified f a 
with the working classes and less coloured by their 
social and economic ideals. In France, Germany, Switzerland, 
Italy and elsewhere, there are very important co-operative 



distributive movements looking to Rochdale as their prototype; 
and in the United States of America there are at least continual 
attempts to spread Rochdale co-operation. Of these foreign 
stores, however, many exhibit important modifications, such as 
unlimited liability, and selling at cost price, or between that and 
market prices. On the whole we may say that Rochdale Co- 
operation is the most extended and the most typical. It, and the 
workshop movement springing from Fourier, and the socialist co- 
operation of Belgium and elsewhere, are certainly the forms which 
have most of the ideal of democratic equality and social recon- 
struction. Other forms look more to the money benefits accruing 
to the members, seeking to supplement the present order of 
society, rather than to bring in a new order. Among these other 
forms separate in origin, in methods, and largely in spirit the 
most important are credit co-operation, or people's banking, and 
agricultural co-operation, two forms until recently unknown in 
the British Islands. 

Confusion has sometimes arisen from the fact that while 
Rochdale Co-operation sets itself against " credit," continental 
Germany co-operation j s more concerned with obtaining credit 
mad credit for its members than with anything else. But credit is 
co-opera- used in two senses. The English workman employed 
ao "' for wages is against the credit which means spending 

them before they are earned: continental co-operation seeks by 
collective credit to put into the hands of working peasants, 
craftsmen and traders, the stock and the tools without which 
their labour is vain. Credit for consumption is the road to 
poverty; credit for production the road to well-being. 

Just as with co-operation in labour and in purchase, so mutual 
help in obtaining credit may doubtless be traced in primitive 
forms far back into history. It was certainly more or less " in 
the air " in Germany and France about 1848 and even earlier; 
but the beginning of systematic organized credit co-operation 
may be definitely fixed in the year 1849, when Raiffeisen began 
his Darlehnscasse, or loan bank, in Rhenish Prussia. Curiously 
enough it had also a second and entirely independent origin. For 
in the following year Schulze-Delitzsch, in a distant part of the 
same kingdom, established his Credit Society based on an 
entirely different system. As this second system spread much 
more rapidly than the other and attained, as indeed it retains, 
much greater commercial magnitude, it came to be regarded as 
the beginning of credit co-operation, of which for a long time it 
was the only important form. These two remain the two distinct 
types in every land. Thus Germany, which has innumerable 
co-operative societies of every form and of great importance, is 
in particular the mother of credit co-operation. 

In the famine years of 1846 and 1847 and for some years after, 
Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen was a burgomaster in the barren 
Westerwald. The people were hopelessly ground down 
ky deDt to money-lenders for small doles of capital, 
banks. advanced to purchase stock, or meet times of special 
difficulty. It occurred to Raiffeisen that by combining 
to borrow a moderate sum of money on their joint responsibility, 
and afterwards to lend it out among themselves in small sums at a 
slightly greater rate of interest, the peasants might obtain relief 
from their burden of usury, and at the same time get the capital 
necessary to make their labour productive. Accordingly in 1849 
at the little town of Flammersfeld, he set up a " Loan Bank." 
Despite its success, it remained the only one of its kind for five 
years, when Raiffeisen founded a second. There was no third 
for eight years more: it was only in 1880 that they began really 
to spread, but now they are found in many lands and are counted 
by thousands. 

Such a bank is essentially an association of neighbours. 
Besides borrowing, it also receives savings deposits, which often 
produce a large part of, or even all, the capital it needs. Usually 
a few of the members are comparatively well to do people, who 
join to help their neighbours by increasing the society's credit. 
This Raiffeisen considered essential. They have no actual privi- 
lege, but by common consent they take a leading part. In the 
true Raiffeisen bank the liability of each member is unlimited, 
but limited liability has been introduced in some of its modifica- 

tions. The Society confines its operations strictly to a small area , 
say a parish, where everyone knows everyone. Each borrower 
must specify the purpose for which he wants a loan, say to buy a 
cow or drain a field, or pay off a money-lender, and this is 
rigorously inquired into. Only members can borrow. Any 
member, however poor, can borrow for a profitable approved 
purpose, and no one, however rich, for any other. Practically 
all the members see that the money is applied as agreed; and, 
while the loan is often made for a long period, a year or two 
even for ten or more so as to repay itself out of the 
profit, power is reserved to call it in at short notice if misapplied. 
Loans are repayable by periodical instalments, but repayments 
must be made with absolute punctuality. No bills, mortgages or 
other securities are taken, except a note of hand either alone or 
with one or two sureties. There are two committees, one to lend 
and do the work of the society, and the other to supervise the 
first; and on both of these it is understood that the richer 
members are to be in a majority. No committeeman or officer 
receives any - remuneration for his services, except that the 
accountant gets a small salary. Originally there were no shares, 
and when in 1889 the legislature ordained that there must be 
shares, the Raiffeisen banks made theirs as small as possible, 
generally ten or twelve shillings. Nothing is paid on the shares as 
interest or dividend, all profit being voted once for all to the 
ordinary reserve and the indivisible reserve, the latter the 
backbone of the system. In every large district the Raiffeisen 
banks are federated in a Union, and these Unions culminate in a 
General Agency. As an intermediary among themselves, and 
between them and the money market, the banks have also a 
central bank with a capital of 500,000, and with ten provincial 
branches. A great deal of agricultural co-operation has arisen 
from these banks as centres, and with the money they have 

Raiffeisen banks boast that neither member nor creditor has 
ever lost a penny by them, and while this is denied it seems at 
least near the truth. Their credit is so good that they can obtain 
money at very low rates, and as their expenses are trifling they 
can re-lend to their members at rates but little higher. Tn 
Germany they usually lend at about 5%. Only men of good 
character can obtain membership: thus, besides spreading 
prosperity, they have everywhere been great promoters of 
sobriety and good conduct. They were only intended to meet 
the needs of the peasants, especially of the very poorest, and for 
this purpose they have proved admirably suited. 

Very different were the people among whom Schulze-Delitzsch 
established his form of co-operative credit; and very different 
the organization he adopted and the results which have 
flowed from it. In 1850 Franz Hermann Schulze was a ^Jj^^ 
judge in his native town of Delitzsch, almost at the banks. 
middle point of the southern edge of Prussia, and 
established there his first Vorschussverein, or Advance-Union. 
He had been in England and knew something of our co-operative 
movement, but he scarcely seems to have derived any part of his 
inspiration from it. The people he desired to help were towns- 
men , especially the small craftsmen working on their own account . 
the joiners, shoemakers and so forth; and his ideal was to do this 
merely by stimulating their thrift. 

In a Schulze-Delitzsch bank, a number of such men combine 
together to raise a capital of guarantee: to do this every member 
takes up one share and one only, which is of large value, say 
30 or 50 or even much more, but can be paid up by small 
instalments. Thus every member is committed to a long course 
of saving. On the strength of this capital in course of formation, 
and the unlimited liability of the members, the bank is able to 
borrow, or to receive as savings and deposits from members and 
others, a much larger capital. The funds so constituted it lends 
out at the highest rates it can command, originally 12% or 14%, 
but now very much less, and varying, of course, with the market. 
It lends to members only, but to any amount, for any purpose and 
on any good and sufficient security, whether acceptance, pro- 
missory note, overdraft, discount, mortgage, pledge, surety or 
what not. The loans, however, are always for a short period.. 


usually three months, renewable for another three months, and 
sometimes further than that. The committee of management are 
elected by the general meetings; they decide on all loans, and 
receive a salary, plus a commission on the business done. The 
council of supervision are also paid, or at least entitled to pay. 
The great objects which a bank keeps in view are security and a 
good return on capital. It is not confined to a small area, but 
works for as large and as varied a constituency as possible. With 
such a constitution the Schulze-Delitzsch banks grow big and 
accumulate a large capital of their own. On an average each 
bank has nearly 600 members, and lends about 150,000 per 
annum, including loans renewed. Losses are sometimes made, 
but they are not heavy on the whole. All the profits are divided 
upon capital, or put to reserve, except some, usually small, 
sums given to charitable or educational purposes. Dividends 
average about 5%, but have been known to reach and even 
exceed 30%. 

It may therefore justly be said that for co-operative institu- 
tions these banks smack too much of joint-stockism: they are in 
fact co-operative not much more than in the same sense that the 
Oldham cotton mills, and other " working-class limiteds," have 
sometimes been loosely called co-operative. They seem consti- 
tuted to make the lender's interest supreme, but they have, 
nevertheless, conferred enormous benefits on the handicraftsmen, 
small traders, small cultivators and others who borrow from 
them. They have put capital within their reach at reasonable 

These banks also have their central point. In 1 864 the German 
Co-operative Societies' Bank was founded to centralize the work 
of the local Schulze-Delitzsch banks and to bring the money 
market within their reach. It was not itself co-operative, and 
never confined its business to the co-operative banks. B eginning 
in a very small way, by 1903 it had attained a capital of a million 
and a half sterling and a yearly business of 154,000,000, of 
which 28,000,000 was specifically with co-operative credit 
societies. It was then amalgamated with another banking 
business, the Dresdner Bank, esteemed one of the most important 
and successful in Germany. 

Thus these two types of credit co-operation agree in being 
founded on unlimited liability, but speaking broadly they are 
contrasted in that the Schulze-Delitzsch banks work primarily, 
though by no means solely, among townsmen, are based on share 
capital, work for profit, which they divide on shares, are con- 
ducted by paid directors, and confer their benefits not on the 
very poorest but rather, as their own friends say, on the middle 
classes: the Raiffeisen banks are designed for the peasantry, are 
not based upon share capital, neither divide, nor work for, 
profit, are conducted by unpaid directors, and confer their 
benefits especially on the very poor. The Schulze-Delitzsch type 
is strong in self-help, but tends to commercialism as it grows; 
the other needs the help of the well-to-do to back up the self- 
help of the poor, but it tends to altruism and the union of 

The world has 30,000 co-operative credit societies, not counting 
building societies; and though they are organized in many 
groups, especially in their native Germany, for local reasons, or 
because of some modification, or some compromise between the 
two systems, the two types really include them all. There is, 
however, a strong tendency to introduce limited liability into 
various offshoots of the one type and the other; even into the 
orthodox Schulze-Delitzsch banks themselves, when they grow 
big. From Germany co-operative banks have spread into almost 
all European countries even at last to Ireland and England 
and to America and Asia. In Germany there are some fifteen 
thousand local, and no less than sixty central, co-operative 
credit associations, which lend out 180,000,000 a year including 
renewals. In Italy, Austria and Hungary they are also strong. 
n 1896 it was estimated that 150,000,000 a year must be very 
well within the total amount lent by money co-operation on the 
continent of Europe; eight years later it could not well fall short 
of 250,000,000, and the amount keeps constantly increasing. 
Of this total only a small percentage represents loans by banks of 

the Raiffeisen type, which, though very numerous, often lend 
only a few hundred pounds each in the year. 

Great controversy has prevailed as to the state subsidies given 
to co-operative credit. While governments are sometimes rather 
inclined to hinder co-operative distribution, they have shown 
a marked tendency to foster, whether for political or economic 
reasons, co-operative credit. The Prussian government in 
response to popular demand, vigorously supported by the 
agricultural interest, has founded and endowed with 2,500,000 
of public money, the Central Co-operative Bank, whose object 
is to bring capital within the reach of the various groups of co- 
operative banks. The Schulze-Delitzsch Union was the only 
one to dispute the need of this, and though the bank has given 
a stimulus to the formation of co-operative societies, it still 
denies that this is a healthy propagation. Nevertheless, some 
even of the Schulze-Delitzsch societies resort to this state bank 
for money, it is under government administration and lends 
immense sums each year. In France the Bank of France has 
been compelled to lend 1,600,000 free of interest, and to give 
about 120,000 per annum out of its profits to assist agriculture; 
this money is being lent free to " regional " banks, and by them 
at about 3% to local societies. State help has also been given 
to the co-operative bank of the French workmen's productive 
societies. In Austria and in many other countries a great deal 
of similar help has been given. 

Closely connected with certain developments of credit, and 
deserving to rank as the third, if not the second, great sub- 
division of co-operation, is agricultural co-operation, Denmark 
a movement in the main of the last twenty years, but and agri- 
amounting now to a great force, almost everywhere cultural 
except in Great Britain, and in some countries almost co-operu- 
to a revolution. It is important to say agricultural a "' 
co-operation and not co-operative agriculture, for in spite of 
some customary mutual help in farm work, in spite of several 
attempts, and some small successes, in co-operative farming, 
the actual cultivation is almost everywhere individualistic. 
The farmer or peasant cultivates alone, or with his family, or 
servants; when he co-operates with his fellows, it is to manu- 
facture, or to market, the products of his farm, or more often 
to obtain the things he needs for his farming, to raise stock, to 
own expensive machinery in common, or insure against risks. 
By these means the small farmer, without sacrificing his own 
peculiar advantages, obtains most of the advantages of the big 
farmer, to the immense improvement of his position. 

At almost every point agricultural and credit co-operation 
touch; yet the most perfect example of agricultural co-operation 
is not concerned with credit co-operation in any form. The 
farmers of Denmark practise co-operation in almost every 
variety, except for raising capital. The commercial banks have 
provided money to start dairies and other co-operative societies; 
so that, it would appear, the need of credit co-operation has not 
been felt. 

The Danish farmer is almost always a freeholder: it is little 
more than a century since his ancestors were serfs. It is little 
more than a generation since a few men, turning to account the 
strong national feeling aroused by the defeat of 1864, started a 
great educational movement which has left its mark on all strata 
of Danish society. After the People's High School, technical 
schools arose in various places; and to these, and to the excellent 
continuation schools in the country districts, the Danes are 
beholden for the regeneration of their agriculture. From 1867 
co-operative distributive societies on the Rochdale plan had been 
spreading in Denmark; but it was not till 1882 that co-operation 
in agriculture began, and the first co-operative dairy was formed; 
ten years later there were about a thousand such, a number 
which has slightly increased since. These dairies are productive 
societies in which the cow-owners are the shareholders, and all 
shareholders have equal rights and equal voting power, whether 
they own one cow or one hundred. Almost every village has 
its co-operative dairy, fitted to deal with the milk of from 400 
to 1400, or even 2000 cows. They far exceed all the other dairies 
of Denmark. More than four-fifths of all the milk of Denmark 



is used in them, and they produce butter worth more than nine 
millions sterling. The profits are divided among those who supply 
the cream, in proportion to the value of their supplies a method 
of dividing profits characteristic of agricultural co-operation. 
The village dairies are united in federations to export their 

Side by side with the dairies are other co-operative societies, 
quite independent but largely composed of the same members, 
for buying collectively fodder, manures and other agricultural 
or household requisites, for collecting and exporting eggs, 
slaughtering hogs and curing bacon, improving the breed of 
stock, for bee-keeping, fruit-growing and so forth. By means 
of these societies the country has been greatly enriched. The 
farmer not uncommonly belongs to ten co-operative societies, 
besides probably a farmers' club. The work of starting and 
administrating the societies is seldom paid, and many farmers 
give much time to it gratuitously. They are in the main 
organized on the same principles as the dairies, but with varia- 
tions; the largest egg export society, for instance, has over 
30,000 members. It is not a federation of village societies, but 
a centralized body with many branches. 

The growth of the bacon-curing societies has been remarkable. 
The first of them was not founded until 1887, but they spread 
rapidly, and in seven years there were twenty, killing more than 
half the country's then produce of hogs. The movement has 
greatly increased since then, and multiplied its output about 
fourfold. Co-operation in collecting, grading and exporting 
eggs only began in 1895, and in eight years 65,000 members 
had joined the various egg societies, and the value of eggs 
exported had reached 436,000. Taken as a whole, the effect of 
agricultural co-operation in Denmark has amounted to little less 
than a revolution. It has brought the results of science within the 
peasant's reach, and he has been quick to avail himself of them: 
it has transformed a great part of farm work into a factory 
industry, increased the yield of the soil, improved the material 
position of the peasants, and drawn rich and poor together. 
Denmark, once so poor, is now, except England, probably the 
richest country in Europe in proportion to its population. 
Besides Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Holland, 
Finland, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada, 
Ireland and many other countries have important developments 
of agricultural co-operation. In Germany, where it is closely 
connected with credit co-operation, it seems to date from 1866 
only, yet in forty years agricultural co-operative societies have 
come to number six thousand, without counting the agricultural 
banks, which exceed twice that number. There are dairies, 
societies to purchase farm requisites, societies of grape-growers, 
hop-growers and beetroot-growers, distilleries, labour societies, 
insurance societies, societies to own warehouses and granaries 
and to sell produce, to purchase land and resell it in small 
holdings, and even several societies which purchase land to 
cultivate it in common. The close connexion between credit- 
societies and other agricultural co-operation is exemplified in 
the Central Union of orthodox Raiffeisen credit societies at 
Neuwied. Through a central bank and a trading department 
allied to it, it has negotiated the joint purchase of coal, feeding- 
stuffs, manures, machinery and so forth to large amounts, as well 
as the difficult business of the combined sale of agricultural 
produce. Moreover, several local centres connected with this 
union have granaries and warehouses for the storage of agri- 
cultural produce, and negotiate joint sales, while within the union 
facilities have been found for selling the products of one district 
to members in another. 

In Ireland stores have not hitherto flourished, though a few 

exist. Irish co-operation is agricultural, and dates from the 

foundation of one co-operative dairy in 1889. Thence 

has grown a movement already of great importance, 

culture. s t'" advancing and comprising from eighty to ninety 

thousand members, belonging to some hundreds of 

societies dairies, agricultural supply societies, banks and so 

forth, formed on the Danish model. To form a dairy the small 

working farmers of a district register a society and take up 

shares of i each, in proportion to the number of their cows. 
Each brings his milk to be separated, is paid for the butter- 
making material it contains, and receives back skim milk. If 
any profit is divided, it belongs nine-tenths to the suppliers of 
milk in proportion to the value of their supplies, and one-tenth 
to the dairy employees as dividend on wages in pursuance of 
the co-partnership principle. These dairies produce butter 
worth more than 1,000,000. Their rapid spread is due to their 
great influence in improving the quality of butter, and hence 
increasing the farmer's gains. The co-operative banks are of 
the Raiffeisen type, though a few have limited liability. They 
aim at providing the peasants with necessary capital (" the 
lucky money " they have christened it) and expelling the usurer. 
They are increasing rapidly. Among other objects of Irish 
co-operation are selling eggs, poultry, barley and pigs, joint- 
grazing, potato-spraying, scutching flax, bacon curing, home 
industries, and of course supplying farm requisites. The move- 
ment promises much further growth in magnitude and variety. 
The dairy societies have federated into an agency for reaching 
the English market, and the supply societies into an Irish 
Wholesale for purchasing to the best advantage. Besides the 
direct profits and economies of these societies, they have greatly 
benefited Ireland by teaching men of all classes, parties and 
religions to act together for peaceful progress; they have led 
to a wide diffusion of better agricultural knowledge, and to the 
establishment by government of the Agricultural Department. 

In France, which Englishmen are apt to speak of as pre- 
eminently the country of co-operative production, the agri- 
cultural is the most important branch of co-operation; 
and the source and mainstay of agricultural co-opera- 
tion are the Syndicats Agricoles. These are not culture 
technically co-operative societies; they are rather '" France 
trade unions, not indeed of wage-earners only, or and otl ? er 
mainly, but of cultivators. They cannot legally trade, 
being constituted for the study and protection of the general 
interests of the members, the spread of information, and so 
forth. Their principal object however, seems in many cases 
to be to combine their members for the purchase of all farm 
requisites and especially of chemical manures. This they do 
by collecting, sorting and passing on orders. They cannot 
usually manage selling in common without the intervention of 
a society specially registered for that object. Beginning only 
in 1893, their number long ago ran into thousands and their 
membership into hundreds of thousands, drawn from all classes 
of cultivators and landowners, great and little. Among much 
other good work they have led to the formation of a large 
number of strictly co-operative societies for all the purposes 
of agriculture, except cultivation in common. Thus there are 
two thousand agricultural banks, besides butter factories, 
distilleries, associations for threshing, for sale of fruit and 
vegetables, for wine-making, oil-pressing, and so on, amounting 
altogether to some hundreds. There are also societies, mostly 
of ancient date, engaged in making Gruyere cheese: a few years 
ago these numbered 2000, but they are dwindling. Lastly, there 
are some eight thousand mutual insurance societies organized 
as agricultural syndicates. 

Everywhere the main features of this agricultural movement 
are similar to those we have seen in Denmark and Ireland; it 
is supplementary to individual cultivation; hardly ever does 
it appear as associations for cultivating in common, and, speaking 
with certain important exceptions, it has no very ideal aims, 
but seeks chiefly to give the farmer a better profit. In England 
there are a number of farms worked by stores, and several 
large associations for the supply of farm requisites; but the 
typical agricultural co-operation, based on small village societies 
and federations of such societies, has only recently been made 
known and begun to take root. 

It is notable that while the Syndicats agricoles are almost 
exactly what Fourier, the Robert Owen of France, foresaw as the 
next stage of social development, the other great branch of 
French co-operation, the workshop movement of the A ssoc rations 




ouvrieres de production, is directly due to his teaching, which 
led in 1848 to the starting of a large number of co-operative 
France workshops. The suppression of association after the 
and co- advent of Napoleon III. killed most of them, but 
operative with the return of liberty they revived and they have 
steadily increased ever since. They vary somewhat 
among themselves, but are in the main combinations of 
workmen to carry on their industries with their own capital or 
that of their trade unions. Their chief difference from English 
co-partnership societies is that they very rarely admit to member- 
ship any persons not belonging to the trade. They are engaged 
in a great variety of industries, selling comparatively little to 
co-operative distributive societies, as English co-partnership 
societies do, but taking contracts from government depart- 
ments and the municipalities, and supplying the general public. 
Complete statistics of their total trade are not available, but 
it exceeds 2,000,000, and the separate societies seem to vary, 
like the majority of English co-partnership societies, from about 
40,000 a year downwards, a few being larger but the great 
majority small. From about 140 societies in 1896 they have 
grown to between two and three times that number, and the 
increase continues with rapidity. More than two hundred of 
them are federated in the Chambre consultative des associations 
ouvrieres de production, which looks after certain business in- 
terests of the societies, and also assists the formation of new 
ones by propaganda and advice. In Paris alone about a third of 
these societies are found. 

It has been objected that their growth is artificial inasmuch as 
the government gives them certain advantages, such as pre- 
ference over the private contractor at an equal price, exemption 
from the deposit of security, and special concessions as to 
payments on account. It also grants a subvention (recently 
about 7000 per annum), which was formerly all given to the 
societies in grants, but is now largely lent to them at not more 
than 2% interest through their own special bank. This bank 
was founded in 1893 to help the societies with loans and discounts, 
and was soon after endowed by a disciple of Fourier with 20,000. 
The societies have also benefited by other private beneficence 
and public help. As to the Government aid, it must be remem- 
bered that in France the state helps all forms of industry 
in ways unknown to us, and the French co-operative producers 
always declare that what is done for them is a trifle compared 
to what is done for other manufacturers. Moreover, they get 
many large contracts in open and unaided competition. In 
these societies the auxiliaires, or workers who are not members, 
are often numerous; but no society is now admitted to their 
federation which does not share profits with the auxiliaires and 
facilitate their admission to membership. 

Consumers' co-operation, credit co-operation, agricultural 
co-operation, and workshop co-operation, as exemplified in 
Great Britain, Germany, Denmark and France, are found in 
most advanced countries, some in one and some in another, 
in forms roughly similar to those above described. Of co- 
operation for production it might have been said, a few years ago, 
that outside Great Britain it everywhere meant associations of 
producers. Except bakeries, there was but little consumers' 
production; that, however, seems now to be spreading in foreign 
countries also. The most important developments of co-opera- 
tion not yet described are the socialist co-operation of Belgium, 
the co-operative building societies of the United States, the 
labour societies of Italy and Russia, the co-operation of German 
craftsmen to provide themselves with raw material, and the 
letting out of railway construction to temporary co-operative 
groups of workmen by the New Zealand and Victorian 

In Belgium co-operation is mostly socialist in the towns and 
Catholic in the country. In all the principal industrial centres 
are very important co-operative bakeries and distributive 
societies, owned by co-operative groups, numbering thousands 
of workmen of every calling. These Maisons du peuple are 
admitted to be well managed, even by those who dislike their 
politics. The socialist party look upon them chiefly as a means 

of organizing and educating the working classes for political 
and economic emancipation, and of providing funds for political 
warfare. Like the English stores, and allied societies, they are 
based on the consumer, but unlike them they pay no interest on 
share capital, though they do on deposits. A much larger part 
of the profit than in England is devoted to propaganda and 
common purposes, though a part is also paid to the consumers 
individually in the form of checks exchangeable for bread or 
other goods. The workers employed also receive a share of 
profit as a dividend on their wages, and elect their repre- 
sentatives on the committee of management. By means of 
these societies the party has a press, buildings, and the funds to 
fight elections and support members in parliament. In France, 
where the store movement has been of an individualistic, and 
often middle class, tendency, the socialists have lately imitated 
the example of Belgium, and seem to be winning more success 
than the older French stores. 

In the United States there has long been much important 
agricultural co-operation, and there have been many much-ad- 
vertised attempts to establish Rochdale co-operation, but there 
have so often been failures and even dishonesties that co-opera- 
tion has had a bad odour in the country, and the developments 
come and go with such rapidity that it is difficult to speak with 
confidence of its stability. The branch of co-operation which 
has been a great success in the United States consists of the great 
co-operative building societies, but building societies are not 
considered part of the co-operative movement in Great Britain. 

Co-operation of all kinds is greatly developed in Italy, but 
one form is specially notable. The Sociela di lavoro are co- 
operative labour gangs of great importance. They are counted 
by hundreds, and are found among navvies, builders, masons, 
carriers, stevedores, agricultural labourers and other workmen, 
and have carried out very great works in Italy and in foreign 
countries. They have, for instance, drained lands in the Cam- 
pagna and made a railway in Greece. They differ from pro- 
ductive societies markedly in that they have comparatively little 
to do with capital or material, but contract mainly for labour. 

The Slavonic races seem to have a special aptitude for grouping 
together co-operatively: it is said that men meeting casually 
on a journey will do so for the brief time they are together. In 
countries like Servia we see this ancient, and more or less cus- 
tomary, loose and unstable co-operation meeting the modern 
contractual, permanent co-operation of banks and other 
registered societies. So in Russia, where so large a part in the 
national organization is played by the Artel (see RUSSIA), which 
may be a transitory co-operative group of workmen undertaking 
a particular piece of work, e.g. to build a house, or a permanent 
association like that of the bank porters combined together to 
guarantee one another's honesty. 

While English and some other forms of co-operation have 
always repudiated state help, and probably rightly, so far as 
their own work is concerned, the state in almost all state help. 
countries, and conspicuously in England, has in fact 
helped to the extent of providing special legislation, and waiving 
fees, so as to encourage the formation of co-operative societies. 
A second form of state help is very noticeable in the modern 
development of agriculture, as in Denmark, Canada, New Zealand, 
Ireland and very many countries, where the state has played a 
great part in performing or assisting functions which neither 
voluntary association nor individual enterprise could well 
perform alone; in providing technical education, expert advisers, 
exhibitions and prizes; in distributing information in all forms; 
in finding out markets, controlling railway rates, subsidizing 
steamboats, and even grading, branding, warehousing and 
freezing produce, and maintaining trade agents abroad. These 
things have not been done for co-operative societies alone, but 
for agriculture in general; but co-operation has chiefly benefited, 
and much has been done expressly to encourage the formation 
of associations of cultivators, and provincial and national 
federations of such associations; and government departments 
of agriculture are found acting through such bodies, and with 
their advice and assistance. The third and most questionable 

9 o 



form of state help is by direct subventions, and we have seen 
how much has been done in this way for credit co-operation and 
particularly agricultural credit. Harm has undoubtedly been 
done in certain cases by forcing co-operative societies, whether 
from political motives or merely mistaken policy. Yet even 
as to money subventions, good authorities, while admitting the 
great dangers, remain convinced that the advantages overbalance 
them, self-help being evoked, and helped over initial difficulties 
which would otherwise be insuperable. Experience in fact 
shows that governments can do a very great deal, at least for 
agricultural co-operation, but only on condition that they 
encourage, and do not undermine, self-help and private initiative. 
Thus while voluntary association is sometimes advocated as a 
step towards, and sometimes on the other hand as a substitute for, 
and bulwark against, state socialism, we find in practice these 
two forces working each in its own sphere, and in ways com- 
plementary one to the other, while underlying and essential to 
both is the force of individual action and self-help. 

We have now surveyed co-operation in its chief forms and in 
some of the countries where it is chiefly found. Some years ago 
it was roughly estimated that the members of one or 
other of its branches numbered six millions, represent- 
ing with their families a population of 25,000,000 
people. This must be much within the truth to-day. In no 
other country so much as in Great Britain do we find the tendency 
for all branches of co-operation to federate in one union and to 
help one another by mutual trade. Yet everywhere the instinct 
of co-operative societies is to federate with others at least with 
others of their own particular shade; so that Wholesales and 
other federations are found more and more in many countries. 
Since 1895 the co-operators and co-operative societies of many 
far-distant lands almost of the whole world have been drawn 
together by the International Co-operative Alliance, a body 
which, without attempting to interfere in their differences, 
collects information from all, and distributes it to all, keeps 
them all in touch, and every few years calls their delegates to- 
gether in congress, to discuss their problems, and to remember 
their common ideals. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. International Co-operative Alliance, Interna- 
tional Co-operative Bibliography (London, 1906); G. J. Holyoake, 
History of Co-operation (London, 1875-1879, new ed., 1906), History 
of the Rochdale Pioneers (London, 1893, new ed., 1900), Self-Help a 
Hundred Years Ago (London, 3rd ed., 1891), Co-operative Movement 
of To-day (London, 1891, new ed., 1896); Lloyd Jones, Life and 
Times and Labours of Robert Owen (London, 1890, new ed., 1895); 
F. Podmore, Robert Owen (London, 1906) ; E. T. Craig, History of 
Ralahine (London, 1882, new ed., 1893); Thomas Hughes and 
E. V. Neale, A Manual for Co-operators (Manchester, 1881, 1888); 
Catherine Webb (editor), Industrial Co-operation (Manchester, 1904) ; 
Beatrice Potter (Mrs Sidney Webb), Co-operative Movement in Great 
Britain (London, 1891, 1893, 1904); A. H. D. Acland and B. Jones, 
Working Men Co-operators (1898); Benjamin Jones, Co-operative 
Production (London, 1894) ; C. R. Fay, Co-operation at Home and 
Abroad (London, 1908); H. D. Lloyd, Labour Co-partnership 
(London and New York, 1898) ; D. F. Schloss, Methods of Industrial 
Remuneration (London, 2nd ed., 1894) I N. P. Gilman, Profit Sharing 
(London, 1892) ; C. Robert, Guide pratique de la participation (Paris, 
1892); Aneurin Williams, Twenty-eight Years of Co-partnership 
at Guise (Letchworth, 1908), Relations of Co-operative Movement to 
National and International Commerce (Manchester, 1896); Dallet- 
Fabre-Prudhommeaux, Le Familistere illustre (Paris, 1901); 
Bernadot, Le Familistere de Guise (Guise, 1892); E. O. Greening, 
The Co-operative Traveller Abroad (London, 1888); H. W. Wolff, 
People's Banks (London, 1893, 1896), Co-operative Banking, its 
Principles and Practice, with a chapter on Co-operative Mortgage 
Credit (London, 1907) ; de Rocquigny, La Co-operation de pro- 
duction dans I 'agriculture (Paris, 1896); Merlin, Les Associations 
ouvrieres et patronales, &c. (Paris, 1900); Mabilleau and others, 
La Prevoyance sociale en Italic (Paris, 1898); Fr. MuIIer, Wesen, 
Grundsdtze und Nutzen der Consumvereine (Basel, 1900). See also 
the annual Reports of the Government Labour Departments, and the 
Monthly Bulletin of the Internat. Co-op. Alliance. (A. Wl.*) 

COOPERSTOWN, a village and the county-seat of Otsego 
county, New York, U.S.A., where the Susquehanna river emerges 
from Otsego Lake; about 92 m. (by rail) W. of Albany. Pop. 
(1890) 2657; (1000) 2368; (1905) 2446; (1910) 2484. It is 
served by the Cooperstown & Charlotte Valley railway (owned 
and controlled by the Delaware & Hudson), and is on the line of 

the Oneonta & Mohawk Valley electric railway. The village 
lies in the midst of a hop-growing and dairying region, and has 
cheese factories and creameries. It has a public library, Thanks- 
giving hospital, a Y.M.C.A. hall, and the Diocesan orphanage 
(Protestant Episcopal). Cooperstown is a summer resort, 
Otsego Lake (9 m. long and with an average width of about i m.). 
the " Glimmerglass " of Cooper's novels, being one of the most 
picturesque of the New York lakes. Cooperstown occupies the 
site of an old Indian town. In 1 785 the site became the property 
of Judge William Cooper, who in the following year founded there 
a village which took his name and was incorporated in 1807. 
Judge Cooper himself settled here with his family in 1790. His 
son, James Fenimore Cooper, who lived here for many years 
and is buried in the Episcopal cemetery here, made the region 
famous in his novels. 

See J. Fenimore Cooper, The Chronicles of Cooperstown (Coopers- 
town, 1838). 

COOPER UNION, a unique educational and charitable institu- 
tion " for the advancement of science and art " in New York 
city. It is housed in a brownstone building in Astor Place, 
between 3rd and 4th Avenues immediately N. of the Bowery, 
and was founded in 1857-1859 by Peter Cooper, and chartered 
in 1859. In a letter to the trustees accompanying the trust-deed 
to the property, Cooper said that he wished the endowment to 
be " for ever devoted to the advancement of science and art, in 
their application to the varied and useful purposes of life "; 
provided for a reading-room, a school of art for women, and an 
office in the Union, " where persons may apply ... for the 
services of young men and women of known character and 
qualifications to fill the various situations "; expressed the 
desire that students have monthly meetings held in due form. 
" as I believe it to be a very important part of the education 
of an American citizen to know how to preside with propriety 
over a deliberative assembly"; urged lectures and debates 
exclusive of theological and party questions; and required that 
no religious test should ever be made for admission to the Union. 
Cooper's most efficient assistant in the Union was Abram S. 
Hewitt. In 1900 Andrew Carnegie put the finances of the Union 
on a sure footing by gifts aggregating $600,000. For the year 
1907 its revenue was $161,228 (including extraordinary receipts 
of $25,565, from bequests, &c.), its expenditures $161,390; at 
the same time its assets were $3,870,520, of which $1,070,877 
was general endowment, building and equipment, and $2,797,728 
was special endowments ($205,000 being various endowments 
by Peter Cooper; $340,000, the William Cooper Foundation: 
$600,000, the Cooper-Hewitt Foundation; $391,656, the John 
Halstead Bequest; $217,820, the Hewitt Memorial Endowment). 
The work has been very successful, the instruction is excellent, 
and the interest of the pupils is eager. All courses are free. 
The reading-room and library contain full files of current journals 
and magazines; the library has the rare complete old and new 
series of patent office reports, and in 1907 had 45,760 volumes: 
in the same year there were 578,582 readers. There is an 
excellent museum for the arts of decoration. Apart from 
valuable lecture courses, the principal departments of the Union, 
with their attendance in 1907, were: a night school of science 
a five-year course in general science (667) and in chemistry (154). 
a three-year course in electricity (114), and a night school of art 
( X 333)i a day school of technical science four years in civil, 
mechanical or electrical engineering (237); a woman's art 
school (282); a school of stenography and typewriting for 
women (55); a school of telegraphy for women (31); a class in 
elocution (96); and classes in oratory and debate (146). During 
the year 2505 was the highest number in attendance at anytime, 
and then 3000 were on the waiting list. 

In the great hall of the Union free lectures for the people are 
given throughout the winter; one course, the Hewitt lectures, 
in co-operation with Columbia University, " of a very high 
grade, corresponding more nearly to those given by the Lowell 
Institute in Boston "; six (in 1907) courses in co-operation with 
the Board of Education of New York city, which, upon Mayor 
Hewitt's suggestion, made an appropriation for this work in 


9 1 

1887-1888, and extended such lecture courses to different parts 
of the city, all under the direction (after 1890) of Henry M. 
Leipziger (b. 1854), and several courses dealing especially with 
social and political subjects, and including, besides lectures and 
recitals, public meetings for the discussion of current problems. 

CO-OPTATION (from Lat. co-optare; less correctly " co- 
option "), the election to vacancies on a legislative, administrative 
or other body by the votes of the existing members of the body, 
instead of by an outside constituency. Such bodies may be 
purely co-optative, as the Royal Academy, or may be elective 
with power to add to the numbers by co-optation, as municipal 
corporations in England. 

COORG (an anglicized corruption of Kodagu, said to be derived 
from the Kanarese Kudu, " steep," " hilly "), a province of India, 
administered by a commissioner, subordinate to the <governor- 
general through the resident of Mysore, who is officially also 
chief commissioner of Coorg. It lies in the south of the peninsula, 
on the plateau of the Western Ghats, sloping inland towards 
Mysore. It is an attractive field of coffee cultivation, though 
the greater part is still under forest, but the prosperity of the 
industry has declined since 1891. The administrative head- 
quarters are at Mercara (pop. 6732). Coorg is the smallest 
province in India, its area being only 1582 sq. m. Of this 
amount about 1000 sq. m. consist of ghat, reserved and other 
forests. Coorg was constituted a province not on account of 
its size, but on account of its isolation. It lies at the top of the 
Western Ghats, and is cut off by them from easy communication 
with the British districts of South Kanara and Malabar, which 
form its western and southern boundaries, while on its other 
sides it is surrounded by the native state of Mysore. It is a 
mountainous district, presenting throughout a series of wooded 
hills and deep valleys; the lowest elevations are 3000 ft. above 
sea-level. The loftiest peak, Tadiandamol, has an altitude of 
5729ft.; Pushpagiri, another peak, is 5626 ft. high. The prin- 
cipal river is the Cauvery, which rises on the eastern side of 
the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries drains the greater 
part of Coorg. Besides these there are several large streams 
that take their rise in Coorg. In the rainy season, which lasts 
during the continuance of the southwest monsoon, or from June 
to the end of September, the rivers flow with violence and great 
rapidity. In July and August the rainfall is excessive, and the 
month of November is often showery. The yearly rainfall may 
exceed 160 in.; in the dense jungle tract it reaches from 120 to 
150; in the bamboo district in the west from 60 to 100 in. The 
climate, though humid, is on the whole healthy; it is believed 
to have been rendered hotter and drier by the clearing of forest 
land. Coorg has an average temperature of about 60 F., the 
extremes being 52 and 82. The hottest season is in April and 
May. In the direction of Mysore the whole country is thickly 
wooded; but to the westward the forests are more open. The 
flora of the jungle includes Michelia (Chumpak), Mesua (Iron- 
wood), Diospyros (Ebony and other species), Cedrela toona 
(White cedar), Chickrassia lubularis (Red cedar), Calophyllum 
anguslifolium (Poon spar), Canarium strictum (Black Dammar 
tree), Artocarpus, Dipterocarpus, Garcinia, Euonymus, Cinna- 
momum iners, Myristica, Vaccinium, Myrtaceae, Melastomaceae, 
Rubus (three species), and a rose. In the undergrowth are found 
cardamom, areca, plantain, canes, wild pepper, tree and other 
ferns, and arums. In the forest of the less thickly-wooded 
bamboo country in the west of Coorg the trees most common 
are the Dalbergia latifolia (Black wood), Pterocarpus marsupium 
(Kino tree), Terminalia coriacea (Mutti), Lagerstromia paniflora 
(Ben teak), Conocarpus latifolius (Dindul), Bassia latifolia, Bulea 
frondosa, Nauclea paniflora, and several acacias, with which, in 
the eastern part of the district, teak and sandalwood occur. 
Among the fauna may be mentioned the elephant, tiger, tiger- 
cat, cheetah or hunting leopard, wild dog, elk, bison, wild boar, 
several species of deer, hares, monkeys, the buceros and various 
other birds, the cobra di capello, and a few alligators. The most 
interesting antiquities of Coorg are the earth redoubts or war- 
trenches (kadangas), which are from 15 to 25 ft. high, and provided 
with a ditch 10 ft. deep by 8 or 10 ft. wide. Their linear extent is 

reckoned at between 500 and 600 m. They are mentioned in 
inscriptions of the 9th and loth centuries. The exports of 
Coorg are mainly rice, coffee and cardamoms; and the only 
important manufacture is a kind of coarse blanket. Fruits of 
many descriptions, especially oranges, are produced in abund- 
ance, and are of excellent quality. 

In 1901 the population was 180,607, showing an increase of 
4-4 % in the decade. Of the various tribes inhabiting Coorg. 
the Coorgs proper, or Kodagas, and the Yeravas, or Eravas, both 
special to the country, are the most numerous. The Kodagas 
(36,091) are a light-coloured race of unknown origin. They 
constitute a highland clan, free from the trammels of caste, and 
they have the manly bearing and independent spirit natural in 
men who have been from time immemorial the lords of the soil. 
Their religion consists of ancestor- and demon-worship, with a 
certain admixture of Brahman cults. The men are by tradition 
warriors and hunters, and while they will plough the fields and 
reap the rice.they leave all menial work to the women and servants. 
They speak Kodagu, a dialect of Hala Kannada or old Kanarese, 
midway between that and Malayalam. It has been asserted 
that the institution of polyandry was prevalent among them, 
according to which the brothers of a family had their wives in 
common. But if this institution ever existed it no longer does 
so. The Yeravas (14,586) are a race of an altogether inferior 
type, dark-skinned and thick-lipped, resembling the Australian 
aborigines who possibly, according to one theory, may have 
sprung from the same Dravidian stock (see AUSTRALIA: Abor- 
igines). Though now nominally free, they were, before the 
establishment of British rule, the hereditary praedial slaves of 
the Kodagas. Some of them live a primitive life in the jungle, 
but the majority earn a livelihood as coolies. They are demon- 
worshippers, their favourite deity being Karingali (black Kali). 
Their language, a dialect of Malayalam, is peculiar to them. 
Among the other tribes or castes special to Coorg are the Heggades 
(1503 in 1901), cultivators from Malabar; the Ayiri (898), who 
constitute the artisan caste; the Medas (584), who are basket- 
and mat-makers, and act as drummers at feasts; the Binepatta 
(98), originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now agri- 
culturists; the Kavadi (49), cultivators from Yedenalknad; 
all these speak the Coorg language, wear the Coorg dress, and 
conform, more or less, to Coorg customs. Other tribes are not 
special to Coorg. Of these the Holeyas (27,000) are the most 
numerous. They are divided into four sections: Badagas from 
Mysore, Kembattis and Maringis from Malabar, Kukkas from 
S. Kanara. They were formerly the slaves of the Kodagas and 
now act as their menials. The Lingayats (8700) are rather a 
religious sect than a tribe. Of the Tulu (farmer) class the 
Gaudas ( 1 1 ,900) , who live principally along the western boundary, 
are the most important; they speak Tulu and wear the Coorg 
dress. Other castes and tribes are the Tiyas (1500) and Nayars 
(1400), immigrants from Malayalam; the Vellala (1300), who 
are Tamils; the Mahrattas (2400) and Brahma ns (noo). Of 
the Mussulmans the most numerous are the Moplahs (6700) and 
the Shaikhs (4400), both chiefly traders. Of native Christians 
there are upwards of 3000. The official language of Coorg, 
which is that spoken by 45 % of the population, is Kanarese 
(Kannada), the Coorg language (Kodagu) coming next. The 
Coorg dress is very picturesque, its characteristics being a long 
coat (Kupasa), of dark-coloured cloth, reaching below the knees, 
folded across and confined at the waist by a red or blue girdle. 
The sleeves are cut off below the elbow, showing the arms of a 
white shirt. The head-dress is a red kerchief, or a peculiar 
large, flat turban, covering the back of the neck. The Coorg 
also carries a short knife, with an ivory or silver hilt, fastened 
with silver chains and stuck into the girdle. A large, broad- 
bladed waist knife, akin to the kukri of the Gurkhas, worn at 
the back, point upwards, was formerly a formidable weapon 
in hand-to-hand fighting, but is now used only for exhibitions 
of strength and skill on festive occasions. 

The chief crops are rice and coffee. Some abandoned coffee 
land has been planted with tea as an experiment. The cultiva- 
tion of cinchona has proved unprofitable. There is no railway. 


There are no colleges, but twenty-four scholarships are given 
to maintain Coorg students at colleges in Madras and Mysore. 
There are secondary schools at Mercara and Virarajendrapet. 

The early accounts of Coorg are purely legendary, and it was 
not till the gth and loth centuries that its history became the 
subject of authentic record. At this period, according to in- 
scriptions, the country was ruled by the Gangas of Talakad, 
under whom the Changalvas, kings of Changa-nad, styled later 
kings of Nanjarayapatna or Nanjarajapatna, held the east and 
part of the north of Coorg, together with the Hunsur taluk in 
Mysore. After the overthrow, in the nth century, of the Ganga 
power by the Cholas, the Changalvas became tributary to the 
latter. When the Cholas in their turn were driven from the 
Mysore country by the Hoysalas, in the i2th century, the 
Changalvas held out for independence; but after a severe 
struggle they were subdued and became vassals of the Hoysala 
kings. In the i4th century, after the fall of the Hoysala rule, 
they passed under the supremacy of the Vijayanagar empire. 
During this period, at the beginning of the i6th century, Nanja 
Raja founded the new Changalva capital Nanjarajapatna. In 
1 589 Piriya Raja or Rudragana rebuilt Singapatna and renamed 
it Piriyapatna (Periapatam). The power of the Vijayanagar 
empire had, however, been broken in 1565 by the Mahommedans; 
in 1610 the Vijayanagar viceroy of Seringapatam was ousted 
by the raja of Mysore, who in 1644 captured Piriyapatna. Vira 
Raja, the last of the Changalva kings, fell in the defence of his 
capital, after putting to death his wives and children. 

Coorg, however, was not absorbed in Mysore, which was hard 
pressed by other enemies, and a prince of the Ikkeri or Bednur 
family {perhaps related to the Changalvas) succeeded in bringing 
the whole country under his sway, his descendants continuing 
to be rajas of Coorg till 1834. The capital was removed in 1681 
by Muddu Raja to Madikeri or Mercara. In 1770 a disputed 
succession led to the intervention of Hyder Ali of Mysore in 
favour of Linga Raja, who had fled to him for help, and whom 
he placed on the throne on his consenting to cede certain terri- 
tories and to pay tribute. On Linga Raja's death in 1 780 Hyder 
Ali interned his sons, who were minors, in a fort in Mysore, and, 
under pretence of acting as their guardian, installed a Brahman 
governor at Mercara with a Mussulman garrison. In 1782, 
however, the Coorgs rose in rebellion and drove out the Mahom- 
medans. Two years later Tippoo Sultan reduced the country; 
but the Coorgs having again rebelled in 1785 he vowed their 
destruction. Having secured some 70,000 of them by treachery, 
he drove them to Seringapatam, where he had them circum- 
cised by force. Coorg was partitioned among Mussulman 
proprietors, and held down by garrisons in four forts. In 1788, 
however, Vira Raja (or Vira Rajendra Wodeyar), with his wife 
and his brothers Linga Raja and Appaji, succeeded in escaping 
from his captivity, at Periapatam and, placing himself at the 
head of a Coorg rebellion, succeeded in driving the forces of 
Tippoo out of the country. The British, who were about to 
enter on the struggle with Tippoo, now made a treaty with Vira 
Raja; and during the war that followed the Coorgs proved 
invaluable allies. By the treaty of peace Coorg, though not 
adjacent to the East India Company's territories, was included 
in the cessions forced upon Tippoo. On the spot where he had 
first met the British commander, General Abercromby, the 
raja founded the city of Virarajendrapet. 

Vira Raja, who, in consequence of his mind becoming unhinged , 
was guilty towards the end of his reign of hideous atrocities, 
died in 1809 without male heirs, leaving his favourite daughter 
Devammaji as rani. His brother Linga Raja, however, after 
acting as regent for his niece, announced in 181 1 his own assump- 
tion of the government. He died in 1820, and was succeeded by 
his son Vira Raja, a youth of twenty, and a monster of sensuality 
and cruelty. Among his victims were all the members of the 
families of his predecessors, including Devammaji. At last, in 
1832, evidence of treasonable designs on the raja's part led to 
inquiries on the spot by the British resident at Mysore, as the 
result of which, and of the raja's refusal to amend his ways, a 
British force marched into Coorg in 1834. On the nth of April 

the raja was deposed by Colonel Fraser, the political agent with 
the force, and on the 7th of May the state was formally annexed 
to the East India Company's territory. In 1852 the raja, who 
had been deported to Vellore, obtained leave to visit England 
with his favourite daughter Gauramma, to whom he wished to 
give a European education. On the 3Oth of June she was 
baptized, Queen Victoria being one of her sponsors; she after- 
wards married a British officer who, after her death in 1864, 
mysteriously disappeared together with their child. Vira Raja 
himself died in 1863, and was buried in Kensal Green cemetery. 

The so-called Coorg rebellion of 1837 was really a rising of the 
Gaudas, due to the grievance felt in having to pay taxes in 
money instead of in kind. A man named Virappa, who pre- 
tended to have escaped from the massacre of 1820, tried to take 
advantage of this to assert his claim to be raja, but the Coorgs 
remained loyal to the British and the attempt failed. In 1861, 
after the Mutiny, the loyalty of the Coorgs was rewarded by their 
being exempted from the Disarmament Act. 

See " The Coorgs and Yeravas," by T. H. Holland in the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. Ixx. part iii. No. 2 (1901); 
Rev. G. Richter, Castes and Tribes found in the Province of Coorg 
(Bangalore, 1887); Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908), 
vol. xi. s.v., where, besides an admirable account of the country 
and its inhabitants, the history of Coorg is dealt with in some detail. 

politician and theologian, youngest son of Volckert Coornhert, 
cloth merchant, was born at Amsterdam in 1522. As a child he 
spent some years in Spain and Portugal. Returning home, he 
was disinherited by his father's will, for his marriage with Cornelia 
(Neeltje) Simons, a portionless gentlewoman. He took for a 
time the post of major-domo to Reginald (Reinoud), count of 
Brederode. Soon he settled in Haarlem, as engraver on copper, 
and produced works which retain high values. Learning Latin, 
he published Dutch translations from Cicero, Seneca and Boetius. 
He was appointed secretary to the city (1562) and secretary to 
the burgomasters (1564). Throwing himself into the struggle 
with Spanish rule, he drew up the manifesto of William of 
Orange (1566). Imprisoned at the Hague (1568), he escaped 
to Cleves, where he maintained himself by his art. Recalled 
in 1572, he was secretary of state for a short time; his aversion 
to military violence led him to return to Cleves, where William 
continued to employ his services and his pen. As a religious 
man, he wrote and strove in favour of tolerance, being decidedly 
against capital punishment for heretics. He had no party views; 
the Heidelberg catechism, authoritative in Holland, he criticized. 
The great Arminius, employed to refute him, was won over by 
his arguments. He died at Gouda on the 2pth of October 1590. 
His Dutch version of the New Testament, following the Latin of 
Erasmus, was never completed. His works, in prose and verse, 
were published in 1630, 3 vols. 

See F. D. J. Moorrees, Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert (1887); N. 
Delvenne, Biog. des Pays-Bas (1829); A. J. van der Aa, Biog. 
Woordenboek der Nederlanden (1855). (A. Go.*) 

COOT, a well-known water-fowl, the Fulica atra of Linnaeus, 
belonging to the family Rallidae or rails. The word coot, in 
some parts of England pronounced cute, or scute, is of uncertain 
origin, but perhaps cognate with scout and scoter both names 
of aquatic birds a 1 possibility which seems to be more likely 
since the name " macreuse," by which the coot is known in the 
south of France, being in the north of that country applied to 
the scoter (Oedemia nigra) shows that, though belonging to very 
different families, there is in popular estimation some connexion 
between the two birds.' The Latin Fulica (in polite French, 
Foulque) is probably allied to fuligo, and has reference to the 
bird's dark colour. 2 The coot breeds abundantly in many of 
the larger inland waters of the northern parts of the Old World, 
in winter commonly resorting, and often in great numbers, to 
the mouth of rivers or shallow bays of the sea, where it becomes 
a general object of pursuit by gunners whether for sport or gain. 

1 It is owing to this interchange of their names that Yarrell in his 
British Birds refers Victor Hugo's description bf the " chasse aux 
macreuses " to the scoter instead of the coot. 

1 Hence also we have Fulix or Fuligula applied to a duck of dingy 
appearance, and thus forming another parallel case. 



At other times of the year it is comparatively unmolested, and 
being very prolific its abundance is easily understood. The nest 
is a large mass of flags, reeds or sedge, piled together among 
rushes in the water or on the margin, and not unfrequently 
contains as many as ten eggs. The young, when first hatched, 
are beautiful little creatures, clothed in jet-black down, with 
their heads of a bright orange-scarlet, varied with purplish-blue. 
This brilliant colouring<s soon lost, and they begin to assume the 
almost uniform sooty-black plumage which is worn for the rest of 
their life; but a characteristic of the adult is a bare patch or 
callosity on the forehead, which being nearly white gives rise 
to the epithet " bald " often prefixed to the bird's name. The 
coot is about 18 in. in length, and will sometimes weigh over 2 Ib. 
Though its wings appear to be short in proportion to its size, 
and it seems to rise with difficulty from the water, it is capable 
of long-sustained and rather rapid flight, which is performed 
with the legs stretched out behind the stumpy tail. It swims 
buoyantly, and looks a much larger bird in the water than it 
really is. It dives with ease, and when wounded is said frequently 
to clutch the weeds at the bottom with a grasp so firm as not 
even to be loosened by death. It does not often come on dry 
land, but when there, marches leisurely and not without a certain 
degree of grace. The feet of the coot are very remarkable, the 
toes being fringed by a lobed membrane, which must be of 
considerable assistance in swimming as well as in walking over 
the ooze acting as they do like mud-boards. 

In England the sport of coot-shooting is pursued to some 
extent on the broads and back-waters of the eastern counties 
in Southampton Water and Christchurch Bay and is often 
conducted battue-fashion by a number of guns. But even in 
these cases the numbers killed in a day seldom reach more than 
a few hundreds, and come very short of those that fall in the 
officially-organized chasses of the lakes near the coast of Langue- 
doc and Provence, of which an excellent description is given by 
the Vicomte Louis de Dax (Nouveaux Souvenirs de chasse, &c.,, 
pp. 53-65; Paris, 1860). The flesh of the coot is very variously 
regarded as food. To prepare the bird for the table, the feathers 
should be stripped, and the down, which is very close, thick and 
hard to pluck, be rubbed with powdered resin; the body is then 
to be dipped in boiling water, which dissolving the resin causes 
it to mix with the down, and then both can be removed together 
with tolerable ease. After this the bird should be left to soak 
for the night in cold spring-water, which will make it look as 
white and delicate as a chicken. Without this process the skin 
after roasting is found to be very oily, with a fishy flavour, and 
if the skin be taken off the flesh becomes dry and good for nothing 
(Hawker's Instructions to Young Sportsmen; Hele's Notes about 

The coot is found throughout the Palaearctic region from 
Iceland to Japan, and in most other parts of the world is repre- 
sented by nearly allied species, having almost the same habits. 
An African species (F. cristata), easily distinguished by two 
red knobs on its forehead, is of rare appearance in the south 
of Europe. The Australian and North American species (F. 
auslralis and F. americana) have very great resemblance to the 
English bird; but in South America half-a-dozen or more 
additional species are found which range to Patagonia, and vary 
much in size, one (F. gigantea} being of considerable magni- 
tude. The remains of a very large species (F. neivtoni) were dis- 
covered in Mauritius, where it must have been a contemporary 
of the dodo, but like that bird is now extinct. (A. N.) 

COOTE, SIR EYRE (1726-1783), British soldier, the son of 
a clergyman, was born near Limerick, and entered the 27th 
regiment. He saw active service in the Jacobite rising of 1745, 
and some years later obtained a captaincy in the 39th regiment, 
which was the first British regiment sent to India. In 1756 a 
part of the regiment, then quartered at Madras, was sent forward 
to join Clive in his operations against Calcutta, which was re- 
occupied without difficulty, and Coote was soon given the local 
rank of major for his good conduct in the surprise of the Nawab's 
camp. Soon afterwards came the battle of Plassey, which would 
in all probability not have taken place but for Coote's soldierly 

advice at the council of war; and after the defeat of the Nawab 
he led a detachment in pursuit of the French for 400 m. under 
extraordinary difficulties. His conduct won him the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel and the command of the 84th regiment, 
newly-raised for Indian service, but his exertions seriously 
injured his health. In October 1759 Coote's regiment arrived 
to take part in the decisive struggle between French and English 
in the Carnatic. He took command of the forces at Madras, 
and in 1760 led them in the decisive victory of Wandiwash 
(January 22). After a time the remnants of Lally's forces 
were shut up in Pondicherry. For some reason Coote was not 
entrusted with the siege operations, but he cheerfully and loyally 
supported Monson, who brought the siege to a successful end 
on the isth of January 1761. Soon afterwards Coote was given 
the command of the East India Company's forces in Bengal, 
and conducted the settlement of a serious dispute between the 
Nawab Mir Cassim and a powerful subordinate, and in 1762 he 
returned to England, receiving a jewelled sword of honour from 
the Company and other rewards for his great services. In 1771 
he was made a K.B. In 1779 he returned to India as lieutenant- 
general commanding in chief. Following generally the policy 
of Warren Hastings, he nevertheless refused to take sides in the 
quarrels of the council, and made a firm stand in all matters 
affecting the forces. Hyder Ali's progress in southern India 
called him again into the field, but his difficulties were very 
great and it was not until the ist of June 1781 that the crushing 
and decisive defeat of Porto Novo struck the first heavy blow 
at Hyder's schemes. The battle was won by Coote under most 
unfavourable conditions against odds of five to one, and is 
justly ranked as one of the greatest feats of the British in India. 
It was followed up by another hard-fought battle at Pollilur 
(the scene of an earlier triumph of Hyder over a British force) 
on the 27th of August, in which the British won another success, 
and by the rout of the Mysore troops at Sholingarh a month 
later. His last service was the arduous campaign of 1782, 
which finally shattered a constitution already gravely impaired 
by hardship and exertions. Sir Eyre Coote died at Madras on 
the 28th of April 1783. A monument was erected to him in 
Westminster Abbey. 

For a short biography of Coote see Twelve British Soldiers (ed. 
Wilkinson, London, 1899), and for the battles of Wandewash and 
Porto Novo, consult Malleson, Decisive Battles of India (London, 
1883). An account of Coote may be found in Wilk's Historical 
Sketches of Mysore (1810). 

COPAIBA, or COPAIVA (from Brazilian cupauba), an oleo-resin 
sometimes termed a balsam obtained from the trunk of the 
Copaifera Lansdorfii (natural order Leguminosae) and from 
other species of Copaifera found in the West Indies and in the 
valley of the Amazon. It is a somewhat viscous transparent 
liquid, occasionally fluorescent and of a light yellow to pale 
golden colour. The odour is aromatic and very characteristic, 
the taste acrid and bitter. It is insoluble in water, but soluble 
in absolute alcohol, ether and the fixed and volatile oils. Its 
approximate composition is more than 50% of a volatile oil 
and less than 50% of a resin. The pharmacopoeias contain 
the oleo-resin itself, which is given in doses of from a half to one 
drachm, and the oleum copaibae, which is given in doses of from 
five to twenty minims, but which is inferior, as a medicinal agent, 
to the oleo-resin. Copaiba shares the pharmacological characters 
of volatile oils generally. Its distinctive features are its disagree- 
able taste and the unpleasant eructations to which it may give 
rise, its irritant action on the intestine in any but small doses, 
its irritant action on the skin, often giving rise to an erythematous 
eruption which may be mistaken for that of scarlet fever, and 
its exceptionally marked stimulant action on the kidneys. In 
large doses this last action may lead to renal inflammation. The 
resin is excreted in the urine and is continually mistaken for 
albumin since it is precipitated by nitric acid, but the precipitate 
is re-dissolved, unlike albumin, on heating. Its nasty taste, its 
irritant action on the bowel, and its characteristic odour in the 
breath, prohibit its use despite its other advantages in all 
diseases but gonorrhoea. For this disease it is a valuable 



remedy, but it must not be administered until the acute symptoms 
have subsided, else it will often increase them. It is best given 
in cachets or in three times its own bulk of mucilage of acacia. 
Various devices are adopted to disguise its odour in the breath. 
The clinical evidence clearly shows that none of the numerous 
vegetable rivals to copaiba is equal to it in therapeutic value. 

COPAL (Mexican copalli, incense), a hard lustrous resin, 
varying in hue from an almost colourless transparent mass to a 
bright yellowish-brown, having a conchoidal fracture, and, when 
dissolved in alcohol, spirit of turpentine, or any other suitable 
menstruum, forming one of the most valuable varnishes. Copal 
is obtained from a variety of sources; the term is not uniformly 
applied or restricted to the products of any particular region or 
series of plants, but is vaguely used for resins which, though 
very similar in their physical properties, differ somewhat in 
their constitution, and are altogether distinct as to 'their source. 
Thus the resin obtained from Trachylobium Hornemannianum is 
known in commerce as Zanzibar copal, or gum anime. Mada- 
gascar copal is the produce of T. verrucosum. From Guibourtia 
copallifera is obtained Sierra Leone copal, and another variety 
of the same resin is found in a fossil state on the west coast of 
Africa, probably the produce of a tree now extinct. From 
Brazil and other South American countries, again, copal is 
obtained which is yielded by Trachylobium Marlianum, Hymenaea 
Courbaril, and various other species, while the dammar resins 
and the piney varnish of India are occasionally classed and 
spoken of as copal. Of the varieties above enumerated by far 
the most important from a commercial point of view is the 
Zanzibar or East African copal, yielded by Trachylobium Horne- 
mannianum. The resin is found in two distinct conditions: 
(i) raw or recent, called by the inhabitants of the coast sanda- 
rusiza mid or chakazi, the latter name being corrupted by 
Zanzibar traders into "jackass" copal; and (2) ripe or true 
Copal, the sandarusi inti of the natives. The raw copal, which 
is obtained direct from the trees, or found at their roots or near 
the surface of the ground, is not regarded by the natives as of 
much value, and does not enter into European commerce. It 
is sent to India and China, where it is manufactured into a 
coarse kind of varnish. The true or fossil copal is found embedded 
in the earth over a wide belt of the mainland coast of Zanzibar, 
on tracts where not a single tree is now visible. The copal is not 
found at a greater depth in the ground than 4 ft., and it is 
seldom the diggers go deeper than about 3 ft. It occurs in 
pieces varying from the size of small pebbles up to masses of 
several ounces in weight, and occasionally lumps weighing 4 
or 5 Ib have been obtained. After being freed from foreign 
matter, the resin is submitted to various chemical operations 
for the purpose of clearing the " goose-skin," the name given 
to the peculiar pitted-like surface possessed by fossil copal. 
The goose-skin was formerly supposed to be caused by the 
impression of the small stones and sand of the soil into which 
the soft resin fell in its raw condition; but it appears that the 
copal when first dug up presents no trace of the goose-skin, the 
subsequent appearance of which is due to oxidation or inter- 
molecular change. 

COPALITE, or COPALINE, also termed " fossil resin " and 
" Highgate resin," a naturally occurring organic substance 
found as irregular pieces of pale-yellow colour in the London 
clay at Highgate Hill. It has a resinous aromatic odour when 
freshly broken, volatilizes at a moderate temperature, and burns 
readily with a yellow, smoky flame, leaving scarcely any ash. 

COP AN, an ancient ruined city of western Honduras, near the 
Guatemalan frontier, and on the right bank of the Rio Copan, a 
tributary of the Motagua. For an account of its elaborately 
sculptured stone buildings, which rank among the most cele- 
brated monuments of Mayan civilization, see CENTRAL AMERICA: 
Archaeology. The city is sometimes regarded as identical with 
the Indian stronghold which, after a heroic resistance, was 
stormed by the Spaniards, under Hernando de Chaves, in 1530. 
It has given its name to the department in which it is situated. 

COPARCENARY (co-, with, and parcener, i.e. sharer; from 
O. Fr. parfonier, Lat. partitio, division), in law, the descent of 

lands of inheritance from an ancestor to two or more persons 
possessing an equal title to them. It arises either by common 
law, as where an ancestor dies intestate, leaving two or more 
females as his co-heiresses, who then take as coparceners or 
parceners; or, by particular custom, as in the case of gavelkind 
lands, which descend to all males in equal degrees, or in de- 
fault of males, to all the daughters equally. These co-heirs, or 
parceners, have been so called, says Littleton ( 241), "because 
by writ the law will constrain them, that partition shall be made 
among them." Coparcenary so far resembles joint tenancy in 
that there is unity of title, interest and possession, but whereas 
joint tenants always claim by purchase, parceners claim by 
descent, and although there is unity of interest there is no 
entirety, for there is no jus accrescendi or survivorship. Co- 
parcenary may be dissolved (a) by partition; (b) by alienation 
by one coparcener; (c) by all the estate at last descending to one 
coparcener, who thenceforth holds in severally; (d) by a com- 
pulsory partition or sale under the Partition Acts. 

The term " coparcenary " is not in use in the United States, 
joint heirship being considered as tenancy in common. 

COPE, EDWARD DRINKER (1840-1897), American palaeon- 
tologist, descended from a Wiltshire family who emigrated about 
1687, was born in Philadelphia on the 28th of July 1840. At 
an early age he became interested in natural history, and in 1859 
communicated a paper on the Salamandridae to the Academy 
of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. He was educated partly 
in the University of Pennsylvania, and after further study and 
travel in Europe was in 1865 appointed curator to the Academy 
of Natural Sciences, a post which he held till 1873. In 1864-67 
he was professor of natural science in Haverford College, and 
in 1889 he was appointed professor of geology and palaeon- 
tology in the University of Pennsylvania. To the study of the 
American fossil vertebrata he gave his special attention. From 
1871 to 1877 he carried on explorations in the Cretaceous strata 
of Kansas, the Tertiary of Wyoming and Colorado; and in 
course of time he made known at least 600 species and many 
genera of extinct vertebrata new to science. Among these were 
some of the oldest known mammalia, obtained in New Mexico. 
He served on the U.S. Geological Survey in 1874 in New Mexico, 
in 1875 in Montana, and in 1877 in Oregon and Texas. He was 
also one of the editors of the American Naturalist. He died 
in Philadelphia on the I2th of April 1897. 

PUBLICATIONS. Reports for U.S. Geological Survey on Eocene 
Vertebrata of Wyoming (1872) ; on Vertebrata of Cretaceous Forma- 
tions of the West (1875); Vertebrata of the Tertiary Formations of 
the West (1884); The Origin of the Fittest: Essays on Evolution (New 
York, 1887); The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 
1896). Memoir by Miss Helen D. King, American Geologist, Jan. 
1899 (with portrait and bibliography); also memoir by P. Frazer, 
American Geologist, Aug. 1900 (with portrait). 

COPE, EDWARD MEREDITH (1818-1873), English classical 
scholar, was born in Birmingham on the 28th of July 1818. He 
was educated at Ludlow and Shrewsbury schools and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, of which society he was elected fellow in 
1842, having taken his degree in 1841 as senior classic. He was 
for many years lecturer at Trinity, his favourite subjects being 
the Greek tragedians, Plato and Aristotle. When the professor- 
ship of Greek became vacant, the votes were equally divided 
between Cope and B. H. Kennedy, and the latter was appointed 
by the chancellor. It is said that the keenness of Cope's dis- 
appointment was partly responsible for the mental affliction 
by which he was attacked in 1869, and from which he never 
recovered. He died on the 5th of August 1873. As his published 
works show, Cope was a thoroughly sound scholar, with perhaps 
a tendency to over-minuteness. He was the author of An 
Introduction to Aristotle's Rhetoric (1867), a standard work; The 
Rhetoric of Aristotle, with a commentary, revised and edited by 
J. E. Sandys (1877); translations of Plato's Gorgias (2nd ed., 
1884) and Phaedo (revised by H. Jackson, 1875). Mention 
may also be made of his criticism of Crete's account of the 
Sophists, in the Cambridge Journal of Classical- Philology, vols. i., 
ii., iii. (1854-1857). 

The chief authority for the facts of Cope's life is the memoir pre- 
fixed to vol. i. of his edition of The Rhetoric of Aristotle. 



COPE (M.E. cape, cope, from Med. Lat. capa, cappa), a 
liturgical vestment of the Western Church. The word " cope," 
now confined to this sense, was in its origin identical with " cape " 
and " cap," and was used until comparatively modern times also 
for an out-door cloak, whether worn by clergy or laity. This, 
indeed, was its original meaning, the cappa having been an outer 
garment common to men and women whether clerical or lay (see 
Du Cange, Glossarium, s.v.). The word pluviale (rain-cloak), 
which the cope bears in the Roman Church, is exactly parallel 
so far as change of meaning is concerned. In both words the 
etymology reveals the origin of the vestment, which is no more 
than a glorified survival of an article of clothing worn by all and 
sundry in ordinary life, the type of which survives, e.g. in the 
ample hooded cloak of Italian military officers. This origin is 
clearly traceable in the shape and details of the cope. When 
spread out this forms an almost complete semicircle. Along the 
straight edge there is usually a broad band, and at the neck is 
attached the " hood " (in Latin, the clypeus or shield), i.e. a 
shield-shaped piece of stuff which hangs down over the back. 
The vestment is secured in front by a broad tab sewn on to one 
side and fastening to the other with hooks, sometimes also by a 
brooch (called the morse, Lat. morsus). Sometimes the morse 
is attached as a mere ornament to the cross-piece. The cope 
thus preserves the essential shape of its secular original, and 
even the hood, though now a mere ornamental appendage, is a 
survival of an actual hood. The evolution of this latter into its 
present form was gradual; first the hood became too small for 
use, then it was transformed into a small triangular piece of stuff 
(i3th century), which in its turn grew (i4th and isth centuries) 
into the shape of a shield (see Plate II., fig. 4), and this again, 
losing its pointed tip in the tyth century, expanded in the i8th 
into a flap which was sometimes enlarged so as to cover the 
whole back down to the waist. In its general effect, however, 
a cope now no longer suggests a " waterproof." It is sometimes 
elaborately embroidered all over; more usually it is of some rich 
material, with the borders in front and the hood embroidered, 
while the morse has given occasion for some of the most beautiful 
examples of the goldsmith's and jeweller's craft (see Plate II., 
figs. 5, 6). 

The use of the cope as a liturgical vestment can be traced to 
the end of the 8th century: a pluviale is mentioned in the 
foundation charter of the monastery of Obona in Spain. Before 
this the so-called cappa choralis, a black, bell-shaped, hooded 
vestment with no liturgical significance, had been worn by the 
secular and regular clergy at choir services, processions, &c. 
This was in its origin identical with the chasuble (q.v.), and if, 
as Father Braun seems to prove, the cope developed out of this, 
cope and chasuble have a common source. 1 Father Braun cites 
numerous inventories and the like to show that the cope (pluviale) 
was originally no more than a more elaborate cappa worn on 
high festivals or other ceremonial occasions, sometimes by the 
whole religious community, sometimes if the stock were 
limited by those, e.g. the cantors, &c., who were most con- 
spicuous in the ceremony. In the loth century, partly under 
the influence of the wealthy and splendour-loving community 
of Cluny, the use of the cope became very widespread; in the 
nth century it was universally worn, though the rules for its 
ritual use had not yet been fixed. It was at this time, however, 
par excellence the vestment proper to the cantors, choirmaster 
and singers, whose duty it was to sing the invitatorium, responses, 
&c., at office, and the inlroitus, graduate, &c., at Mass. This use 
survived in the ritual of the pre-Reformation Church in England, 
and has been introduced in certain Anglican churches, e.g. 
St Mary Magdalen's, Munster Square, in London. 

'This derivation, suggested also by Dr Legg (Archaepl. Journal, 
51. P- 39.. 1894), is rejected by the five bishops in their report to 
Convocation (1908). Their statement, however, that it is " pretty 
clear " that the cope is derived from the Roman lacerna or birrus is 
very much open to criticism. We do not even know what the 
appearance and form of the birrus were; and the question of the 
origin of the cope is not whether it was derived from any garment 
of the time of the Roman Empire, and if so from which, but what 
garment in use in the 8th and gth centuries it represents. 

By the beginning of the I3th century the liturgical use of the 
cope had become finally fixed, and the rules for this use included 
by Pope Pius V. in the Roman Missal and by Clement VIII. 
in the Pontificale and Caeremoniale were consequently not new, 
but in accordance with ancient and universal custom. The 
substitution of the cope for the chasuble in many of the functions 
for which the latter had been formerly used was primarily due to 
the comparative convenience of a vestment opened at the front, 
and so leaving the arms free. A natural conservatism preserved 
the chasuble, which by the gth century had acquired a symbolical 
significance, as the vestment proper to the celebration of Mass; 
but the cope took its place in lesser functions, i.e. the censing of 
the altar during the Magnificat and at Mattins (whence the 
German name Rauchmantel, smoke-mantel), processions, solemn 
consecrations, and as the dress of bishops attending synods. 

It is clear from this that the cope, though a liturgical, was never 
a sacerdotal vestment. If it was worn by priests, it could also 
be worn by laymen, and it was 
never worn by priests in their 
sacerdotal, i.e. their sacrificial, 
capacity. For this reason it was 
not rejected with the "Mass 
vestments " by the English 
Church at the Reformation, in 
spite of the fact that it was in 
no ecclesiastical sense " primi- 
tive." By the First Prayer-book 
of Edward VI., which repre- 
sented a compromise, it was 
directed to be worn as an alter- 
native to the " vestment " (i.e. 
chasuble) at the celebration of 
the Communion; this at least 
seems the plain meaning of 
the words " vestment or 
cope," though they have been 
otherwise interpreted. In the 
Second Prayer -book vestment 
and cope alike disappear; but 
a cope was worn by the prelate 
who consecrated Archbishop 
Parker, and by the " gentlemen " as well as the priests of Queen 
Elizabeth's chapel; and, finally, by the 24th canon (of 1603) a 
" decent cope " was prescribed for the " principal minister " at the 
celebration of Holy Communion in cathedral churches as well as 
for the "gospeller and epistler." Except at royal coronations, 
however, the use of the cope, even in cathedrals, had practically 
ceased in England before the ritual revival of the igth century 
restored its popularity. The disuse implied no doctrinal change; 
the main motive was that the stiff vestment, high in the neck, 
was incompatible with a full-bottomed wig. Scarlet copes with 
white fur hoods have been in continuous use on ceremonial 
occasions in the universities, and are worn by bishops at the 
opening of parliament. 

With the liturgical cope may be classed the red mantle (man- 
turn), which from the nth century to the close of the middle ages 
formed, with the tiara, the special symbol of the papal 
dignity. The immanlatio was the solemn investiture The 
of the new pope immediately after his election, by aaatam. 
means of the cappa rubea, with the papal powers. 
This ceremony was of great importance. In the contested 
election of 1 1 59, for instance, though a majority of the cardinals 
had elected Cardinal Roland (Alexander III.), the defeated 
candidate Cardinal Octavian (Victor IV.), while his rival was 
modestly hesitating to accept the honour, seized the pluviale 
and put it on his own shoulders hastily, upside down; and it 
was on this ground that the council of Pavia in 1160 based their 
declaration in favour of Victor, and anathematized Alexander. 
The immantatio fell out of use during the papal exile at Avignon 
and was never restored. 

It will be convenient here to note other vestments that have 
developed out of the cappa. The cappa choralis has already 

FlG - i- 

Seventeenth Century 

9 6 


* g e 

been mentioned; it survived as a choir vestment that in winter 
took the place of the surplice, rochet or almuce. In the i2th 
century it was provided with arms (cappa manicata), 
but the use of this form was forbidden at choir services 
and other liturgical functions. From the hood of the 
cappa was developed the almuce (q.v.). At what 
date the cappa choralis developed into the cappa magna, a 
non-liturgical vestment peculiar to the pope, cardinals, bishops 
and certain privileged prelates, is not known; but mention of it 
is found as early as the isth century. This vestment is a loose 
robe, with a large hood (lined with fur in winter and red silk in 
summer) and a long train, which is carried by a cleric called the 
candatarius. Its colour varies with the hierarchical rank of the 
wearer: red for cardinals, purple for bishops, &c.; or, if the 
dignitary belong to a religious order, it follows the colour of the 
habit of the order. The right to wear a violet cappa magna is 
conceded by the popes to the chapters of certain important 
cathedrals, but the train in this case is worn folded over the 
left arm or tied under it. It may only be worn by them, more- 
over, in their own church, or when the chapter appears elsewhere 
in its corporate capacity. 

Lastly, from the cappa is probably derived the mozzelta, a short 

cape with a miniature hood, fastened down the front with 

buttons. The name is derived from the Italian 

mozzetta mozzarc , t cut off, and points to its being an abbrevi- 

ated cappa, as the episcopal " apron " is a shortened 

cassock. It is worn over the rochet by the pope, cardinals, 

bishops and prelates, the colours varying as in the case of the 

cappa magna. Its use as confined to bishops can be traced to 

the i6th century. 

See Joseph Braun, S. J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im 
Breisgau, 1907) ; also the bibliography to the article VESTMENTS. 

(W. A. P.) 

COPELAND, HENRY, an i8th century English cabinet-maker 
and furniture designer. He appears to have been the first 
manufacturing cabinet-maker who published designs for furni- 
ture. A New Book of Ornaments appeared in 1746, but it is not 
clear whether the engravings with this title formed part of a 
book, or were issued only in separate plates; a few of the 
latter are all that are known to exist. Between 1752 and 1769 
several collections of designs were produced by Copeland in 
conjunction with Matthias Lock; in one of them Copeland is 
described as of Cheapside. Some of the original drawings are in 
the National Art library at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Copeland was probably the originator of a peculiar type of chair- 
back, popular for a few years in the middle of the i8th century, 
consisting of a series of interlaced circles. Much of his work has 
been attributed to Thomas Chippendale, and it is certain that 
one derived' many ideas from the other, but which was the 
originator and which the copyist is by no means clear. The 
dates of Copeland's birth and death are unknown, but he was 
still living in 1768. 

COPENHAGEN (Danish Kjobenham), the capital of the 
kingdom of Denmark, on the east coast of the island of Zealand 
(Sjaelland) at the southern end of the Sound. Pop. (1901) 
400,575. The latitude is approximately that of Moscow, Berwick- 
on-Tweed and Hopedale in Labrador. The nucleus of the city 
is built on low-lying ground on the east coast of the island of 
Zealand, between the sea and a series of small freshwater lakes, 
known respectively as St Jorgens So, Peblings So and Sortedams 
So, a southern portion occupying the northern part of the island 
of Amager. An excellent harbour is furnished by the natural 
channel between the two islands; and communication from one 
division to the other is afforded by two bridges the Langebro 
and the Knippelsbro, which replaced the wooden drawbridge 
built by Christian IV. in 1620. The older city, including both 
the Zealand and Amager portions, was formerly surrounded 
by a complete line of ramparts and moats; but pleasant boule- 
vards and gardens now occupy the westward or landward site 
of fortifications. Outside the lines of the original city (about 
5 m. in circuit), there are extensive suburbs, especially on the 
Zealand side (Osterbro, Norrebro and Vesterbro or Osterf oiled, 

&c., and Frederiksberg), and Amagerbro to the south of 

The area occupied by the inner city is known as Gammelsholm 
(old island). The main artery is the Gothersgade, running from 
Kongens Nytorv to the western boulevards, and separating a 
district of regular thoroughfares and rectangular blocks to the 
north from one of irregular, narrow and picturesque streets to 
the south. The Kongens Nytorv, the focus of the life of the city 
and the centre of road communications, is an irregular open 
space at the head of a narrow arm of the harbour (Nyhavn) 
inland from the steamer quays, with an equestrian statue of 
Christian V. (d. 1699) in the centre. The statue is familiarly 
known as Hesten (the horse) and is surrounded by noteworthy 
buildings. The Palace of Charlottenborg, on the east side, 
which takes its name from Charlotte, the wife of Christian V., 
is a huge sombre building, built in 1672. Frederick V. made a 
grant of it to the Academy of Arts, which holds its annual 
exhibition of paintings and sculpture in April and May, in the 
adjacent Kunstudslilling (1883). On the south is the principal 
theatre, the Royal, a beautiful modern Renaissance building 
(1874), on the site of a former theatre of the same name, which 
dated from 1748. Statues of the poets Ludvig Holberg (d. 1754), 
and Adam Ohlenschlager (d. 1850), the former by Stein and the 
latter by H. V. Bissen, stand on either side of the entrance, and 
the front is crowned by a group by King, representing Apollo 
and Pegasus, and the Fountain of Hippocrene. Within, among 
other sculptures, is a relief figure of Ophelia, executed by Sarah 
Bernhardt. Other buildings in Kongens Nytorv are the foreign 
office, several great commercial houses, the commercial bank, 
and the Thotts Palais of c. 1685. The quays of the Nyhavn are 
lined with old gabled houses. 

From the south end of Kongens Nytorv, a street called 
Holmens Kanal winds past the National Bank to the Holmens 
Kirke, or church for the royal navy, originally erected as an 
anchor-smithy by Frederick II., but consecrated by Christian 
IV., with a chapel containing the tombs of the great admirals 
Niels Juel and Peder Tordenskjb'ld, and wood-carving of the 
1 7th century. The street then crosses a bridge on to the 
Slottsholm, an island divided from the mainland by a narrow 
arm of the harbour, occupied mainly by the Christiansborg 
and adjacent buildings. The royal palace of Christiansborg, 
originally built (1731-1745) by Christian VI., destroyed by 
fire in 1 794, and rebuilt, again fell in flames in 1884. Fortunately 
most of the art treasures which the palace contained were saved. 
A decision was arrived at in 1903, in commemoration of the 
jubilee of the reign of Christian IX., to rebuild the palace for 
use on occasions of state, and to house the parliament. On the 
Slottsplads (Palace Square) which faces east, is an equestrian 
statue of Frederick VII. There are also preserved the bronze 
statues which stood over the portal of the palace before the fire 
figures of Strength, Wisdom, Health and Justice, designed by 
Thorvaldsen. The palace chapel, adorned with works by 
Thorvaldsen and Bissen, was preserved from the fire, as was 
the royal library of about 540,000 volumes and 20,000 manu- 
scripts, for which a new building in Christiansgade was designed 
about 1900. 

The exchange (Borsen), on the quay to the east, is an ornate 
gabled building erected in 1610-1640, surmounted by a remark- 
able spire, formed of four dragons, with their heads directed to 
the four points of the compass, and their bodies entwining each 
other till their tails come to a point at the top. To the south 
is the arsenal ( Tojhus) with a collection of ancient armour. 

The Thorvaldsen museum (1830-1848), a sombre building 
in a combination of the Egyptian and Etruscan styles, consists 
of two storeys. In the centre is an open court, containing the 
artist's tomb. The exterior walls are decorated with groups 
of figures of coloured stucco, illustrative of events connected 
with Thorvaldsen's life. Over the principal entrance is the 
chariot of Victory drawn by four horses, executed in bronze 
from a model by Bissen. The front hall, corridors and apart- 
ments are painted in the Pompeian style, with brilliant colours 
and with great artistic skill. The museum contains about 300 




The medallions with which it is embroidered contain representations of Christ on the Cross, Christ and St Mary Magdalene, Christ 
and Thomas, the death of the Virgin, the burial and coronation of the Virgin, St Michael and the twelve Apostles. Of the latter, four 
survive only in tiny fragments. The spaces between the four rows of medallions are filled with six-winged cherubim. The ground-work 
of the vestment is green silk embroidery, that of the medallions red. The figures are worked in silver and gold thread and coloured silks. 
The lower border and the orphrey with coats of arms do not belong to the original cope and are of somewhat later date. The cope belonged 
to the convent of Syon near Isleworth, was taken to Portugal at the Reformation, brought back early in the igth century to England by 
exiled nuns and given by them to the Earl of Shrewsbury. In 1864 it was bought by the South Kensington Museum. 


In the middle of the orphrey is a figure of Our Lord holding the orb in His left hand and with His right hand raised in benediction. 
To the right are figures of St Peter, St Bartholomew and St Ursula; and to the left, St Paul, St John the Evangelist and St Andrew. 
On the hood is a seated figure of the Virgin Mary holding the Infant Saviour. GERMAN: early i6th century. (In the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, No. 91. 1904.) 

VII. 96 




In the middle is represented the Assumption of the Virgin; on the hood is a seated figure of the Almighty bearing 
three souls in a napkin. ENGLISH, about 1500. (In the Victoria and Albert Museum.) 


(From a photograph by Father Joseph Braun, S. J.) 


(From a photograph by Father Joseph Braun, S. J.) 



of Thorvaldsen's works; and in one apartment is his sitting-room 
furniture arranged as it was found at the time of his death in 

On the mainland, immediately west of the Slottsholm, is the 
Prinsens Palais, once the residence of Christian V. and Frederick 
VI. when crown princes, containing the national museum. This 
consists of four sections, the Danish, ethnographical, antique 
and numismatic. It was founded in 1807 by Professor Nyerup, 
and extended between 1815 and 1885 by C. J. Thomsen and 
J. J. A. Worsaae, and the ethnographical collection is among 
the finest in the world. From this point the Raadhusgade leads 
north-west to the combined Nytorv-og-Gammeltorv, where is 
the old townhall (Raadhus, 1815), and continues as the Norregade 
to the Vor Frue Kirke (Church of our Lady), the cathedral 
church of Copenhagen. This church, the site of which has been 
similarly occupied since the i2th century, was almost entirely 
destroyed in the bombardment of 1807, but was completely 
restored in 1811-1829. The works of Thorvaldsen which it 
contains constitute its chief attraction. In the pediment is a 
group of sixteen figures by Thorvaldsen, representing John the 
Baptist preaching in the wilderness; over the entrance within 
the portico is a bas-relief of Christ's entry into Jerusalem; on 
one side of the entrance is a statue of Moses by Bissen, and on 
the other a statue of David by Jerichau. In a niche behind 
the altar stands a colossal marble statue of Christ, and 
marble statues of the twelve apostles adorn both sides of the 

Immediately north of Vor Frue Kirke is the university, 
founded by Christian I. in 1479; though its existing constitution 
dates from 1788. The building dates from 1836. There are five 
faculties theological, juridical, medical, philosophical and 
mathematical. In 1851 an English and in 1852 an Anglo-Saxon 
lectureship were established. All the professors are bound to give 
a series of lectures open to the public free of charge. The 
university possesses considerable endowments and has several 
foundations for the assistance of poor students; the " regent's 
charity," for instance, founded by Christian, affords free residence 
and a small allowance to one hundred bursars. There are about 
2000 students. In connexion with the university are the obser- 
vatory, the chemical laboratory in Ny Vester Gade, the surgical 
academy in Bredgade, founded in 1786, and the botanic garden. 
The university library, incorporated with the former Classen 
library, collected by the famous merchants of that name, contains 
about 200,000 volumes, besides about 4000 manuscripts, which 
include Rask's valuable Oriental collection and the Arne-Magnean 
series of Scandinavian documents. It shares with the royal 
library the right of receiving a copy of every book published in 
Denmark. There is also a zoological museum. Adjacent is 
St Peter's church, built in a quasi-Gothic style, with a spire 
256 ft. high, and appropriated since 1585 as a parish church for 
the German residents in Copenhagen. A short distance along 
the Krystalgade is Trinity church. Its round tower is in ft. 
high, and is considered to be unique in Europe. It was con- 
structed from a plan of Tycho Brahe's favourite disciple Longo- 
montanus, and was formerly used as an observatory. It is 
ascended by a broad inclined spiral way, up which Peter the 
Great is said to have driven in a carriage and four. From this 
church the Kjobermayergade runs south, a populous street of 
shops, giving upon the Hoibro-plads, with its fine equestrian 
statue of Bishop Absalon, the city's founder. This square is 
connected by a bridge with the Slottsholm. 

The quarter north-east of Kongens Nytorv and Gothersgaden 
is the richest in the city, including the palaces of Amalienborg, 
the castle and gardens of Rosenberg and several mansions of the 
nobility. The quarter extends to the strong moated citadel, 
which guards the harbour on the north-east. It is a regular 
polygon with five bastions, founded by Frederick III. about 
1662-1663. One of the mansions, the Moltkes Palais, has a 
collection of Dutch paintings formed in the i8th century. This 
is in the principal thoroughfare of the quarter, Bredgaden, and 
close at hand the palace of King George of Greece faces the 
Frederikskirke or Marble church. This church, intended to have 

been an edifice of great extent and magnificence, was begun in 
the reign of Frederick V. (1749), but after twenty years was left 
unfinished. It remained a ruin until 1874, when it was purchased 
by a wealthy banker, M. Tietgen, at whose expense the work 
was resumed. The edifice was not carried up to the height 
originally intended, but the magnificent dome, which recalls the 
finest examples in Italy, is conspicuous far and wide. The 
diameter is only a few feet less than that of St Peter's in Rome. 
As the church stands it is one of the principal works of the 
architect, F. Meldahl. Behind King George's palace from the 
Bredgade lies the Amalienborg-plads, having in the centre an 
equestrian statue of Frederick V., erected in 1768 at the cost of 
the former Asiatic Company. The four palaces, of uniform 
design, encircling this plads, were built for the residence 
of four noble families; but on the destruction of Christians- 
borg in 1794 they became the residence of the king and 
court, and so continued till the death of Christian VIII. in 
1848. One of the four is inhabited by the king, the second and 
third by the crown prince and other members of the royal family, 
while the fourth is occupied by the coronation and state rooms. 
The Ameliegade crosses the plads and, with the Bredgade, 
terminates at the esplanade outside the citadel, prolonged in the 
pleasant promenade of Lange Linie skirting the Sound. 

To the west of the citadel is the Ostbanegaard, or eastern rail- 
way station, from which start the local trains on the coast line 
to Klampenborg and Helsingor. South-west from this point 
extends the line of gardens which occupy the site of former land- 
ward fortifications, pleasantly diversified by water and planta- 
tions, skirted on the inner side by three wide boulevards, 
Ostervold, Norrevold and Vestervold Gade, and containing 
noteworthy public buildings, mostly modern. In the Ostre 
Anlaeg is the art museum (1895) containing pictures, sculptures 
and engravings. Infrontof it is the Denmark monument (1896), 
commemorating the golden wedding (1892) of Christian IX. 
and Queen Louisa. Among various scenes in relief, the marriage 
of King Edward VII. of England and Queen Alexandra is 
depicted. The botanical garden (1874) contains an observatory 
with a statue of Tycho Brahe, and the chemical laboratory, 
mineralogical museum, polytechnic academy (1829) and com- 
munal hospital adjoin it. On the inner side of Ostevold Gade 
is Rosenberg Park, with the palace of Rosenberg erected in 
1610-1617. It is an irregular building in Gothic style, with a 
high pointed roof, and flanked by four towers of unequal dimen- 
sions. It contains the chronological collection of Danish 
monarchs, including a coin and medal cabinet, a fine collection 
of Venetian glass, the famous silver drinking-horn of Oldenburg 
(1474), the regalia and other objects of interest as illustrating 
the history of Denmark. The Riddersal, a spacious room, is 
covered with tapestry representing the various battles of 
Christian V., and has at one end a massive silver throne. The 
Norrevold Gade leads through the Norretorv past the Folke- 
teatre and the technical school to the Orsteds park, and from 
its southern end the Vestervold Gade continues through the 
Raadhus Plads, a centre of tramways, flanked by the modern 
Renaissance town hall (1901), ornamented with bronze figures, 
with a tower at the eastern angle. Here is also the museum 
of industrial art, and the Ny-Carlsberg Glyptotek, with its 
collection of sculpture, is on this boulevard, which skirts the 
pleasure garden called Tivoli. From the Raadhus-plads the 
Vesterbro Gade runs towards the western quarter of the city, 
skirting the Tivoli. Here is the Dansk Folke museum, a collec- 
tion illustrating the domestic life of the nation, particularly that 
of the peasantry since 1600. A column of Liberty (Friheds- 
Stotte) rises in an open space, erected in 1798 to commemorate 
the abolition of serfdom. Immediately north is the main 
railway station (Banegaard), and the North and Klampenborg 
stations near at hand. The western (residential) quarter contains 
jthe park of Frederiksberg, with its palace erected under Frederick 
IV. (d. 1730), used as a military school. The park contains a 
zoological garden, and is continued south in the pleasant Sonder- 
marken, near which lies the old Glyptotek, which contained the 
splendid collection of sculptures, &c., made by H. C. Jacobsen 

9 8 


since 1887, until their removal to the new Glyptotek founded 
by him in the Vestre Boulevard. 

The quarter of Christianshavn is that portion of the city which 
skirts the harbour to the south, and lies within the fortifications. 
It contains the Vor Frelsers Kirke (Church of Our Saviour), 
dedicated in 1696, with a curious steeple 282 ft. high, ascended 
by an external spiral staircase. The lower part of the altar is 
composed of Italian marble, with a representation of Christ's 
sufferings in the garden of Gethsemane; and the organ is con- 
sidered the finest in Copenhagen. The city does not extend 
much farther south, though the Amagerbro quarter lies without 
the walls. The island of Amager is fertile, producing vegetables 
for the markets of the capital. It was peopled by a Dutch colony 
planted by Christian II. in 1516, and many old peculiarities of 
dress, manners and languages are retained. 

The environs of Copenhagen to the north and west are interest- 
ing, and the country, both along the coast northward and inland 
westward is pleasant, though in no way remarkable. The rail- 
way along the coast northward passes the seaside resorts of 
Klampenborg (6 m.) and Skodsborg (iom.). Near Klampenborg 
is the Dyrehave (Deer park) or Skoven (the forest), a beautiful 
forest of beeches. The Zealand Northern railway passes Lyngby, 
on the lake of the same name, a favourite summer residence, and 
Hillerod (21 m.), a considerable town, capital of the amt (county) 
of Frederiksberg, and close to the palace of Frederiksberg. 
This was erected in 1602-1620 by Christian IV., embodying two 
towers of an earlier building, and partly occupying islands in a 
small lake. It suffered seriously from fire in 1859, but was care- 
fully restored under the direction of F. Meldahl. It contains a 
national historical museum, including furniture and pictures. 
The palace church is an interesting medley of Gothic and Re- 
naissance detail. The villa of Hvidore was acquired by Queen 
Alexandra in 1907. 

Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen 
may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, 
for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, 
natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; 
the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing 
a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society 
for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of 
works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; 
the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; 
the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, 
founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established 
in 1876; and several musical and other societies. The Academy 
of Arts was founded by Frederick V. in 1754 for the instruction 
of artists, and for disseminating a taste for the fine arts among 
manufacturers and operatives. Attached to it are schools for 
the study of architecture, ornamental drawing and modelling. 
An Art Union was founded in 1826, and a musical conservatorium 
in 1870 under the direction of the composers N. W. Gade and 
J. P. E. Hartmann. 

Among educational institutions, other than the university, 
may be mentioned the veterinary and agricultural college, 
established in 1773 and adopted by the state in 1776, the 
military academy and the school of navigation. Technical 
instruction is provided by the polytechnic school (1829), which 
is a state institution, and the school of the Technical Society, 
which, though a private foundation, enjoys public subvention. 
The schools which prepare for the university, &c., are nearly all 
private, but are all under the control of the state. Elementary 
instruction is mostly provided by the communal schools. 

The churches already mentioned belong to the national 
Lutheran Church; the most important of those belonging to 
other denominations are the Reformed church, founded in 1688, 
and rebuilt in 1731, the Catholic church of St Ansgarius, con- 
secrated in 1842, and the Jewish synagogue in Krystalgade, 
which dates from 1853. Of the monastic buildings of medieval 
Copenhagen various traces are preserved in the present nomen- 
clature of the streets. The Franciscan establishment gives its 
name to the Graabrodretorv or Grey Friars' market; and 
St Clara's Monastery, the largest of all, which was founded by 

Queen Christina, is still commemorated by the Klareboder or 
Clara buildings, near the present post-office. The Duebrodre 
Kloster occupied the site of the hospital of the Holy Ghost. 

Among the hospitals of Copenhagen, besides many modern 
institutions, there may be mentioned Frederick's hospital, 
erected in 1752-1757 by Frederick V., the Communal Hospital, 
erected in 1850-1863, on the eastern side of the Sortedamsso, 
the general hospital in Ameliegade, founded in 1769, and the 
garrison hospital, in Rigensgade, established in 1816 by Frederick 
VI. After the cholera epidemic of 1853, which carried off more 
than 4000 of the inhabitants, the medical association built 
several ranges of workmen's houses, and their example was 
followed by various private capitalists, among whom may be 
mentioned the Classen trustees, whose buildings occupy an open 
site on the western outskirts of the city. 

Copenhagen is by far the most important commercial town 
in Denmark, and exemplifies the steady increase in the trade 
of the country. The harbour is mainly comprised in the narrow 
strait between the outer Sound and its inlet the Kalvebod or 
Kallebo Strand. The trading capabilities were aided by the 
construction in 1894 of the Frihavn (free port) at the northern 
extremity of the town, well supplied with warehouses and other 
conveniences. It is connected with the main railway station by 
means of a circular railway, while a short branch connects it 
with the ordinary custom-house quay. The commercial harbour 
is separated from the harbour for warships (Orlogshavn) by a 
barrier. The sea approaches are guarded by ten coast batteries 
besides the old citadel. The Middelgrund is a powerful defensive 
work completed in 1806 and most of the rest are modern. The 
landward defences of Copenhagen, it may be added, were left 
unprovided for after the Napoleonic wars until the patriotism of 
Danish women, who subscribed sufficient funds for the first fort, 
shamed parliament into granting the necessary money for others 
(1886-1895). Copenhagen is not an industrial town. The 
manufactures carried on are mostly only such as exist in every 
large town, and the export of manufactured goods is inconsider- 
able. The royal china factory is celebrated for models of 
Thorvaldsen's works in biscuit china. The only very large 
establishment is one for the construction of iron steamers, 
engines, &c., but some factories have been erected within the area 
of the free port for the purpose of working up imported raw 
materials duty free. 

History. Copenhagen (i.e. Merchant's Harbour, originally 
simply Havn, latinized as Hafnia) is first mentioned in history 
in 1043. It was then only a fishing village, and remained so 
until about the middle of the I2th century, when Valdemar I. 
presented that part of the island to Axel Hvide, renowned in 
Danish history as Absalon (<?..), bishop of Roskilde, and after- 
wards archbishop of Lund. In 1167 this prelate erected a castle 
on the spot where the Christiansborg palace now stands, and 
the building was called after him Axel-huus. The settlement 
gradually became a great resort for merchants, and thus acquired 
the name which, in a corrupted form, it still bears, of Kaup- 
mannahofn, Kjobmannshavn, or Portus Mercatorum as it is 
translated by Saxo Grammaticus. In 1186, Bishop Absalon 
bestowed the castle and village, with the lands of Amager, on 
the see of Roskilde; but, as the place grew in importance, the 
Danish kings became anxious to regain it, and in 1245 King 
Eric IV. drove out Bishop Niels Stigson. On the king's death 
(1250), however, Bishop Jacob Erlandsen obtained the town, 
and, in 1254, gave to the burghers their first municipal privileges, 
which were confirmed by Pope Urban III. in 1286. In the 
charter of 1254, while there is mention of a communitas capable 
of making a compact with the bishop, there is nothing said of 
any trade or craft gilds. These are, indeed, expressly pro- 
hibited in the later charter of Bishop Johann Kvag (1294); 
and the distinctive character of the constitution of Copenhagen 
during the middle ages consisted in the absence of the free gild 
system, and the right of any burgher to pursue a craft under 
license from the Vogt (advocatus) of the overlord and the city 
authorities. Later on, gilds were established, in spite of the pro- 
hibition of the old charters; but they were strictly subordinate 



to the town authorities, who appointed their aldermen and sup- 
pressed them when they considered them useless or dangerous. 
The prosperity of Copenhagen was checked by an attack by the 
people of Liibeck in 1 248, and by another on the part of Prince 
Jaromir of Rtigen in 1259. In 1306 it managed to repel the 
Norwegians, but in 1362, and again in 1368, it was captured 
by the opponents of Valdemar Atterdag. In the following 
century a new enemy appeared in the Hanseatic league, which 
was jealous of its rivalry, but their invasion was frustrated by 
Queen Philippa. Various attempts were made by successive 
kings to obtain the town from the see of Roskilde, as the most 
suitable for the royal residence; but it was not till 1443 that the 
transference was finally effected and Copenhagen became the 
capital of the kingdom. From 1523 to 1524 it held out for 
Christian II. against Frederick I., who captured it at length and 
strengthened its defensive works; and it was only after a year's 
siege that it yielded in 1536 to Christian III. From 1658 to 1660 
it was unsuccessfully beleaguered by Charles Gustavus of Sweden ; 
and in the following year it was rewarded by various privileges 
for its gallant defence. In 1660 it gave its name to the treaty 
which concluded the Swedish war of Frederick III. In 1700 it 
was bombarded by the united fleets of England, Holland and 
Sweden; in 1728 a conflagration destroyed 1640 houses and 
five churches; another in 1795 laid waste 943 houses, the church 
of St Nicolas, and the Raadhus. In 1801 the Danish fleet was 
destroyed in the roadstead by the English (see below, Battle 
of Copenhagen); and in 1807 the city was bombarded by the 
British under Lord Cathcart, and saw the destruction of the 
university buildings, its principal church and numerous other 

See O. Nielsen, Kobenhavns Historic oz Beskrivelse (Copenhagen, 
1877-1892); C. Bruun and P. Munch, Kobenhavn, Skrilding a} 
dels Historic, &c. (ibid. 1887-1901); Bering-Liisberg, Kobenhavn 
i gamle Dage (ibid. 1898 et seq.). (0. J. R. H.) 


The formation of a league between the northern powers, 
Russia, Prussia, Denmark and Sweden, on the i6th of December 

1800, nominally to protect neutral trade at sea from the enforce- 
ment by Great Britain of her belligerent claims, led to the 
despatch of a British fleet to the Baltic on the i2th of March 

1801. It consisted of fifty-three sail in all, of which eighteen 
were of the line. Prussia possessed no fleet. The nominal 
strength of the Russian fleet was eighty-three sail of the line, 
of the Danish twenty-three, and of the Swedish eighteen. But 
this force was for the most part only on paper. Some of the 
Russian ships were at Archangel, others in the Mediterranean. 
Of those actually in the Baltic and fit to go to sea, twelve were 
at Reval shut in by the ice, and the others were at Kronstadt. 
The Swedes could equip only eleven of the line for sea, and 

Denmark only seven or eight. It is highly doubtful whether 
the three powers could have collected more than forty ships of 

he line and they would have been hastily manned, destitute 
experience, and without confidence. A rapid British attack 
vould in any case forestall the concentration of these hetero- 

eneous squadrons. The superior quality of the veteran British 

rews was more than enough to counterbalance a mere superiority 
in numbers. The command of the British fleet was given to 
Sir Hyde Parker, an amiable man of no energy and little ability. 
He had Nelson with him as second in command then a junior 
admiral but without rival in capacity and in his hold on the 

onfidence of the fleet. Parker's orders were to give Denmark 
twenty-four hours in which to withdraw from the coalition, and 
an her refusal to destroy or neutralize her strength and then 
proceed against the Russians before the breaking up of the ice 
allowed the ships at Reval to join the squadron at Kronstadt. 

On the aist of March the British fleet, after a somewhat 
stormy passage, was at the entrance to the Sound. Nicholas 
Vansittart, afterwards Lord Bexley, the British diplomatic 
agent entrusted with the message to the Danish government, 
was landed, and left for Copenhagen. On the 23rd he returned 
with the refusal of the Danes. The British fleet then passed 

the Danish fort at Cronenburg, unhurt by its distant fire, and 
without being molested by the forts on the Swedish shore. 
Nelson urged immediate attack, and recommended, as an 
alternative, that part of the British fleet should watch the Danes 
while the remainder advanced up the Baltic to prevent the 
junction of the Russian Reval squadron with the ships in 
Kronstadt. Sir Hyde Parker was, however, unwilling to go up the 
Baltic with the Danes unsubdued behind him, or to divide his 
force. It was therefore resolved that an attack should be made 
on the Danish capital with the whole fleet in two divisions. 
Copenhagen lies on the east side of the island of Zealand; opposite 
it is the shoal known as the Middle Ground. To the east of the 
Middle Ground is another shoal known as Saltholm Flat, and 
there is a passage available for large ships between them. The 
main fortification of Copenhagen was the powerful Trekroner 
(Three Crown) battery at the northern end of the sea-front. 
Here the Danes had placed their strongest ships. The southern 
part of the city front was covered by hulks and gun-vessels or 
bomb-vessels. There were in all eighteen hulks or ships of the 
line in the Danish defence. To have made the attack from the 
northern end would in Nelson's words have been " to take the 
bull by the horns." He therefore proposed that he should be 
detached with ten sail of the line, and the frigates and small 
craft, to pass between the Middle Ground and Saltholm Flat, 
and assail the Danish line at the southern end while the remainder 
of the fleet engaged the Trekroner battery from the north. Sir 
Hyde Parker accepted his offer, and added two ships of the line 
to the ten asked for by Nelson. 

During the nights of the 3oth and 3ist of March the channel 
between the Middle Ground and Saltholm Flat was sounded 
by the boats of the British fleet, the Danes making no attempt 
to interfere with them. On the ist of April Nelson brought his 
ships through. He had transferred his flag from his own ship 
the " St George " (98) to the " Elephant " (74), commanded by 
Captain Foley, because the water was too shallow for a three- 
decker. On the morning of the 2nd of April the wind was fair 
from the south-east, and at 9.30 A.M. the British squadron weighed 
anchor, led by the " Amazon " frigate, commanded by Captain 
Riou, and began to pass along the front of the Danish line. The 
Danes could bring into action 375 guns in all. Their hulks and 
bomb-vessels were supported by batteries on Zealand; but, as 
the water is shallow for a long distance from the shore, these 
defences were too far off to render them effectual aid on the 
south end of their line. Nelson disposed of a greater number 
of guns, 1058 in all, but some did not come into action. The 
" Agamemnon " (64), commanded by Captain Fancourt, was 
unable to round the south point of the Middle Ground. The 
" Bellona " (74), commanded by Captain Thompson, and the 
" Russel " (74), commanded by Captain Cuming, ran ashore 
on the Middle Ground, but within range though at too great a 
distance for fully effective fire. Captain Thompson lost his leg 
in the battle. The other ships passed between the " Bellona " 
and " Russel " and the Danes. The leading British ship, the 
"Defiance" (74), carrying the flag of Rear-Adn- iral Graves, 
anchored just south of the Trekroner. As the wind was from 
the south-east Sir Hyde Parker was unable to make the proposed 
attack from the north. The place opposite the Danish fort 
which was to have been taken by him was occupied by Captain 
Riou and the frigates. The " Elephant " anchored almost in 
the middle of the line. Fire was opened about 10 A.M., and at 
11.30 the action was at its height. 

Until i o'clock there was no diminution of the Danish fire. 
Sir Hyde Parker, who saw the danger of Nelson's position, 
became anxious, and sent his second, Captain Robert Waller 
Ottway, to him with a message authorizing him to retire if he 
thought fit. Before Ottway, who had to go in a row-boat, reached 
the " Elephant," Sir Hyde Parker had reflected that it would be 
more magnanimous in him to take the responsibility of ordering 
the retreat. He therefore hoisted the signal of recall. It was 
a well-meant but ill-judged order. Nelson could only have 
retreated before the south-easterly wind by going past the 
Trekroner fort, where the passage is narrow, and the navigation 



difficult. He therefore disregarded the signal, and amused 
himself and the few officers about him by putting his glass to 
his blind eye and saying that he could not see it. The frigates 
opposite the Trekroner did retreat, Captain Riou being slain 
as they drew off. 

At about 2.30 the fire from the Danish hulks had been much 
beaten down, but as their crews fell, fresh men were sent from 
the shore and the fire was resumed. Nelson astutely and 
legitimately seized the opportunity to open negotiations with the 
Danes. He sent a flag of truce carried by Sir F. Thesiger ashore 
to the crown prince of Denmark (then regent of the kingdom), 
to say that unless he was allowed to take possession of the hulks 
which had surrendered he would be compelled to burn them, a 
course which he deprecated on the ground of humanity and his 
tenderness of " the brothers of the English the Danes." The 
crown prince, who was shaken by the spectacle of the battle, 
allowed himself to be drawn into a reply, and to be referred to 
Sir Hyde Parker. Fire was suspended by the Danes to allow 
of time to receive Sir Hyde Parker's answer. Nelson with 
intelligent promptitude availed himself of the interval to with- 
draw his squadron past the Trekroner. The difficulty found in 
getting the ships out one of them grounded showed how 
disastrous an attempt to draw off under fire of the forts must 
have been. 

The Danish government, which had entered the coalition 
largely from fear of Russia, was not prepared to make very great 
sacrifices, and now entered into negotiations for an armistice. 
It was the more ready to do so because it received news of the 
assassination of the tsar Paul, which had happened on the 24th 
of March. An armistice was made for fourteen weeks, which 
left the British fleet free to proceed up the Baltic. On the 1 2th 
of April, after lightening the three-deckers of their guns, the 
fleet passed over the shallows. But its presence had now lost 
all military significance. Sir Hyde Parker was assured by the 
Russian minister at Copenhagen that the new tsar Alexander I. 
would not continue the policy of hostility with England and 
alliance with France which had proved fatal to his father. The 
Swedes, who like the Danes had entered the coalition under 
pressure from Russia, did not send their ships to sea. The 
government of the new tsar was prepared for an arrangement 
with England. The date of the final settlement was in all 
probability delayed by the activity of Nelson, and his belief that 
a British fleet was the best negotiator in Europe. The British 
government learnt of the tsar's death on the I5th of April. On 
the i yth it instructed Sir Hyde Parker to agree to a suspension of 
hostilities, and not to take active measures against Russia so long 
as the Reval squadron did not put to sea. On the 2ist of April, 
having now received a full account of the battle at Copenhagen, 
it recalled Sir Hyde Parker, whose vacillating conduct and 
want of enterprise had become manifest. He received the news 
of his recall on the sth of May. Nelson, to whom the command 
passed, at once put to sea, and hastened with a part of his fleet 
to Reval, which he reached on the 1 2th of May. The Russian 
squadron had, however, cut a passage through the ice in the 
harbour on the 3rd, and had sailed for Kronstadt. Nelson was 
received with formal civility by the Russian officers, with whom 
he exchanged visits. He wrote a letter to Mr Garlike, secretary 
of the British embassy at St Petersburg, saying that he had come 
with a small squadron as the best way of paying " the very 
highest compliment " to the tsar. 

The Russian government, which not unnaturally wished to 
avoid any appearance of acting under dictation, and was now 
in no anxiety for the Reval squadron, treated his presence as a 
menace. On the i^th of May Count Pahlen answered in a most 
peremptory letter informing Nelson that negotiations would 
be suspended while he remained at Reval. This retort caused 
Nelson annoyance which he did not attempt to conceal, but he 
justly concluded that he had nothing further to do at Reval, 
and therefore returned down the Baltic. Nelson remained with 
the fleet till he was relieved at his own request, and was able to 
sail for England on the i8th of June. He gave a proof of his 
regard for the service of the country by taking his passage home 

in a small brig rather than withdraw a line of battle ship from the 
squadron, which his rank entitled him to do, and as other 
admirals of the time generally did. The British sailors and ships 
embargoed in Russia were released on the lyth of May. Great 
Britain released her prisoners on the 4th of June, and on the 
1 7th of June was signed the convention which terminated the 
Baltic campaign. 

See Dispatches and Letters of Vice- Admiral Nelson, by Sir N. Harris 
Nicolas (1845); Life of Nelson, by Capt. A. T. Mahan (London, 
1899). (D. H.) 

COPERNICUS (or KoppERNiGK),NICOLAUS (1473-1543), Polish 
astronomer, was born on the igth of February 1473, at Thorn 
in Prussian Poland, where his father, a native of Cracow, had 
settled as a wholesale trader. His mother, Barbara Watzelrode, 
belonged to a family of high mercantile and civic standing. 
After the death of his father in 1483, Nicolaus was virtually 
adopted by his uncle Lucas Watzelrode, later (in 1489) bishop 
of Ermeland. Placed at the university of Cracow in 1491, he 
devoted himself, during three years, to mathematical science 
under Albert Brudzewski (1445-1497), and incidentally acquired 
some skill in painting. At the age of twenty-three he repaired 
to Bologna, and there varied his studies of canon law by attending 
the astronomical lectures of Domenico Maria Novara (1454- 
1504). At Rome, in the Jubilee year 1500, he himself lectured 
with applause; but having been nominated in 1497 canon of 
the cathedral of Frauenburg, he recrossed the Alps in 1501 with 
the purpose of obtaining further leave of absence for the com- 
pletion of his academic career. Late in the same year, accord- 
ingly, he entered the medical school of Padua, where he remained 
until 1505, having taken meanwhile a doctor's degree in canon 
law at Ferrara on the 3ist of May 1503. After his return to 
his native country he resided at the episcopal palace of Heilsberg 
as his uncle's physician until the latter's death on the 29th of 
March 1512. He then retired to Frauenburg, and vigorously 
attended to his capitular duties. He never took orders, but 
acted continually as the representative of the chapter under 
harassing conditions, administrative and political; he was 
besides commissary of the diocese of Ermeland; his medical 
skill, always at the service of the poor, was frequently in demand 
by the rich; and he laid a scheme for the reform of the currency 
before the Diet of Graudenz in 1522. Yet he found time, amid 
these multifarious occupations, to elaborate an entirely new 
system of astronomy, by the adoption of which man's outlook 
on the universe was fundamentally changed. 

The main lines of his great work were laid down at Heilsberg; 
at Frauenburg, from 1513, he sought, with scanty instrumental 
means, to test by observation the truth of the views it embodied 
(see ASTRONOMY: History). His dissatisfaction with Ptolemaic 
doctrines was of early date; and he returned from Italy, where 
so-called Pythagorean opinions were then freely discussed, in 
strong and irrevocable possession of the heliocentric theory. 
The epoch-making treatise in which it was set forth, virtually 
finished in 1530, began to be known through the circulation in 
manuscript of a Commenlariolus, or brief popular account of its 
purport written by Copernicus in that year. Johann Albrecht 
Widmanstadt lectured upon it in Rome; Clement VII. approved, 
and Cardinal Schonberg transmitted to the author a formal 
demand for full publication. But his assent to this was only 
extracted from him in 1540 by the importunities of his friends, 
especially of his enthusiastic disciple George Joachim Rheticus 
(1514-1576), who printed, in the Narratio prima (Danzig, 1540), 
a preliminary account of the Copernican theory, and simul- 
taneously sent to the press at Nuremberg his master's complete 
exposition of it in the treatise entitled De revolutionibus orbium 
coelestium (1543). But the first printed copy reached Frauen- 
burg barely in time to be laid on the writer's death-bed. Coper- 
nicus was seized with apoplexy and paralysis towards the close 
of 1542, and died on the 24th of May 1543, happily unconscious 
that the fine Epistle, in which he had dedicated his life's work 
to Paul III., was marred of its effect by an anonymous preface, 
slipt in by Andreas Osiander (1498-1552), with a view to dis- 
arming prejudice by insisting upon the purely hypothetical 



character of the reasonings it introduced. The trigonometrical 
section of the book had been issued as a separate treatise (Witten- 
berg, 1542) under the care of Rheticus. The only work published 
by Copernicus on his own initiative was a Latin version of the 
Greek Epistles of Theophylact (Cracow, 1509). His treatise 
De monelae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written 
by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles 
on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian 
provinces of Poland. It advocates unity of the monetary system 
throughout the entire state, with strict integrity in the quality 
of the coin, and the charge of a seigniorage sufficient to cover 
the expenses of mintage. 

AUTHORITIES. Rheticus was the only contemporary biographer 
of Copernicus, and his narrative perished irretrievably. Gassendi's 
jejune Life (Paris, 1654) is thus the earliest extant of any note. 
It was supplemented, during the igth century, by the various 
publications of J. Sniadecki (Warsaw, 1803-1818); of J. H. W. 
Westphal, J. Czynski, M. Curtze, H. A. Wolynski, F. Hipler, and 
others, but their efforts were overshadowed by Dr Leopold Prowe's 
exhaustive Nicolaus Coppernicus (Berlin, 1883-1884), embodying 
the outcome of researches indefatigably prosecuted for over thirty 
years. The first volume (in two parts) is a detailed biography of the 
great astronomer; the second includes some of his minor writings 
and correspondence, family records, and historical documents of 
local interest. The effects of his Italian sojourn upon the nascent 
ideas of Copernicus may be profitably studied in Domenico Berti's 
Copernico e le vicende del sistema Copernicano in Italia (Roma, 1876), 
and in G. V. Schiaparelli's / Precursori del Copernico nell' antichita 
(Milano, 1873). A centenary edition of De revolutionibus erbium 
coelestium was issued at Thorn in 1873, and a German translation 
by C. L. Menzzer in 1879. (A. M. C.) 

COPIAP6, a city of northern Chile, capital of the province of 
Atacama, about 35 m. from the coast on the Copiapo river, in 
lat. 27 36' S., long. 70 23' W. Pop. (1895) 93i- The Caldera 
& Copiapo railway (built 1848-1851 and one of the first in South 
America) extends beyond Copiapo to the Chanarcillo mines 
(50 m.) and other mining districts. Copiapo stands 1300 ft. 
above sea-level and has a mean temperature of about 67 in 
summer and 51 in winter. Its port, Caldera, 50 m. distant by 
rail, is situated on a well-sheltered bay with good shipping 
facilities about 6 m. N. of the mouth of the Copiapo river. 
Copiap6 is perhaps the best built and most attractive of the 
desert region cities. The river brings down from the mountains 
enough water to supply the town and irrigate a considerable 
area in its vicinity. Beyond the small fertile valley in which 
it stands is the barren desert, on which rain rarely falls and 
which has no economic value apart from its minerals (especially 
saline compounds). Copiapo was founded in 1742 by Jose de 
Manso (afterwards Conde de Superunda, viceroy of Peru) and 
took its name from the Copayapu Indians who occupied that 
region. It was primarily a military station and transport post 
on the road to Peru, but after the discovery of the rich silver 
deposits near Chanarcillo by Juan Godoy in 1832 it became an 
important mining centre. It has a good mining school and 
reduction works, and is the supply station for an extensive 
mining district. For many years the Famatina mines of 
Argentina received supplies from this point by way of the Come- 
Caballo pass. 

COPING (from " cope," Lat. capo), in architecture, the capping 
or covering of a wall. This may be made of stone, brick, tile, 
slate, metal, wood or thatch. In all cases it should be weathered 
to throw off the wet. In Romanesque work it was plain and 
flat, and projected over the wall with a throating to form a drip. 
In later work a steep slope was given to the weathering (mainly 
on the outer side), and began at the top with an astragal; in 
the Decorated style there were two or three sets off; and in the 
later Perpendicular period these assumed a wavy section, and 
the coping mouldings were continued round the sides, as well 
as at top and bottom, mitreing at the angles, as in many of the 
colleges at Oxford. The cheapest type of coping is that which 
caps the ordinary 9 in. brick wall, and consists of brick on edge 
above a double tile creasing, all in cement; the creasing con- 
sisting of one or two rows of tiles laid horizontally on the wall 
and projecting on each side about 2 in. to throw off the water 
(see also MASONRY). 

COPLAND, ROBERT (fl. 1515), English printer and author, 
is said to have been a servant of William Caxton, and certainly 
worked for Wynkyn de Worde. The first book to which his 
name is affixed as a printer is The Boke of Justices of Peace (1515), 
at the sign of the Rose Garland, in Fleet Street, London. Anthony 
a, Wood supposed, on the ground that he was more educated 
than was usual in his trade, that he had been a poor scholar of 
Oxford. His best known works are The hye way to the Spyttell 
hous, a dialogue in verse between Copland ard the porter of 
St Bartholomew's hospital, containing much information about 
the vagabonds who found their way there; and Jyl of Breynt- 
fords Testament, dismissed in Athenae Oxonienses (ed. Bliss) as 
" a poem devoid of wit or decency, and totally unworthy of 
further notice." He translated from the French the romances 
of Kynge Appolyne of Thyre (W. de Worde, 1510), The History 
of Helyas Knyght of the Swanne (W. de Worde, 1513), and The 
Life of Ipomydon (Hue of Rolelande), not dated. Among his 
other works is The Complaynle of them that ben too late marycd, 
an undated tract printed by W. de Worde. 

William Copland, the printer, supposed to have been his 
brother, published three editions of Howleglas, perhaps by 
Robert, which in any case represent the earliest English version 
of Till Eulenspiegel. 

The Knyght of the Swanne was reprinted in Thorn's Early Prose- 
Romances, vol. lii., and by the Grolier Club (1901); the Hye Way 
in W. C. Hazlitt's Remains of the Early Popular Poetry of England, 
vol. iv. (1866). See further the " Forewords " to Dr F. J. Furmvall's 
reprint of Jyl of Breyntford (for private circulation, 1871) and J. P. 
Collier, Bibliographical and Critical Account of the Rarest Books in the 
English Language, vol. i. p. 153 (1865). For the books issued from 
his press see Hand-Lists of English Printers (1501-1556), printed 
for the Bibliographical Society in 1896. 

COPLESTON, EDWARD (1776-1849), English bishop, was 
born at Offwell in Devonshire, and educated at Oxford. He was 
elected to a tutorship at Oriel College in 1797, and in 1800 was 
appointed vicar of St Mary's, Oxford. As university professor 
of poetry (1802-1812) he gained a considerable reputation by 
his clever literary criticism and sound latinity. After holding 
the office of dean at Oriel for some years, he succeeded to the 
provostship in 1814, and owing largely to his influence the 
college reached a remarkable degree of prosperity during the 
first quarter of the igth century. In 1826 he was appointed 
dean of Chester, and in the next year he was consecrated bishop 
of Llandaff. Here he gave his support to the new movement 
for church restoration in Wales, and during his occupation of 
the see more than twenty new churches were built in the diocese. 
The political problems of the time interested him greatly, and 
his writings include two able letters to Sir Robert Peel, one 
dealing with the Variable Standard of Value, the other with the 
Increase of Pauperism (Oxford, 1819). 

COPLEY, JOHN SINGLETON (1737-1815), English historical 
painter, was born of Irish parents at Boston, Massachusetts. 
He was self-educated, and commenced his career as a portrait- 
painter in his native city. The germ of his reputation in England 
was a little picture of a boy and squirrel, exhibited at the Society 
of Arts in 1760. In 1774 he went to Rome, and thence in 1775 
came to England. In 1777 he was admitted associate of the 
Royal Academy; in 1783 he was made Academician on the 
exhibition of his most famous picture, the " Death of Chatham," 
popularized immediately by Bartolozzi's elaborate engraving; 
and in 1790 he was commissioned to paint a portrait picture of 
the defence of Gibraltar. The " Death of Major Pierson," in 
the National Gallery, also deserves mention. Copley's powers 
appear to greatest advantage in his portraits. He was the 
father of Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst. 

French poet and novelist, was born in Paris on the izth of 
January 1842. His father held a small post in the civil service, 
and he owed much to the care of an admirable mother. After 
passing through the Lyc6e Saint-Louis he became a clerk in 
the ministry of war, and soon sprang into public favour as a 
poet of the young " Parnassian " school. His first printed verses 
date from 1864. They were republished with others in 1866 in 



a collected form (Le Reliquaire), followed (1867) by Les Intimites 
and Poemes modernes (1867-1869). In 1869 his first play, Le 
Passant, was received with marked approval at the Odeon 
theatre, and later Fais ce que dois (1871) and Les Bijoux de la 
delivrance (1872), short metrical dramas inspired by the war, 
were warmly applauded. 

After filling a post in the library of the senate, Coppee was 
chosen in 1878 as archivist of the Comedie-Francaise, an office 
which he held till 1884. In that year his election to the Academy 
caused him to retire altogether from his public appointments. 
He continued to publish volumes of poetry at frequent intervals, 
including Les Humbles (1872), Le Cahier rouge (1874), Olivier 
(1875), L'Exilte (1876), Contes en vers, &c. (1881), Poemes et 
recils (1886), Arriere-saison (1887), Paroles sincere! (1890). In 
his later years his output of verse declined, but he published two 
more volumes, Dans la priere et la lutte and Vers franc,ais. He 
had established his fame as " le poete des humbles." Besides 
the plays mentioned above, two others written in collaboration 
with Armand d'Artois, and some light pieces of little importance, 
Coppee produced Madame de Maintenon (1881), Sever o Torelli 
(1883), Les Jacobites (1885), and other serious dramas in verse, 
including Pour la couronne (1895), which was translated into 
English (For the Crown) by John Davidson, and produced at the 
Lyceum Theatre in 1896. The performance of a short episode 
of the Commune, Le Pater, was prohibited by the government 
(1889). Coppee's first story in prose, Une Idylle pendant le siege, 
appeared in 1875. It was followed by various volumes of short 
tales, by Toute unejeunesse (1890) an attempt to reproduce the 
feelings, if not the actual wants, of the writer's youth, Les Vrais 
Riches (1892), LcCoupable (1896), &c. He was made an officer of 
the Legion of Honour in 1888. A series of reprinted short 
articles on miscellaneous subjects, styled Man Franc Parler, 
appeared from 1893 to 1896; and in 1898 was published La 
Bonne Sou/ranee, the outcome of Coppee's reconversion to the 
Roman Catholic Church, which gained very wide popularity. 
The immediate cause of his return to the faith was a severe illness 
which twice brought him to the verge .of the grave. Hitherto 
he had taken little open interest in public affairs, but he now 
joined the most violent section of Nationalist politicians, while 
retaining contempt for the whole apparatus of democracy. He 
took a leading part against the prisoner in the Dreyfus case, 
and was one of the originators of the notorious Ligue de la Patrie 
Francaise. He died on the 23rd of May 1908. 

Alike in verse and prose Coppee concerned himself with the 
plainest expressions of human emotion, with elemental patriot- 
ism, and the joy of young love, and the pitifulness of the poor, 
bringing to bear on each a singular gift of sympathy and insight. 
The lyric and idyllic poetry, by which he will chiefly be re- 
membered, is animated by musical charm, and in some instances, 
such as La Benediction and La Greve des forgerons, displays a 
vivid, though not a sustained, power of expression. There is 
force, too, in the gloomy tale, Le Coupable. But he exhibits all 
the defects of his qualities. In prose especially, his sentiment 
often degenerates into sentimentality, and he continually 
approaches, and sometimes oversteps, the verge of the trivial. 
Nevertheless, by neglecting that canon of contemporary art 
which would reduce the deepest tragedies of life to mere subjects 
for dissection, he won those common suffrages which are the prize 
of exquisite literature. 

See M. de Lescure's Francois Coppee, I'homme, la vie, I'asuvre 
(1889), and G. Druilhet, Un Poete franc.ais (1902). 

COPP6E, HENRY (1821-1895), American educationalist 
and author, was born in Savannah, Georgia, on the i3th of 
October 1821, of a French family formerly settled in Haiti. 
He studied at Yale for two years, worked as a civil engineer, 
graduated at West Point in 1845, served in the Mexican War as 
a lieutenant and was breveted captain for gallantry at Contreras 
and Churubusco, was professor of English at West Point from 
1850 to 1855 (when he resigned from the army), was professor 
of English literature and history in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania 1855-1866, and on the ist of April 1866 was chosen first 
president of Lehigh University. In 1875 ne was succeeded by 

John McD. Leavitt and became professor of history and English 
literature, but was president pro tern, from the death of Robert 
A. Lamberton (b. 1824) in September 1893 to his own death 
in Bethlehem on the 22nd of March 1895. He published ele- 
mentary text-books of logic (1857), of rhetoric (1859), and of 
English literature (1872); various manuals of drill; Grant, a 
Military Biography (1866); General Thomas (1893), in the 
" Great Commanders " Series; History of the Conquest of Spain 
by the Arab-Moors (1881) ; and in 1862 a translation of Marmont's 
Esprit des institutions militaires, besides editing the Comte de 
Paris's Civil War in America. 

COPPER (symbol Cu, atomic weight 63-1, H=i, or 63-6, 
O = 16), a metal which has been known to and used by the human 
race from the most remote periods. Its alloy with tin (bronze) 
was the first metallic compound in common use by mankind, 
and so extensive and characteristic was its employment in pre- 
historic times that the epoch is known as the Bronze Age. By 
the Greeks and Romans both the metal and its alloys were 
indifferently known as xiXxos and aes. As, according to Pliny, 
the Roman supply was chiefly drawn from Cyprus, it came to be 
termed aes cyprium, which was gradually shortened to cyprium, 
and corrupted into cuprum, whence comes the English word 
copper, the French cuiwe, and the German Kupfer. 

Copper is a brilliant metal of a peculiar red colour which 
assumes a pinkish or yellowish tinge on a freshly fractured surface 
of the pure metal, and is purplish when the metal contains 
cuprous oxide. Its specific gravity varies between 8-91 and 
8-95, according to the treatment to which it may have been 
subjected; J. F. W. Hampe gives 8-945 (-JS) for perfectly pure 
and compact copper. Ordinary commercial copper is somewhat 
porous and has a specific gravity ranging from 8- 2 to 8- 5. It takes 
a brilliant polish, is in a high degree malleable and ductile, and 
in tenacity it only falls short of iron, exceeding in that quality 
both silver and gold. By different authorities its melting-point 
is stated at from 1000 to 1200 C.; C. T. Heycock and F. H. 
Neville give io8o-5; P. Dejean gives 1085 as the freezing- 
point. The molten metal is sea-green in colour, and at higher 
temperatures (in the electric arc) it vaporizes and burns with 
a green flame. G. W. A. Kahlbaum succeeded in subliming the 
metal in a vacuum, and H. Moissan (Compt. rend., 1905, 141, 
p. 853) distilled it in the electric furnace. Molten copper absorbs 
carbon monoxide, hydrogen and sulphur dioxide; it also appears 
to decompose hydrocarbons (methane, ethane), absorbing the 
hydrogen and the carbon separating out. These occluded gases 
are all liberated when the copper cools, and so give rise to porous 
castings, unless special precautions are taken. The gases are 
also expelled from the molten metal by lead, carbon dioxide, 
or water vapour. Its specific heat is 0-0899 at C. and 0-0942 
at 100; the coefficient of linear expansion per i C. is 0-001869. 
In electric conductivity it stands next to silver; the conducting 
power of silver being equal to 100, that of perfectly pure copper 
is given by A. Matthiessen as 96-4 at 13 C. 

Copper is not affected by exposure in dry air, but in a moist 
atmosphere, containing carbonic acid, it becomes coated with a 
green basic carbonate. When heated or rubbed it emits a peculiar 
disagreeable odour. Sulphuric and hydrochloric acids have little 
or no action upon it at ordinary temperatures, even when 
in a fine state of division; but on heating, copper sulphate and 
sulphur dioxide are formed in the first case, and cuprous chloride 
and hydrogen in the second. Concentrated nitric acid has also 
very little action, but with the dilute acid a vigorous action 
ensues. The first products of this reaction are copper nitrate 
and nitric oxide, but, as the concentration of the copper nitrate 
increases, nitrous oxide and, eventually, free nitrogen are liberated. 

Many colloidal solutions of copper have been obtained. A 
reddish-brown solution is obtained from solutions of copper 
chloride, stannous chloride and an alkaline tartrate (Lotter- 
moser, Anorganische Colloide, 1901). 

Occurrence. Copper is widely distributed in nature, occurring 
in most soils, ferruginous mineral waters, and ores. It has been 
discovered in seaweed; in the blood of certain Cephalopoda and 
Ascidia as haemocyanin, a substance resembling the ferruginous 



haemoglobin, and of a species of Limulus; in straw, hay, eggs, 
cheese, meat, and other food-stuffs; in the liver and kidneys, 
and, in traces, in the blood of man and other animals (as an en- 
tirely adventitious constituent, however) ; it has also been shown 
by A. H. Church to exist to the extent of 5-9% in turacin, the 
colouring-matter of the wing-feathers of the Turaco. 

Native copper, sometimes termed by miners malleable or 
virgin copper, occurs as a mineral having all the properties 
of the smelted metal. It crystallizes in the cubic system, but the 
crystals are often flattened, elongated, rounded or otherwise 
distorted. Twins are common. Usually the metal is arborescent, 
dendritic, filiform, moss-like or laminar. Native copper is found 
in most copper-mines, usually in the upper workings, where 
the deposit has been exposed to atmospheric influences. The 
metal seems to have been reduced from solutions of its salts, and 
deposits may be formed around mine-timber or on iron objects. 
It often fills cracks and fissures in the rock. It is not infrequently 
found in serpentine, and in basic eruptive rocks, where it occurs 
as veins and in amygdales. The largest known deposits are those 
in the Lake Superior region, near Keweenaw Point, Michigan, 
where masses upwards of 400 tons in weight have been dis- 
covered. The metal was formerly worked by the Indians for 
implements and ornaments. It occurs in a series of amygdaloidal 
dolerites or diabases, and in the associated sandstones and con- 
glomerates. Native silver occurs with the copper, in some 
cases embedded in it, like crystals in a porphyry. The copper is 
also accompanied by epidote, calcite, prehnite, analcite and other 
zeolitic minerals. Pseudomorphs after calcite are known; and 
it is notable that native copper occurs pseudomorphous after 
aragonite at Corocoro, in Bolivia, where the copper is disseminated 
through sandstone. 

Ores. The principal ores of copper are the oxides cuprite and 
melaconite, the carbonates malachite and chessylite, the basic 
chloride atacamite, the silicate chrysocolla, the sulphides 
chalcocite, chalcopyrite, erubescite and tetrahedrite. Cuprite 
(q.v.) occurs in most cupriferous mines, but never by itself in 
large quantities. Melaconite (q.v.) was formerly largely worked 
in the Lake Superior region, and is abundant in some of the 
mines of Tennessee and the Mississippi valley. Malachite is a 
valuable ore containing about 56% of the metal; it is obtained 
in very large quantities from South Australia, Siberia and other 
localities. Frequently intermixed with the green malachite is 
the blue carbonate chessylite or azurite (q.v.), an ore containing 
when pure 55-16% of the metal. Atacamite (q.v.) occurs chiefly 
in Chile and Peru. Chrysocolla (q.v.) contains in the pure state 
30% of the metal; it is an abundant ore in Chile, Wisconsin 
and Missouri. The sulphur compounds of copper are, however, 
the most valuable from the economic point of view. Chalcocite, 
redruthite, copper-glance (q.v.) or vitreous copper (Cu 2 S) contains 
about 80% of copper. Copper pyrites, or chalcopyrite, contains 
34-6% of copper when pure; but many of the ores, such as 
those worked specially by wet processes on account of the presence 
of a large proportion of iron sulphide, contain less than 5% of 
copper. Cornish ores are almost entirely pyritic; and indeed 
it is from such ores that by far the largest proportion of copper 
is extracted throughout the world. In Cornwall copper lodes 
usually run east and west. They occur both in the " killas " 
or clay-slate, and in the " growan " or granite. Erubescite 
(q.v.), bornite, or horseflesh ore is much richer in copper than the 
ordinary pyrites, and contains 56 or 57% of copper. Tetra- 
hedrite (q.v.), fahlerz, or grey copper, contains from 30 to 
48% of copper, with arsenic, antimony, iron and sometimes 
zinc, silver or mercury. Other copper minerals are percylite 
(PbCuCl 2 (OH) 2 ), boleite (3PbCuCl 2 (OH) 2 , AgCl), stromeyerite 
l(Cu, AgJjSI, cubanite (CuS, Fe 2 S 3 ), stannite (Cu 2 S, FeSnS 3 ), 
tennantite (3Cu 2 S, As2S 3 ), emplectite (Cu 2 S, Bi^s), wolfsbergite 
(Cu ; S, Sb 2 S 3 ), famatinite (3Cu 2 S, Sb 2 S 6 ) and enargite (3Cu 2 S, 
As 2 S 5 ). For other minerals, see Compounds of Copper below. 

Metallurgy. Copper is obtained from its ores by three principal 
methods, which may be denominated (i) the pyro-metallurgical 
or dry method, (2) the hydro-metallurgical or wet method, and 
(3) the electro-metallurgical method. 

The methods of working vary according to the nature of 
the ores treated and local circumstances. The dry method, 
or ordinary smelting, cannot be profitably practised with ores 
containing less than 4 % of copper, for which and for still poorer 
ores the wet process is preferred. 

Copper Smelling. We shall first give the general principles 
which underlie the methods for the dry extraction of copper, and 
then proceed to a more detailed discussion of the plant used. 
Since all sulphuretted copper ores (and these are of the most 
economic importance) are invariably contaminated with arsenic 
and antimony, it is necessary to eliminate these impurities, as 
far as possible, at a very early stage. This is effected by calcina- 
tion or roasting. The roasted ore is then smelted to a mixture 
of copper and iron sulphides, known as copper " matte " or 
" coarse-metal," which contains little or no arsenic, antimony 
or silica. The coarse-metal is now smelted, with coke and 
siliceous fluxes (in order to slag off the iron), and the product, 
consisting of an impure copper sulphide, is variously known as 
" blue-metal," when more or less iron is still present, " pimple- 
metal," when free copper and more or less copper oxide is present, 
or " fine " or " white-metal," which is a fairly pure copper 
sulphide, containing about 75% of the metal. This product is 
re-smelted to form " coarse-copper," containing about 95 % of 
the metal, which is then refined. Roasted ores may be smelted 
in reverberatory furnaces (English process), or in blast-furnaces 
(German or Swedish process). The matte is treated either in 
reverberatory furnaces (English process), in blast furnaces 
(German process), or in converters (Bessemer process). The 
" American process " or " Pyritic smelting " consists in the 
direct smelting of raw ores to matte in blast furnaces. The 
plant in which the operations are conducted varies in different 
countries. But though this or that process takes its name from 
the country in which it has been mainly developed, this does not 
mean that only that process is there followed. 

The " English process " is made up of the following operations: 
(i) calcination; (2) smelting in reverberatory furnaces to form 
the matte; (3) roasting the matte; and (4) subsequent smelting 
in reverberatory furnaces to fine- or white-metal; (5) treating 
the fine-metal in reverberatory furnaces to coarse- or blister- 
copper, either with or without previous calcination; (6) refining 
of the coarse-copper. A shorter process (the so-called " direct 
process ") converts the fine-metal into refined copper directly. 
The "Welsh process" closely resembles the English method; 
the main difference consists in the enrichment of the matte by 
smelting with the rich copper-bearing slags obtained in sub- 
sequent operations. The " German or Swedish process " is 
characterized by the introduction of blast-furnaces. It is made 
up of the following operations: (i) calcination, (2) smelting in 
blast-furnaces to form the matte, (3) roasting the matte, (4) 
smelting in blast-furnaces with coke and fluxes to " black- " or 
" coarse-metal," (5) refining the coarse-metal. The " Anglo- 
German Process " is a combination of the two preceding, and 
consists in smelting the calcined ores in shaft furnaces, con- 
centrating the matte in reverberatory furnaces, and smelting to 
coarse-metal in either. 

The impurities contained in coarse-copper are mainly iron, lead, 
zinc, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, sulphur, 
selenium and tellurium. These can be eliminated by an oxidizing 
fusion, and slagging or volatilizing the products resulting from 
this operation, or by electrolysis (see below). In the process 
of oxidation, a certain amount of cuprous oxide is always formed, 
which melts in with the copper and diminishes its softness and 
tenacity. It is, therefore, necessary to reconvert the oxide into 
the metal. This is effected by stirring the molten metal with a 
pole of green wood (" poling ") ; the products which arise from 
the combustion and distillation of the wood reduce the oxide to 
metal, and if the operation be properly conducted "tough-pitch " 
copper, soft, malleable and exhibiting a lustrous silky fracture, 
is obtained. The surface of the molten metal is protected from 
oxidation by a layer of anthracite or charcoal. " Bean-shot " 
copper is obtained by throwing the molten metal into hot water; 
if cold water be used, " feathered-shot " copper is formed. 



" Rosette " copper is obtained as thin plates of a characteristic 
dark-red colour, by pouring water upon the surface of the molten 
metal, and removing the crust formed. " Japan " copper is 
purple-red in colour, and is formed by casting into ingots, 
weighing from six ounces to a pound, and rapidly cooling by 
immersion in water. The colour of these two varieties is due to 
a layer of oxide. " Tile " copper is an impure copper, and is 
obtained by refining the first tappings. " Best-selected " copper 
is a purer variety. 

Calcination or Roasting and Calcining Furnaces. The roasting 
should be conducted so as to eliminate as much of the arsenic 
and antimony as possible, and to leave just enough sulphur as is 
necessary to combine with all the copper present when the 
calcined ore is smelted. The process is effected either in heaps, 
stalls, shaft furnaces, reverberatory furnaces or muffle furnaces. 
Stall and heap roasting require considerable time, and can only 
be economically employed when the loss of the sulphur is of no 
consequence; they also occupy much space, but they have the 
advantage of requiring little fuel and handling. Shaft furnaces 
are in use for ores rich in sulphur, and where it is desirable to 
convert the waste gases into sulphuric acid. Reverberatory 
roasting does not admit of the utilization of the waste gases, 
and requires fine ores and much labour and fuel; it has, however, 
the advantage of being rapid. Muffle furnaces are suitable for 
fine ores which are liable to decrepitate or sinter. They involve 
high cost in fuel and labour, but permit the utilization of the 
waste gases. 

Reverberatory furnaces of three types are employed in 
calcining copper ores: (i) fixed furnaces, with either hand or 
mechanical rabbling; (2) furnaces with movable beds; (3) 
furnaces with rotating working chambers. Hand rabbling 
in fixed furnaces has been largely superseded by mechanical 
rabbling. Of mechanically rabbling furnaces we may mention 
the O'Harra modified by Allen-Brown, the Hixon, the Keller- 
Gaylord-Cole, the Ropp, the Spence, the Wethey, the Parkes, 
Pearce's " Turret " and Brown's " Horseshoe " furnaces. 
Blake's and Brunton's furnaces are reverberatory furnaces with 
a movable bed. Furnaces with rotating working chambers admit 
of continuous working; the fuel and labour costs are both low. 

In the White-Howell revolving furnace with lifters a modifica- 
tion of the Oxland the ore is fed and discharged in a continuous 
stream. The Bruckner cylinder resembles the Elliot and Russell 
black ash furnace; its cylinder tapers slightly towards each end, 
and is generally 18 ft. long by 8 ft. 6 in. in its greatest diameter. 
Its charge of from 8 to 12 tons of ore or concentrates is slowly 
agitated at a rate of three revolutions a minute, and in from 
24 to 36 hours it is reduced from say 40 or 35 % to 7 % of sulphur. 
The ore is under better control than is possible with the continu- 
ous feed and discharge, and when sufficiently roasted can be 
passed red-hot to the reverberatory furnace. These advantages 
compensate for the wear and tear arid the cost of moving the 
heavy dead-weight. 

Shaft calcining furnaces are available for fine ores and permit 
the recovery of the sulphur. They are square, oblong or circular 
in section, and the interior is fitted with horizontal or inclined 
plates or prisms, which regulate the fall of the ore. In the 
Gerstenhoffer and Hasenclever-Helbig furnaces the fall is 
retarded by prisms and inclined plates. In other furnaces the 
ore rests on a series of horizontal plates, and either remains on 
the same plate throughout the operation (Ollivier and Ferret 
furnace), or is passed from plate to plate by hand (Maletra), 
or by mechanical means (Spence and M'Dougall). 

The M'Dougall furnace is turret-shaped, and consists of a series 
of circular hearths, on which the ore is agitated by rakes attached 
to revolving arms and made to fall from hearth to hearth. It 
has been modified by Herreshoff, who uses a large hollow revolv- 
ing central shaft cooled by a current of air. The shaft is provided 
with sockets, into which movable arms with their rakes are 
readily dropped. The Peter Spence type of calcining furnace 
has been followed in a large number of inventions. In some the 
rakes are attached to rigid frames, with a reciprocating motion, 
in others to cross-bars moved by revolving chains. Some of 

these furnaces are straight, others circular. Some have only 
one hearth, others three. This and the previous type of furnace, 
owing to their large capacity, are at present in greatest favour/ 
The M'Dougall-Herreshoff, working on ores of over 30% of 
sulphur, requires no fuel; but in furnaces of the reverberatory 
type fuel must be used, as an excess of air enters through the 
slotted sides and the hinged doors which open and shut frequently 
to permit of the passage of the rakes. The consumption of fuel, 
however, does not exceed i of coal to 10 of ore. The quantity of 
ore which these large furnaces, with a hearth area as great as 
2000 ft. and over, will roast varies from 40 to 60 tons a day. 
Shaft calcining furnaces like the Gerstenhoffer, Hasenclever, 
and others designed for burning pyrites fines have not found 
favour in modern copper works. 

The Fusion of Ores in Reverberatory and Cupola Furnaces. 
After the ore has been partially calcined, it is smelted to extract 
its earthy matter and to concentrate the copper with part of its 
iron and sulphur into a matte. In reverberatory furnaces it is 
smelted by fuel in a fireplace, separate from the ore, and in 
cupolas the fuel, generally coke, is in direct contact with the ore. 
When Swansea was the centre of the copper-smelting industry 
in Europe, many varieties of ores from different mines were 
smelted in the same furnaces, and the Welsh reverberatory 
furnaces were used. To-day more than eight-tenths of the 
copper ores of the world are reduced to impure copper bars or to 
fine copper at the mines; and where the character of the ore 
permits, the cupola furnace is found more economical in both 
fuel and labour than the reverberatory. 

The Welsh method finds adherents only in Wales and Chile. 
In America the usual method is to roast ores or concentrates 
so that the matte yielded by either the reverberatory or cupola 
furnace will run from 45 to 50% in copper, and then to transfer 
to the Bessemer converter, which blows it up to 99 %. In Butte, 
Montana, reverberatories have in the past been preferred to 
cupola furnaces, as the charge has consisted mainly of fine 
roasted concentrates; but the cupola is gaining ground there. 
At the Boston and Great Falls (Montana) works tilting reverbera- 
tories, modelled after open hearth . steel furnaces, were first 
erected; but they were found to possess objectionable features. 
Now both these and the egg-shaped reverberatories are being 
abandoned for furnaces as long as 43 ft. 6 in. from bridge to 
bridge and of a width of 15 ft. 9 in. heated by gas, with re- 
generative checker work at each end, and fed with ore or con- 
centrates, red-hot from the calciners, through a line of hoppers 
suspended above the roof. Furnaces of this size smelt 200 tons 
of charge a day. But even when the old type of reverberatory 
is preferred, as at the Argo works, at Denver, where rich gold- 
and silver-bearing copper matte is made, the growth of the 
furnace in size has been steady. Richard Pearce's reverberatories 
in 187* had an area of hearth of 15 ft. by 9 ft. 8 in., and smelted 
12 tons of cold charge daily, with a consumption of i ton of 
coal to 2-4 tons of ore. In 1900 the furnaces were 35 ft. by 16 ft., 
and smelt 50 tons daily of hot ore, with the consumption of i ton 
of coal to 3-7 tons of ore. 

The home of cupola smelting was Germany, where it has never 
ceased to make steady progress. In Mansfeld brick cupola 
furnaces are without a rival in size, equipment and performance. 
They are round stacks, designed on the model of iron blast 
furnaces, 29 ft. high, fed mechanically, and provided with stoves 
to heat the blast by the furnace gases. The low percentage of 
sulphur in the roasted ore is little more than enough to produce 
a matte of 40 to 45%, and therefore the escaping gases are 
better fitted than those of most copper cupola furnaces for 
burning in a stove. But as the slag carries on an average 46 % 
of silica, it is only through the utmost skill that it can be made 
to run as low on an average as 0-3% in copper oxide. As the 
matte contains on an average 0-2% of silver, it is still treated 
by the Ziervogel wet method of extraction, the management 
dreading the loss which might occur in the Bessemer process 
of concentration, applied as preliminary to electrolytic separation. 
Blast furnaces of large size, built of brick, have been constructed 
for treating the richest and more silicious ores of Rio Tinto, and 



the Rio Tinto Company has introduced converters at the mine. 
This method of extraction contrasts favourably in time with 
the leaching process, which is so slow that over 10,000,000 
tons of ore are always under treatment on the immense leaching 
floors of the company's works in Spain. In the United States 
the cupola has undergone a radical modification in being built 
of water-jacketed sections. The first water-jacketed cupola 
which came into general use was a circular inverted cone, with 
a slight taper, of 36 inches diameter at the tuyeres, and com- 
posed of an outer and an inner metal shell, between which 
water circulated. As greater size has been demanded, oval and 
rectangular furnaces as large as 180 in. by 56 in. at the tuyeres 
have been built in sections of cast or sheet iron or steel. A single 
section can be removed and replaced without entirely emptying 
the stack, as a shell of congealed slag always coats the inner 
surface of the jacket. The largest furnaces are those of the 
Boston & Montana Company at Great Falls, Montana, which 
have put through 500 tons of charge daily, pouring their melted 
slag and matte into large wells of 10 ft. in diameter. A combined 
brick- and water-cooled furnace has been adopted by the Iron 
Mountain Company at Keswick, Cal., for matte concentration. 
In it the cooling is effected by water pipes, interposed horizontally 
between the layers of bricks. The Mt. Lyell smelting works in 
Tasmania, which are of special interest, will be referred to later. 
(See Pyritic Smelting below.) 

Concentrating Matte to Copper in the Bessemer Converter. As 
soon as the pneumatic method of decarburizing pig iron was 
accepted as practicable, experiments were made. with a view to 
Bessemerizing copper ores and mattes. One of the earliest and 
most exhaustive series of experiments was made on Rio Tinto 
ores at the John Brown works by John Hollway, with the aim 
of both smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the 
same furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of 
their sulphur and iron. Experiments along the same lines were 
made by Francis Bawden at Rio Tinto and Claude Vautin in 
Australia. The difficulty of effecting this double object in one 
operation was so great that in subsequent experiments the aim 
was merely to concentrate the matte to metallic copper in con- 
verters of the Bessemer type. The concentration was effected 
without any embarrassment till metallic copper commenced to 
separate and chill in the bottom tuyeres. To meet this obstacle 
P. Manhes proposed elevated side tuyeres, which could be kept 
clear by punching through gates in a wind box. His invention 
was adopted by the Vivians, at the Eguilles works near Sargues, 
Vaucluse, France, and at Leghorn in Italy. But the greatest 
expansion of this method has been in the United States, where 
more than 400,000,000 ft. of copper are annually made in 
Bessemer converters. Vessels of several designs are used 
some modelled exactly after steel converters, other barrel- 
shaped, but all with side tuyeres elevated about 10 in. above 
the level of the bottom lining. Practice, however, in treating 
copper matte differs essentially from the treatment of pig iron, 
inasmuch as from 20 to 30% of iron must be eliminated as slag 
and an equivalent quantity of silica must be supplied. The only 
practical mode of doing this, as yet devised, is by lining the con- 
verter with a silicious rnixture. This is so rapidly consumed 
that the converters must be cooled and partially relined after 
3 to 6 charges, dependent on the iron contents of the matte. 
When available, a silicious rock containing copper or the precious 
metals is of course preferred to barren lining. The material 
for lining, and the frequent replacement thereof, constitute the 
principal expense of the method. The other items of cost are 
labour, the quantity of whichdepends on themechanicalappliances 
provided for handling the converter shells and inserting the 
lining; and the blast, which in barrel-shaped converters is low 
and in vertical converters is high, and which varies therefore 
from 3 to 1 5 Ib to the square inch. The quantity of air consumed 
in a converter which will blow up about 35 tons of matte per day 
is about 3000 cub. ft. per minute. The operation of raising a 
charge of 50% matte to copper usually consists of two blows. 
The first blow occupies about 25 minutes, and oxidizes all but 
a small quantity of the iron and some of the sulphur, raising 

the product to white metal. The slag is then poured and 
skimmed, the blast turned on and converter retilted. During the 
second blow the sulphur is rapidly oxidized, and the charge 
reduced to metal of 99% in from 30 to 40 minutes. Little or 
no slag results from the second blow. That from the first blow 
contains between i % and 2 % of copper, and is usually poured 
from ladles operated by an electric crane into a reverberatory, 
or into the settling well of the cupola. The matte also, in all 
economically planned works, is conveyed, still molten, by 
electric cranes from the furnace to the converters. When lead 
or zinc is not present in notable quantity, the loss of the precious 
metals by volatilization is slight, but more than 5% of these 
metals in the matte is prohibitive. Under favourable conditions 
in the larger works of the United States the cost of converting 
a 50% matte to metallic copper is generally understood to be 
only about 7 \ to ^ of a cent per Ib. of refined copper. 

Pyritic Smelting. The heat generated by the oxidation of 
iron and sulphur has always been used to maintain combustion 
in the kilns or stalls for roasting pyrites. Pyritic smelting is 
a development of the Russian engineer Semenikov's treatment 
(proposed in 1866) of copper matte in a Bessemer converter. 
Since John Hollway's and other early experiments of Lawrence 
Austin and Robert Sticht, no serious attempts have been made 
to utilize the heat escaping from a converting vessel in smelting 
ore and matte either in the same apparatus or in a separate 
furnace. But considerable progress has been made in smelting 
highly sulphuretted ores by the heat of their own oxidizable 
constituents. At Tilt Cove, Newfoundland, the Cape Copper 
Company smelted copper ore, with just the proper proportion 
of sulphur, iron and silica, successfully without any fuel, when 
once the initial charge had been fused with coke. The furnaces 
used were of ordinary design and built of brick. Lump ore alone 
was fed, and the resulting matte showed a concentration of only 
3 into i. When, however, a hot blast is used on highly 
sulphuretted copper ores, a concentration of 8 of ore into i of 
matte is obtained, with a consumption of less than one-third 
the fuel which would be consumed in smelting the charge had 
the ore been previously calcined. A great impetus to pyritic 
smelting was given by the investigations of W. L. Austin, of 
Denver, Colorado, and both at Leadville and Silverton raw ores 
are successfully smelted with as low a fuel consumption as 3 of 
coke to 100 of charge. 

Two types of pyritic smelting may be distinguished: one, 
in which the operation is solely sustained by the combustion of 
the sulphur in the ores, without the assistance of fuel or a hot 
blast; the other in which the operation is accelerated by fuel, 
or a hot blast, or both. The largest establishment in which 
advantage is taken of the self-contained fuel is at the smelting 
works of the Mt. Lyell Company, Tasmania. There the blast 
is raised from 600 to 700 F. in stoves heated by extraneous 
fuel, and the raw ore smelted with only 3 % of coke. The 
ore is a compact iron pyrites containing copper 2-5%, silver 
3-83 oz., gold 0-139 oz. It is smelted raw with hot blast in 
cupola furnaces, the largest being 210 in. by 40 in. The resulting 
matte runs 25%. This is reconcentrated raw in hot -blast 
cupolas to 55%, and blown directly into copper in converters. 
Thus these ores, as heavily charged with sulphur as those of the 
Rio Tinto, are speedily reduced by three operations and without 
roasting, with a saving of 97-6% of the copper, 93-2% of the 
silver and 93-6% of the gold. 

Pyritic smelting has met with a varying economic success. 
According to Herbert Lang, its most prominent chance of success 
is in localities where fuel is dear, and the ores contain precious 
metals and sufficient sulphides and arsenides to render profitable 
dressing unnecessary. 

The Nicholls and James Process. Nicholls and James have 
applied, very ingeniously, well-known reactions to the refining 
of copper, raised to the grade of white metal. This process is 
practised by the Cape Copper and Elliot Metal Company. A 
portion of the white metal is calcined to such a degree of oxidation 
that when fused with the unroasted portion, the reaction between 
the oxygen in the roasted matte and the sulphur in the raw 



material liberates the metallic copper. The metal is so pure that 
it can be refined by a continuous operation in the same furnace. 

Wet Methods for Copper Extraction. Wet methods are only 
employed for low grade ores (under favourable circumstances 
ore containing from j to i % of copper has admitted of economic 
treatment), and for gold and silver bearing metallurgical 

The fundamental principle consists in getting the ore into 
a solution, from which the metal can be precipitated. The ores 
of any economic importance contain the copper either as oxide, 
carbonate, sulphate or sulphide. These compounds are got into 
solution either as chlorides or sulphates, and from either of these 
salts the metal can be readily obtained. Ores in which the 
copper is present as oxide or carbonate are soluble in sulphuric 
or hydrochloricacids,ferrouschloride,ferric sulphate, ammoniacal 
compounds and sodium thiosulphate. Of these solvents, only 
the first three are of economic importance. The choice of sul- 
phuric or hydrochloric acid depends mainly upon the cost, both 
acting with about the same rapidity; thus if a Leblanc soda 
factory is near at hand, then hydrochloric acid would most 
certainly be employed. Ferrous chloride is not much used; 
the Douglas-Hunt process uses a mixture of salt and ferrous 
sulphate which involves the formation of ferrous chloride, and 
the new Douglas-Hunt process employs sulphuric acid in which 
ferrous chloride is added after leaching. 

Sulphuric acid may be applied as such on the ores placed in 
lead, brick, or stone chambers; or as a mixture of sulphur 
dioxide, nitrous fumes (generated from Chile saltpetre and 
sulphuric acid), and steam, which permeates the ore resting on 
the false bottom of a brick chamber. When most of the copper 
has been converted into the sulphate, the ore is lixiviated. 
Hydrochloric acid is applied in the same way as sulphuric acid; 
it has certain advantages of which the most important is that 
it does not admit the formation of basic salts; its chief dis- 
advantage is that it dissolves the oxides of iron, and accordingly 
must not be used for highly ferriferous ores. The solubility of 
copper carbonate in ferrous chloride solution was pointed out 
by Max Schaffner in 1862, and the subsequent recognition of 
the solubility of the oxide in the same solvent by James Douglas 
and Sterry Hunt resulted in the " Douglas-Hunt " process for 
the wet extraction of copper. Ferrous chloride decomposes the 
copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and 
cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation 
of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated 
from the carbonate. In the original form of the Douglas-Hunt 
process, ferrous chloride was formed by the interaction of sodium 
chloride (common salt) with ferrous sulphate (green vitriol), 
the sodium sulphate formed at the same time being removed by 
crystallization. The ground ore was stirred with this solution 
at 70 C. in wooden tubs until all the copper was dissolved. The 
liquor was then filtered from the iron oxides, and the filtrate 
treated with scrap iron, which precipitated the copper and 
reformed ferrous chloride, which could be used in the first stage 
of the process. The advantage of this method rests chiefly on 
the small amount of iron required; but its disadvantages are 
that any silver present in the ores goes into solution, the forma- 
tion of basic salts, and the difficulty of filtering from the iron 
oxides. A modification of the method was designed to remedy 
these defects. The ore is first treated with dilute sulphuric acid, 
and then ferrous or calcium chloride added, thus forming copper 
chlorides. If calcium chloride be used the precipitated calcium 
sulphate must be removed by filtration. Sulphur dioxide is then 
blown in, and the precipitate is treated with iron, which produces 
metallic copper, or milk of lime, which produces cuprous oxide. 
Hot air is blown into the filtrate, which contains ferrous or calcium 
chlorides, to expel the excess of sulphur dioxide, and the liquid 
can then be used again. In this process (" new Douglas-Hunt ") 
there are no iron oxides formed, the silver is not dissolved, and 
the quantity of iron necessary is relatively small, since all the 
copper is in the cuprous condition. It is not used in the treat- 
ment of ores, but finds application in the case of calcined argenti- 
ferous lead and copper mattes. 

The precipitation of the copper from the solution, in which 
it is present as sulphate, or as cuprous and cupric chlorides, is 
generally effected by metallic iron. Either wrought, pig, iron 
sponge or iron bars are employed, and it is important to notice 
that the form in which the copper is precipitated, and also the 
time taken for the separation, largely depend upon the condition 
in which the iron is applied. Spongy iron acts most rapidly, and 
after this follow iron turnings and then sheet clippings. Other 
precipitants such as sulphuretted hydrogen and solutions of 
sulphides, which precipitate the copper as sulphides, and milk 
of lime, which gives copper oxides, have not met with commercial 
success. When using iron as the precipitant, it is desirable that 
the solution should be as neutral as possible, and the quantity of 
ferric salts present should be reduced to a minimum; otherwise, 
a certain amount of iron would be used up by the free acid and 
in reducing the ferric salts. Ores in which the copper is present 
as sulphate are directly lixiviated and treated with iron. Mine 
waters generally contain the copper in this form, and it is 
extracted by conducting the waters along troughs fitted with iron 

The wet extraction of metallic copper from ores in which it 
occurs as the sulphide, may be considered to involve the following 
operations: (i) conversion of the copper into a soluble form, 
(2) dissolving out the soluble copper salt, (3) the precipitation 
of the copper. Copper sulphide may be converted either into 
the sulphate, which is soluble in water; the oxide, soluble in 
sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; cupric chloride, soluble in water; 
or cuprous chloride, which is soluble in solutions of metallic 

The conversion into sulphate is generally effected by the 
oxidizing processes of weathering, calcination, heating with iron 
nitrate or ferric sulphate. It may also be accomplished by 
calcination with ferrous sulphate, or other easily decomposable 
sulphates, such as aluminium sulphate. Weathering is a very 
slow, and, therefore, an expensive process; moreover, the entire 
conversion is only accomplished after a number of years. Cal- 
cination is only advisable for ores which contain relatively much 
iron pyrites and little copper pyrites. Also, however slowly the 
calcination may be conducted, there is always more or less 
copper sulphide left unchanged, and some copper oxide formed. 
Calcination with ferrous sulphate converts all the copper sulphide 
into sulphate. Heap roasting has been successfully employed 
at Agordo, in the Venetian Alps, and at Majdanpek in Servia. 
Josef Perino's process, which consists in heating the ore with iron 
nitrate to 50 150 C., is said to possess several advantages, 
but it has not been applied commercially. Ferric sulphate is 
only used as an auxiliary to the weathering process and in an 
electrolytic process. 

The conversion of the sulphide into oxide is adopted where the 
Douglas-Hunt process is employed, or where hydrochloric or 
sulphuric acids are cheap. The calcination is effected in rever- 
beratory furnaces, or in muffle furnaces, if the sulphur is to be 
recovered. Heap, stall or shaft furnace roasting is not very 
satisfactory, as it is very difficult to transform all the sulphide 
into oxide. 

The conversion of copper sulphide into the chlorides may 
be accomplished by calcining with common salt, or by treating 
the ores with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid or with 
ferric chloride. Tha dry way is best; the wet way is only 
employed when fuel is very dear, or when it is absolutely 
necessary that no noxious vapours should escape into the 
atmosphere. The dry method consists in an oxidizing roasting 
of the ores, and a subsequent chloridizing roasting with either 
common salt or Abraumsalz in reverberatory or muffle furnaces. 
The bulk of the copper is thus transformed into cupric chloride, 
little cuprous chloride being obtained. This method had been 
long proposed by William Longmaid, Max Schaffner, Becchi and 
Haupt, but was only introduced into England by the labours of 
William Henderson, J. A. Phillips and others. The wet method 
is employed at Rio Tinto, the particular variant being known 
as the " Dotsch " process. This consists in stacking the broken 
ore in heaps and adding a mixture of sodium sulphate and ferric 



chloride in the proportions necessary for the entire conversion 
of the iron into ferric sulphate. The heaps are moistened with 
ferric chloride solution, and the reaction is maintained by the 
liquid percolating through the heap: The liquid is run off at the 
base of the heaps into the precipitating tanks, where the copper 
is thrown down by means of metallic iron. The ferrous chloride 
formed at the same time is converted into ferric chloride which 
can be used to moisten the heaps. This conversion is effected by 
allowing the ferrous chloride liquors slowly to descend a tower, 
filled with pieces of wood, coke or quartz, where it meets an 
ascending current of chlorine. 

The sulphate, oxide or chlorides, which are obtained from 
the sulphuretted ores, are -lixiviated and the metal precipitated 
in the same manner as we have previously described. 

The metal so obtained is known as " cement " copper. If it 
contains more than 55% of copper it is directly refined, while 
if it contains a lower percentage it is smelted with matte or 
calcined copper pyrites. The chief impurities are basic salts of 
iron, free iron, graphite, and sometimes silica, antimony and iron 
arsenates. Washing removes some of these impurities, but some 
copper always passes into the slimes. If much carbonaceous 
matter be present (and this is generally so when iron sponge is 
used as the precipitant) the crude product is heated to redness 
in the air; this burns out the carbon, and, at the same time, 
oxidizes a little of the copper, which must be subsequently 
reduced. A similar operation is conducted when arsenic is 
present; basic-lined reverberatory furnaces have been used for 
the same purpose. 

Electrolytic Refining. The principles have long been known 
on which is based the electrolytic separation of copper from the 
certain elements which generally accompany it, whether these, 
like silver and gold, are valuable, or, like arsenic, antimony, 
bismuth, selenium and tellurium, are merely impurities. But it 
was not until the dynamo was improved as a machine for generat- 
ing large quantities of electricity at a very low cost that the 
electrolysis of copper could be practised on a commercial scale. 
To-day, by reason of other uses to which electricity is applied, 
electrically deposited copper of high conductivity is in ever- 
increasing demand, and commands a higher price than copper 
refined by fusion. This increase in value permits of copper with 
not over 2 or $10 worth of the precious metals being profitably 
subjected to electrolytic treatment. Thus many million ounces 
of silver and a great deal of gold are recovered which formerly 
were lost. 

The earliest serious attempt to refine copper industrially was 
made by G. R. Elkington, whose first patent is dated 1865. 
He cast crude copper, as obtained from the ore, into plates 
which were used as anodes, sheets of electro-deposited copper 
forming the cathodes. Six anodes were suspended, alternately 
with four cathodes, in a saturated solution of copper sulphate in 
a cylindrical fire-clay trough, all the anodes being connected 
in one parallel group, and all the cathodes in another. A hundred 
or more jars were coupled in series, the cathodes of one to the 
anodes of the next, and were so arranged that with the aid of 
side-pipes with leaden connexions and india-rubber joints the 
electrolyte could, once daily, be made to circulate through them 
all from the top of one jar to the bottom of the next. The current 
from a Wilde's dynamo was passed, apparently with a current 
density of 5 or 6 amperes per sq. ft., until the anodes were too 

crippled for further use. The cathodes, when thick enough, were 
either cast and rolled or sent into the market direct. Silver and 
other insoluble impurities collected at the bottom of the trough 
up to the level of the lower side-tube, and were then run off 
through a plug in the bottom into settling tanks, from which 
they were removed for metallurgical treatment. The electrolyte 
was used until the accumulation of iron in it was too great, but 
was mixed from time to time with a little water acidulated by 
sulphuric acid. This process is of historic interest, and in 
principle it is identical with that now used. The modifications 
introduced have been chiefly in details, in order to economize 
materials and labour, to ensure purity of product, and to increase 
the rate of deposition. 

The chemistry of the process has been studied by Martin Kiliani 
(Berg- und Hiittenmannische Zeitung, 1885, p. 249), who found 
that, using the (low) current-density of 1-8 ampere per sq. ft. of 
cathode, and an electrolyte containing ij Ib of copper sulphate 
and J Ib of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and 
silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undis- 
solved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there 
as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or SCX ions) ; 
he found also that arsenic forms arscnious oxide, which dissolves 
until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from 
which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by 
secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a bash 
sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and 
partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate 
out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, 
sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass 
into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but 
in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic 
sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into 
solution more readily indeed than does the copper. Of the metals 
which dissolve, none (except bismuth, which is rarely present in 
any quantity) deposits at the anode so long as the solution retains 
its proper proportion of copper and acid, and the current-density 
is not too great. Neutral solutions are to be avoided because in them 
silver dissolves from the anode and, being more electro-negative than 
copper, is deposited at the cathode, while antimony and arsenic are 
also deposited, imparting a dark colour to the copper. Electrolytic 
copper should contain at least 99-92 % of metallic copper, the balance 
consisting mainly of oxygen with not more than o-oi % in all of 
lead, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and silver. Such a degree of 
purity is, however, unattainable unless the conditions of electrolysis 
are rigidly adhered to. It should be observed that the free acid is 
gradually neutralized, partly by chemical action on certain con- 
stituents of the slime, partly by local-action between different metals 
of the anode, both of which effect solution independently of the 
current, and partly by the peroxidation (or aeration) of ferrous 
sulphate formed from the iron in the anode. At the same time there 
is a gradual substitution of other metals for copper in the solution, 
because although copper plus other (more electro-positive) metals 
are constantly dissolving at the anode, only copper is deposited at 
the cathode. Hence the composition and acidity of the solution, 
on which so much depends, must be constantly watched. 

The dependence of the mechanical qualities of the copper upon 
the current-density employed is well known. A very weak current 
gives a pale and brittle deposit, but as the current-density is in- 
creased up to a certain point, the properties of the metal improve; 
beyond this point they deteriorate, the colour becoming darker and 
the deposit less coherent, until at last it is dark brown and spongy 
or pulverulent. The presence of even a small proportion of hydro- 
chloric acid imparts a brown tint to the deposit. Baron H. v. Hiibl 
(Mittheil. des k. k. militar-gepgraph. Inst., 1886, vol. vi. p. 51) has 
found that with neutral solutions a 5 % solution of copper sulphate 
gave no good result, while with a 20 % solution the best deposit was 
obtained with a current-density of 28 amperes per sq. ft.; with 
solutions containing 2 % of sulphuric acid, the 5 % solution gave 
good deposits with current-densities of 4 to 7-5 amperes, and the 
20% solution with 11-5 to 37 amperes, per sq. ft. The maximum 
current-densities for a pure acid solution at rest were : for 15 % pure 
copper sulphate solutions 14 to 21 amperes, and for 20% solutions 
18-5 to 28 amperes, per sq. ft.; but when the solutions were kept 
in gentle motion these maxima could be increased to 21-28 and 
28-37 amperes per sq. ft. respectively. The necessity for adjusting 
tiie current-density to the composition and treatment of the electro- 
lyte is thus apparent. The advantage of keeping the solution in 
motion is due partly to the renewal of solution thus effected in the 
neighbourhood of the electrodes, and partly to the neutralization of 
the tendency of liquids undergoing electrolysis to separate into layers, 
due to the different specific gravities of the solutions flowing from 
the opposing electrodes. Such an irregular distribution of the 
bath, with strong copper sulphate solution from the anode at the 
bottom and acid solution from the cathode at the top, not only 
alters the conductivity in different strata and so causes irregular 
current-distribution, but may lead to the current-density in the 
upper layers being too great for the proportion of copper there 
present. Irregular and defective deposits are therefore obtained. 
Provision for circulation of solution is made in the systems of 
copper-refining now in use. Henry Wilde, in 1875, ' n depositing 
copper on iron printing-rollers, recognized this principle and rotated 
the rollers during electrolysis, thereby renewing the surfaces of metal 
and liquid in mutual contact, and imparting sufficient motion to 
the solution to prevent stratification; as an alternative he imparted 
motion to the electrolyte by means of propeller blades. Other 
workers have followed more or less on the same lines; reference 
may be made to the patents of F. E. and A. S. Elmore, who sought 
to improve the character of the deposit by burnishing during electro- 
lysis, of E. Dumoulin, and Shcrard Cowper-Coles (Engineering 
Review, 1905, vol. xiii. p. 392), who prefers to rotate the cathode 
at a speed that maintains a peripheral velocity of at least 1000 ft. 
per minute. Certain other inventors have applied the same principle 
in a different way. H. Thofehrn in America and J. C. Graham in 



England have patented processes by which jets of the electrolyte 
are caused to impinge with considerable force upon the surface of 
the cathode, so that the renewal of the liquid at this point takes 
place very rapidly, and current-densities per sq. ft. of 50 to loo 
amperes are recommended by the former, and of 300 amperes by the 
latter. Graham has described experiments in this direction, using 
a jet of electrolyte forced (beneath the surface of the bath) through 
a hole in the anode upon the surface of the cathode. Whilst the jet 
was playing, a good deposit was formed with so high a current-density 
as 280 amperes per sq. ft., but if the jet was checked, the deposit 
(now in a still liquid) was instantaneously ruined. When two or 
more jets were used side by side the deposit was good opposite the 
centre of each, but bad at the point where two currents met, because 
the rate of flow was reduced. By introducing perforated shields 
of ebonite between the electrodes, so that the full current-density 
was only attained at the centres of the jets, these ill effects could 
be prevented. One of the chief troubles met with was the formation 
of arborescent growths around the edges of the cathode, due to the 
greater current-density in this region; this, however, was also 
obviated by the use of screens. By means of a very brisk rotation 
of cathode, combined with a rapid current of electrolyte, J. W. 
Swan has succeeded in depositing excellent copper at current- 
densities exceeding 1000 amperes per sq. ft. The methods by which 
such results are to be obtained cannot, however, as yet be practised 
economically on a working scale; one great difficulty in applying 
them to the refining of metals is that the jets of liquid would be 
liable to carry with them articles of anode mud, and Swan has shown 
that the presence of solid particles in the electrolyte is one of the 
most fruitful causes of the well-known nodular growths on electro- 
deposited copper. Experiments on a working scale with one of the 
jet processes in America have, it is reported, been given up after a 
full trial. 

In copper-refining practice, the current-density commonly ranges 
from 7-5 to 12 or 15, and occasionally to 18, amperes per sq. ft. 
The electrical pressure required to force a current of this intensity 
through the solution, and to overcome a certain opposing electro- 
motive force arising from the more electro-negative impurities of 
the anode, depends upon the composition of the bath and of the 
anodes, the distance between the electrodes, and the temperature, 
but under the usual working conditions averages 0-3 volt for every 
pair of electrodes in series. In nearly all the processes now used, 
the solution contains about I J to 2 ft of copper sulphate and from 
5 to 10 oz. of sulphuric acid per gallon of water, and the space 
between the electrodes is from ij to 2 in., whilst the total area of 
cathode surface in each tank may be 200 sq. ft., more or less. The 
anodes are usually cast copper plates about (say) 3 ft. by 2 ft. by 
| or i in. The cathodes are frequently of electro-deposited copper, 
deposited to a thickness of about A in. on black-leaded copper plates, 
from which they are stripped before use. The tanks are commonly 
constructed of wood lined with lead, or tarred inside, and are placed 
in terrace fashion each a little higher than the next in series, to 
facilitate the flow of solution through them all from a cistern at 
one end to a well at the other. Gangways are left between adjoining 
rows of tanks, and an overhead travelling-crane facilitates the 
removal of the electrodes. The arrangement of the tanks depends 
largely upon the voltage available from the electric generator 
selected ; commonly they are -divided into groups, all the baths in 
each group being in series. In the huge Anaconda plant, for example, 
in which 150 tons of refined copper can be produced daily by the 
Thofehrn multiple system (not the jet system alluded to above), 
there are 600 tanks about 8J ft. by 4J ft. by 3i ft. deep, arranged 
in three groups of 200 tanks in series. The connexions are made 
by copper rods, each of which, in length, is twice the width of the 
tank, with a bayonet-bend in the middle, and serves to support 
the cathodes in the one and the anodes in the next tank. Self- 
registering voltmeters indicate at any moment the potential differ- 
ence in every tank, and therefore give notice of short circuits occur- 
ring at any part of the installation. The chief differences between the 
commercial systems of refining lie in the arrangement of the baths, 
in the disposition and manner of supporting the electrodes in each, 
in the method of circulating the solution, and in the current-density 
employed. The various systems are often classed in two groups, 
known respectively as the Multiple and Series systems, depending 
upon the arrangement of the electrodes in each tank. Under the 
multiple system anodes and cathodes are placed alternately, all the 
anodes in one tank being connected to one rod, and all the cathodes 
to another, and the potential difference between the terminals of 
each tank is that between a single pair of plates. Under the series 
system only the first anode and the last cathode are connected to 
the conductors; between these are suspended, isolated from one 
another, a number of intermediate bi-polar electrode plates of raw 
copper, each of these plates acting on one side as a cathode, receiving 
a deposit of copper, and on the other as an anode, passing into 
solution; the voltage between the terminals of the tank will be as 
many times as great as that between a single pair of plates as there 
are spaces between electrodes in the tank. In time the original 
impure copper of the plates becomes replaced by refined copper, 
but if the plates are initially very impure and dissolve irregularly, 
it may happen that much residual scrap may have to be remelted, 
or that some of the metal may be twice refined, thus involving a 

waste of energy. Moreover, the high potential difference between 
the terminals of the series tank introduces a greater danger of short- 
circuiting through scraps of metal at the bottom of the bath; for 
this reason, also, lead-lined vats are inadmissible, and tarred slate 
tanks are often used instead. A valuable comparison of the multiple 
and series systems has been published by E. Keller (see The Mineral 
Industry, New York, 1899, vol. vii. p. 229). G. Kroupa has calcu- 
lated that the cost of refining is 8s. per ton of copper higher under 
the series than it is under the multiple system ; but against this, it 
must be remembered that the new works of the Baltimore Copper 
Smelting and Rolling Company, which are as large as those of the 
Anaconda Copper Mining Company, are using the Hayden process, 
which is the chief representative of the several series systems. In 
this system rolled copper anodes are used; these, being purer than 
many cast anodes, having flat surfaces, and being held in place by 
guides, dissolve with great regularity and require a space of only 
| in. between the electrodes, so that the potential difference between 
each pair of plates may be reduced to 0-15-0-2 volt. 

J. A. W. Borchers, in Germany, and A. E. Schneider and O. 
Szontagh, in America, have introduced a method of circulating the 
solution in each vat by forcing air into a vertical pipe communi- 
cating between the bottom and top of a tank, with the result that 
the bubbling of the air upward aspirates solution through the vertical 
pipe from below, at the same time aerating it, and causing it to 
overflow into the top of the tank. Obviously this slow circulation 
has but little effect on the rate at which the copper may be de- 
posited. The electrolyte, when too impure for further use, is 
commonly recrystallized, or electrolysed with insoluble anodes to 
recover the copper. 

The yield of copper per ampere (in round numbers, I oz. of copper 
per ampere per diem) by Faraday's law is never attained in practice ; 
and although 98 % may with care be obtained, from 94 to 96 % 
represents the more usual current-efficiency. With 1 00% current- 
efficiency and a potential difference of 0-3 volt between the electrodes, 
I ft of copper should require about 0-154 electrical horse-power 
hours as the amount of energy to be expended in the tank for its 
production. In practice the expenditure is somewhat greater than 
this; in large works the gross horse-power required for the refining 
itself and for power and lighting in the factory may not exceed 
0-19 to 0-2 (or in smaller works 0-25) horse-power hours per pound 
of copper refined. 

Many attempts have been made to use crude sulphide of copper 
or matte as an anode, and recover the copper at the cathode, the 
sulphur and other insoluble constitutents being left at the anode. 
The best known of these is the Marchese process, which was tested 
on a working scale at Genoa and Stolberg in Rhenish Prussia. As 
the operation proceeded, it was found that the voltage had to be 
raised until it became prohibitive, while the anodes rapidly became 
honeycombed through and, crumbling away, filled up the space at 
the bottom of the vat. The process was abandoned, but in a modified 
form appears to be now in use in Nijni- Novgorod in Russia. Siemens 
and Halske introduced a combined process in which the ore, after 
being part-roasted, is leached by solutions from a previous electro- 
lytic operation, and the resulting copper solution electrolysed. 
In this process the anode solution had to be kept separate from the 
cathode solution, and the membrane which had in consequence to be 
used, was liable to become torn, and so to cause trouble by permitting 
the two solutions to mix. Modifications of the process have therefore 
been tried. 

Modern methods in copper smelting and refining have effected 
enormous economy in time, space, and labour, and have conse- 
quently increased the world's output. With pyritic smelting a 
sulphuretted copper ore, fed into a cupola in the morning, can be 
passed directly to the converter, blown up to metal, and shipped 
as 99% bars by evening an operation which formerly, with 
heap roasting of the ore and repeated roasting of the mattes in 
stalls, would have occupied not less than four months. A large 
furnace and a Bessemer converter, the pair capable of making a 
million pounds of copper a month from a low-grade sulphuretted 
ore, will not occupy a space of more than 25 ft. by 100 ft.; and 
whereas, in making metallic copper out of a low-grade sulphuretted 
ore, one day's labour used to be expended on every ton of ore 
treated, to-day one day's labour will carry at least four tons of 
ore through the different mechanical and metallurgical processes 
necessary to reduce them to metal. About 70% of the world's 
annual copper output is refined electrolytically, and from the 
461,583 tons refined in the United States in 1907, there were 
recovered 13,995,436 oz. of silver and 272,150 oz. of gold. The 
recovery of these valuable metals has contributed in no small 
degree to the expansion of electrolytic refining. 

Production. The sources of copper, its applications and its 
metallurgy, have undergone great changes. Chile was the 
largest producer in 1869 with 54,867 tons; but in 1899 her 



production had fallen off to 25,000 tons. Great Britain, though 
she had made half the world's copper in 1830, held second place in 
1860, making from native ores 15,968 tons; in 1900 her pro- 
duction was 777 tons, and in 1907, 711 tons. The United States 
made only 572 tons in 1850, and 12,600 tons in 1870; but she to- 
day makes more than 60% of the world's total. In 1879, Spain 
was the largest producer, but now ranks third. 

The estimated total production for each decade of the igth 
century in metric tons is here shown: 

1801-1810 ... . 91,000 

1811-1820 ... . 96,000 

1821-1830 ... . 135,000 

1831-1840 ... . 218,400 

1841-1850 ... . 291,000 

1851-1860 ... . 506,999 

1861-1870 ... . 900,000 

1871-1880 ... . 1,189,000 

1881-1890 ... . 2,373,398 

1891-1900 ... . 3,708,901 

The following table gives the output of various countries 
and the world's production for the years 1895, 1900, 1905, 






United States . 
Spain and Portugal 
Germany .... 

World's production 












As the stock on hand rarely exceeds three months' demand, 
and is often little more than a month's supply, it is evident that 
consumption has kept close pace with production. 

The large demand for copper to be used in sheathing ships 
ceased on the introduction of iron in shipbuilding because of the 
difficulty of coating iron with an impervious layer of copper; but 
the consumption in the manufacture of electric apparatus and for 
electric conductors has far more than compensated. 

Alloys of Copper. Copper unites with almost all other metals, 
and a large number of its alloys are of importance in the arts. The 
principal alloys in which it forms a leading ingredient are brass, 
bronze, and German or nickel silver; under these several heads their 
respective applications and qualities wil! be found. 

Compounds of Copper. Copper probably forms six oxides, viz. 
Cu<O, Cu 3 O, Cu 2 O, CuO, CujOa and CuO 2 . The most important are 
cuprous oxide, Cu2O, and cupric oxide, CuO, both of 
Oxides which give rise to well-defined series of salts. The other 
and by- oxides do not possess this property, as is also the case 
droxldes. of the hydrated oxides Cu 3 O 2 2H 2 O and Cu,O 3 5H 2 O, de- 
scribed by M. Siewert. 

Cuprous oxide, Cu 2 O, occurs in nature as the mineral cuprite (?..). 
It may be prepared artificially by heating copper wire to a white 
heat, and afterwards at a reu heat, by the atmospheric oxidation 
of copper reduced in hydrogen, or by the slow oxidation of the metal 
under water. It is obtained as a fine red crystalline precipitate by 
reducing an alkaline copper solution with sugar. When finely 
divided it is of a fine red colour. It fuses at red heat, and colours 
glass a ruby-red. The property was known to the ancients and 
during the middle ages; it was then lost for several centuries, to 
be rediscovered in about 1827. Cuprous oxide is reduced by hydro- 
gen, carbon monoxide, charcoal, or iron, to the metal; it dissolves 
in hydrochloric acid forming cuprous chloride, and in other mineral 
acids to form cupric salts, with the separation of copper. It dissolves 
in ammonia, forming a colourless solution which rapidly oxidizes 
and turns blue. A hydrated cuprous oxide, (4Cu 2 O, H 2 O), is obtained 
as a bright yellow powder, when cuprous chloride is treated with 
potash or soda. It rapidly absorbs oxygen, assuming a blue colour. 
Cuprous oxide corresponds to the series of cuprous salts, which are 
mostly white in colour, insoluble in water, and readily oxidized 
to cupric salts. 

Cupric oxide, CuO, occurs in nature as the mineral melaconite 
(?..), and can be obtained as a hygroscopic black powder by the 
gentle ignition of copper nitrate, carbonate or hydroxide; also by 
heating the hydroxide. It oxidizes carbon compounds to carbon 
dioxide and water, and therefore finds extensive application in 
analytical organic chemistry. It is also employed to colour glass, 
to which it imparts a light green colour. Cupric hydroxide, 
Cu(OH) 2 , is obtained as a greenish-blue flocculent precipitate by 

mixing cold solutions of potash and a cupric salt. This precipitate 
always contains more or less potash, which cannot be entirely 
removed by washing. A purer product is obtained by adding 
ammonium chloride, filtering, and washing with hot water. Several 
hydrated oxides,e.g.Cu(OH) 2 -3CuO,Cu(OH) 2 -6H 2 O,6Cu9-H 2 O, have 
been described. Both the oxide and hydroxide dissolve in ammonia 
to form a beautiful azure-blue solution (Schweizer's reagent), which 
dissolves cellulose, or perhaps, holds it in suspension as water does 
starch; accordingly, the solution rapidly perforates paper or calico. 
The salts derived from cupric oxide are generally white when 
anhydrous, but blue or green when hydrated. 

Copper quadrantoxide, Cu4O, is an olive-green powder formed by 
mixing well-cooled solutions of copper sulphate and alkaline stannous 
chloride. The trientoxide, Cu 3 O, is obtained when cupric oxide is 
heated to I5OO-2OOO C. It forms yellowish-red crystals, which 
scratch glass, and are unaffected by all acids except hydrofluoric; 
it also dissolves in molten potash. Copper dioxide, CuO 2 H 2 O, is 
obtained as a yellowish-brown powder, by treating cupric hydrate 
with hydrogen peroxide. When moist, it decomposes at about 
6C., but the dry substance must be heated to about 180, before 
decomposition sets in (see L. Moser, Abst. J.C.S., 1907, ii. p. 549). 

Cuprous hydride, (CuH) n , was first obtained by Wurtz in 1844, 
who treated a solution of copper sulphate with hypophosphorous 
acid, at a temperature not exceeding 70 C. According to E. J. 
Bartlett and W. H. Merrill, it decomposes when heated, and gives 
cupric hydride, CuH 2 , as a reddish-brown spongy mass, which turns 
to a chocolate colour on exposure. It is a strong reducing agent. 

Cuprous fluoride, CuF, is a ruby-red crystalline mass, formed by 
heating cuprous chloride in an atmosphere of hydrofluoric acid at 
noo-i2OO C. It is soluble in boiling hydrochloric acid, but it is 
not reprecipitated by water, as is the case with cuprous chloride. 
Cupric fluoride, CuF 2 , is obtained by dissolving cupric oxide in 
hydrofluoric acid. The hydrated form, (CuF 2 , 2H 2 O, 5HF), is obtained 
as blue crystals, sparingly soluble in cold water; when heated to 
100 C. it gives the compound CuF(OH), which, when heated with 
ammonium fluoride in a current of carbon dioxide, gives anhydrous 
copper fluoride as a white powder. 

Cuprous chloride, CuCl or Cu 2 Cl 2 , was obtained by Robert Boyle 
by heating copper with mercuric chloride. It is also obtained by 
burning the metal in chlorine, by heating copper and cupric oxide 
with hydrochloric acid, or copper and cupric chloride with hydro- 
chloric acid. It dissolves in the excess of acid, and is precipitated 
as a white crystalline powder on the addition of water. It melts at 
below red heat to a brown mass, and its vapour density at both 
red and white heat corresponds to the formula Cu 2 CJ 2 . It turns 
dirty violet on exposure to air and light; in moist air it absorbs 
oxygen and forms an oxychloride. Its solution in hydrochloric acid 
readily absorbs carbon monoxide and acetylene; hence it finds 
application in gas analysis. Its solution in ammonia is at first 
colourless, but rapidly turns blue, owing to oxidation. This solution 
absorbs acetylene with the precipitation of red cuprous acetylide, 
Cu 2 C 2 , a very explosive compound. Cupric chloride, CuCl 2 , is ob- 
tained by burning copper in an excess of chlorine, or by heating the 
hydrated chloride, obtained by dissolving the metal or cupric oxide 
in an excess of hydrochloric acid. It is a brown deliquescent powder, 
which rapidly forms the green hydrated salt CuCl 2 , 2H 2 O on exposure. 
The oxychloride Cu 3 O 2 CI 2 -4H 2 O is obtained a? a pale blue precipi- 
tate when potash is added to an excess of cupric chloride. The 
oxychloride Cu 4 O3Cl 2 ,4H 2 O occurs in nature as the mineral atacamite. 
It may be artificially prepared by heating salt with ammonium 
copper sulphate to 100 . Other naturally occurring oxychlorides 
are botallackite and tallingite. " Brunswick green,' a light green 
pigment, is obtained from copper sulphate and bleaching powder. 

The bromides closely resemble the chlorides and fluorides. 

Cuprous iodide, Cu 2 l2, is obtained as a white powder, which suffers 
little alteration on exposure, by the direct union of its components 
or by mixing solutions of cuprous chloride in hydrochjoric acid and 
potassium iodide ; or, with liberation of iodine, by adding potassium 
iodide to a cupric salt. It absorbs ammonia, forming the compound 
Cu 2 I 2 , 4NHa. Cupric iodide is only known in combination, as in 
CuI 2 , 4NH 3 , H 2 O, which is obtained by exposing CujI,4NHj to 
moist air. 

Cuprous sulphide, Cu 2 S, occurs in nature as the mineral chalcocite 
or copper-glance (<?), and may be obtained as a black brittle mass 
by the direct combination of its constituents. (See above, Metallurgy.) 
Cupric sulphide, CuS, occurs in nature as the mineral covellite. 
It may be prepared by heating cuprous sulphide with sulphur, or 
triturating cuprous sulphide with cold strong nitric acid, or as a 
dark brown precipitate by treating a copper solution with sul- 
phuretted hydrogen. Several polysulphides, e.g. Cu z Sj, Cu 2 S, CuSi, 
Cu 2 S, have been described; they are all unstable, decomposing 
into cupric sulphide and sulphur. Cuprous sulphite, CuSOj-HiO, is 
obtained as a brownish-red crystalline powder by treating cuprous 
hydrate with sulphurous acid. A cuproso-cupric sulphite, Cu 2 SO, 
CuSO 3 ,2H 2 O, is obtained by mixing solutions of cupric sulphate and 
acid sodium sulphite. 

Cupric sulphate or " Blue Vitriol," CuSO4, is one of the most im- 
portant salts of copper. It occurs in cupriferous mine waters and as 
the minerals chalcanthite or cyanosite, CuSOrSHjO, and boothite, 
CuSO-7H 2 O. Cupric sulphate is obtained commercially by the 



oxidation of sulphuretted copper ores (see above, Metallurgy; wet 
methods), or by dissolving cupric oxide in sulphuric acid. It was 
obtained in 1644 by Van Helmont, who heated copper with sulphur 
and moistened the residue, and in 1648 by Glauber, who dissolved 
copper in strong sulphuric acid. (For the mechanism of this reaction 
see C. H. Sluiter, Chem. Weekblad, 1906, 3, p. 63, and C. M. van 
Deventer, ibid., 1906, 3, p. 15.) It crystallizes with five molecules 
of water as large blue triclinic prisms. When heated to 1 00, it loses 
four molecules of water and forms the bluish-white monohydrate, 
which, on further heating to 25O-26o, is converted into the white 
CuSp<. The anhydrous salt is very hygroscopic, and hence finds 
application as a desiccating agent. It also absorbs gaseous hydro- 
chloric acid. Copper sulphate is readily soluble in water, but in- 
soluble in alcohol; it dissolves in hydrochloric acid with a consider- 
able fall in temperature, cupric chloride being formed. The copper 
is readily replaced by iron, a knife-blade placed in an aqueous 
solution being covered immediately with a bright red deposit of 
copper. At one time this was regarded as a transmutation of iron 
into copper. Several basic salts are known, some of which occur as 
minerals; of these, we may mention brochantite (q.v.), CuSO4, 
3Cu(OH 2 ), langite, CuSO 4 , 3Cu(OH) 2 , H 2 O, lyellite (or devilline), 
warringtonite ; woodwardite and enysite are hydrated copper- 
aluminium sulphates, connellite is a basic copper chlorosulphate, 
and spangolite is a basic copper aluminium chlorosulphate. Copper 
sulphate finds application in calico printing and in the preparation 
of the pigment Scheele's green. 

A copper nitride, Cu 3 N, is obtained by heating precipitated cuprous 
oxide in ammonia gas (A. Guntz and H. Bassett, Bull. Soc. Chim., 
1906, 35, p. 201). Amaroon-colouredpowder,ofcompositionCuNO 2) 
is formed when pure dry nitrogen dioxide is passed over finely- 
divided copper at 25-3O. It decomposes when heated to 90; 
with water it gives nitric oxide and cupric nitrate and nitrite. 
Cupric nitrate, Cu(NO 3 ) 2 , is obtained by dissolving the metal or oxide 
in nitric acid. It forms dark blue prismatic crystals containing 
3, 4, or 6 molecules of water according to the temperature of crystal- 
lization. The trihydrate melts at 114-5, an d boils at 170, giving 
off nitric acid, and leaving the basic salt Cu(NO s ) 2 -3Cu(OH) 2 . The 
mineral gerhardtite is the basic nitrate Cu 2 (OH) 3 NO3. 

Copper combines directly with phosphorus to form several 
compounds. The phosphide obtained by heating cupric phosphate, 
Cu 2 H 2 P 2 O s , in hydrogen, when mixed with potassium and cuprous 
sulphides or levigated coke, constitutes " Abel's fuse," which is used 
as a primer. A phosphide, Cu 3 P 2 , is formed by passing phosphor- 
etted hydrogen over heated cuprous chloride. (For other phosphides 
see E. Heyn and O. Bauer, Rep. Chem. Soc., 1906, 3, p. 39.) Cupric 
phosphate, Cu3(PO<) 2 , may be obtained by precipitating a copper 
solution with sodium phosphate. Basic copper phosphates are of 
frequent occurrence in the mineral kingdom. Of these we may 
notice libethenite, Cu 2 (OH)PO<; chalcosiderite, a basic copper iron 
phosphate; torbernite, a copper uranyl phosphate; andrewsite, a 
hydrated copper iron phosphate; and henwoodite, a hydrated copper 
aluminium phosphate. 

Copper combines directly with arsenic to form several arsenides, 
some of which occur in the mineral kingdom. Of these we may 
mention whitneyite, Cu 9 As, algodonite, Cu 6 As, and domeykite, Cu 3 As. 
Copper arsenate is similar to cupric phosphate, and the resemblance 
is to be observed in the naturally occurring copper arsenates, 
which are generally isomorphous with the corresponding phosphates. 
Olivenite corresponds to libethenite; clinoclase, euchroite, corn- 
wallite and tyrolite are basic arsenates; zeunerite corresponds to 
torbernite; chalcophyllite (tamarite or "copper-mica ") is a basic 
copper aluminium sulphato-arsenate, and bayldonite is a similar 
compound containing lead instead of aluminium. Copper arsenite 
forms the basis of a number of once valuable, but very poisonous, 
pigments. Scheele's green is a bas